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1 PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Nijmegen The following full text is a publisher's version. For additional information about this publication click this link. Please be advised that this information was generated on and may be subject to change.

2 Vindplaats: NTBR 2010, 45 Bijgewerkt tot: Auteur: S.E. Bartels Warmte en koude in het burgerlijk recht In de Warmtewet zijn enkele interessante bepalingen van privaatrechtelijke aard opgenomen. En ook het BW zal wijzigingen ondergaan als de Warmtewet in werking treedt. Op een pufjeshete dag in de zomer zat ik op de faculteit - een gebouw zonder klimaatbeheersing - te bladeren door de tekst en de toelichting van de Warmtewet (hierna ook: Ww). Ik was daartoe gekomen omdat ik ergens had opgevangen dat de Warmtewet ook betrekking had op de levering van koude, iets waar ik op dat moment een dringende behoefte aan had. Ik leerde snel dat ik a) rijkelijk laat was met het kennisnemen van de inhoud van de Warmtewet en b) dat in deze wet interessante privaatrechtelijke bepalingen zijn opgenomen. De Warmtewet geldt nog niet, maar is al in februari 2009 aangenomen door de Eerste Kamer. De wet zal niet in de door de Eerste Kamer aangenomen vorm in werking treden, zo blijkt uit recente parlementaire stukken.[1] In een paar woorden samengevat, gaat het in de wet om bescherming van warmteafnemers tegen te hoge prijzen, onredelijke voorwaarden en slechte dienstverlening. De Warmtewet zal enkele bepalingen in het Burgerlijk Wetboek wijzigingen, onder meer art. 6:236 BW en art. 7:5 BW, maar bevat zelf ook bepalingen van privaatrechtelijke aard. Mijn oog bleef vooral hangen bij art. 3 Ww. De overeenkomst tot levering van warmte wordt op schrift gesteld, zo leert art. 3 lid 1 Ww, en er gelden ook vereisten met betrekking tot de inhoud van het schriftelijke stuk. Uit de toelichting blijkt onomwonden dat geen sprake is van een vormvereiste in de zin van art. 3:39 BW. 'Een mondelinge of stilzwijgende overeenkomst tot levering van warmte ( ) is nietig noch vernietigbaar.'[2] Het vereiste van schriftelijke vastlegging dient ter bescherming van de verbruiker, aldus de toelichting.[3] En dan is het inderdaad verstandig om geen nietigheid te koppelen aan het ontbreken van een schriftelijk contract, zo leert de recente geschiedenis met betrekking tot art. 7:2 lid 1 BW. Bij die bepaling blijkt het schriftelijkheidsvereiste wel geregeld ongunstig uit te pakken voor de consument-koper van een woning.[4] Uit de toelichting op art. 3 lid 1 Ww blijkt dat er niettemin gevolgen zijn verbonden aan het ontbreken van schriftelijke vastlegging van het contract. In zo'n geval zal de leverancier moeten aantonen dat hij heeft voldaan aan zijn wettelijke verplichting te zorgen voor een betrouwbare levering van warmte tegen redelijke prijzen en voorwaarden en een goede dienstverlening.[5] Een vordering van de leverancier jegens de verbruiker tot betaling van geleverde diensten en goederen kent een vervaltermijn van twee jaren, te rekenen vanaf het moment dat de vordering opeisbaar wordt (art. 3 lid 3 Ww). Ik onderdrukte niet de neiging op mijn zweterige hoofd te krabben bij lezing van art. 3 lid 3 Ww, waarin deze regel te lezen valt. Ik citeer de bepaling - die ik zojuist parafraseerde - even voor u, lezer: 'Een vordering tot betaling van een schuld van een verbruiker ter zake van geleverde diensten en goederen ( ) wordt gedaan binnen twee jaren nadat de vordering opeisbaar is geworden en dat bij gebreke daarvan de vordering vervalt.' Het was vast en zeker ook verschroeiend heet op de dag dat deze zin werd - 1 -

3 gecomponeerd. Vraag: 'Hé, wat ga je doen?'. Antwoord: 'Een vordering'. Uit de toelichting blijkt dat met het woord 'vordering' de eerste keer 'rechtsvordering' wordt bedoeld en de tweede keer 'vorderingsrecht'. Op de vraag naar de betekenis van art. 3 lid 3 Ww antwoordden de indieners van het voorstel dat er na het verstrijken van twee jaren geen sprake is van een natuurlijke verbintenis.[6] De regeling voor de noodwaterleiding in art. 5:58 BW wordt uitgebreid met de 'noodelektriciteitsleiding', de 'noodgasleiding' en de 'noodwarmteleiding'. 'De redelijkheid brengt met zich mee, gelet op het bijzondere karakter van energie als primaire levensbehoefte en als wezenlijke voorziening voor een zinvolle exploitatie van gebouwen, dat eigenaren van naburige erven in deze gevallen [situaties waarin een erf is ingesloten, toev. SEB] onder redelijke voorwaarden moeten dulden dat leidingen voor transport van energie over hun erf worden aangebracht.'[7] Het toepassingsbereik van art. 5:58 BW wordt helaas niet nog wat verder veralgemeniseerd tot noodleidingen. Niettemin voorzie ik dat de onderhavige wetswijziging effect zal hebben op de uitleg van art. 5:58 BW. De motivering die in de toelichting wordt gegeven voor uitbreiding van het toepassingsbereik van art. 5:58 BW kan ook gelden voor bepaalde andere leidingen. Analoge toepassing van art. 5:58 BW is wel bepleit,[8] maar wordt nog niet algemeen aanvaard.[9] Een voorbeeld van het laatste biedt een vonnis van Rechtbank Middelburg waarin toepassing van art. 5:58 met betrekking tot een rioleringvoorziening werd afgewezen, omdat deze bepaling 'slechts voor de noodwaterleiding [geldt] en niet ook voor andersoortige leidingen'.[10] Ik zou zelf menen dat de ratio van de bepaling meebrengt dat ook aan andere dan de in art. 5:58 (nieuw) met name genoemde leidingen dermate dringende behoefte kan bestaan dat het onredelijk is de aanleg en het gebruik daarvan niet toe te staan. Hoe moet ik een zinvolle exploitatie van een gebouw heden ten dage voor me zien als er geen aansluiting op het rioleringsstelsel kan worden gemaakt? Riolering en dringende behoefte lijken mij goed bij elkaar te passen. En daar komt nog bij: water wordt aangevoerd door wat wij waterleiding noemen en afgevoerd door wat wij riolering noemen. Het was een warme dag in juli, maar ook een genoeglijke. Met dank aan de Warmtewet. Voetnoot [1] Handelingen II 2009/10, , nr. 51 (Verslag van een algemeen overleg vastgesteld op 19 juli 2010). [2] Handelingen I 2008/09, , C, p. 17. [3] Handelingen II 2005/06, , nr. 15, p. 8. [4] De meningen over de gevolgen van het niet voldoen aan het schriftelijkheidsvereiste van art. 7:2 BW lopen uiteen. Zie hiervoor het overzicht in A.L.M. Keirse e.a., Rapportage Wet koop onroerende zaken; de evaluatie, 2009, p en mijn reactie erop in TBR 2010/6, p [5] Handelingen II 2005/06, , nr. 15, p Dit geldt slechts indien het ontbreken van schriftelijke vastlegging niet (mede) te wijten is aan de verbruiker. [6] Handelingen I 2008/09, , C, p. 7. [7] Handelingen II 2004/05, , nr. 10, p. 17. [8] Zie Asser/Mijnssen, Van Velten & Bartels 5, nr

4 [9] T&C art. 5:58, aant. 1 (Stolker). [10] Rb. Middelburg 5 februari 2009, LJN BI

5 Copyright Kluwer 2012 Kluwer Online Research Dit document is gegenereerd op Op dit document zijn de algemene leveringsvoorwaarden van Kluwer van toepassing

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