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1 Prof. ir. S. Hengst

2 KANSEN EN KENTERINGEN IN DE SCHEEPSBOUW s. Hengst juni,1998 Bibliotheek TU Delft C Oiill1lli

3 J Delft Maritiem 8 SERIE DELFT MARITIEM 1. TotaI QuaIity Management. Theorie of praktijk? 2. De toekomst van het vervoer over water. 3. Binnenvaart in beeld. 4. Scheepsbouw en technologie in Nederland. 5. 'Tekenen met bits en bytes.' Waar gaat het in de scheepsbouw naar toe? 6. De leerstoel scheepsbouw in perspectief Jaarverslag De concurrentiepositie van de maritieme sector. 8. Kansen en kenteringen in de scheepsbouw.

4 ~ ---- KANSEN EN KENTERINGEN IN DE SCHEEPSBOUW EEN SCHETS VAN DE ONTWIKKELINGEN IN DE SCHEEPSBOUW EN DE INVLOED DAARVAN OP HET ONDERZOEK EN ONDERWIJS BIJ DE TU DELFT Author: Prof ir. S. Hengst Delft University Press, Delft 1998

5 ., Pi. M Uitgegeven door: Delft University Press Mekelweg CD Delft tel fax Technische Universiteit Delft Faculteit Ontwerp, Constructie en Productie Afdeling Maritieme Techniek Sectie Scheepsbouw Delft University of Technology Faculty Design, Construction and Production Department of Marine Technology Section Shipbuilding Mekelweg CD Delft tel fax ISBN: Trefwoorden: scheepvaart, scheepsbouw, transport Copyright S. Hengst, 1998 All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, inciuding photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher: Delft University Press. Printed in The Netherlands

6 INHOUD Voorwoord 2 Summary Introduction Research Education Research in Ship Production and Inland Waterway Transportation Financial performance ofthe section shipbuilding Past performance Education Naval architects graduated in 'Ship Production' Programme Revision and Renewal ofprograrnme Description of courses (first three years) PhD students Een visie op het onderzoek Overwegingen Het thema 'scheepsbouw' De bijdrage van de scheepsbouw aan de Nederlandse economie De positie van de Nederlandse scheepsbouw in de markt De opkomst van nieuwe technologieën Het onderzoek in Nederland Een integrale aanpak De definitiestudie Overwegingen en spin-off Beoordeling van de resultaten van het onderzoek Derde geldstroom projecten in Het thema 'binnenvaart' Inleiding Achtergrond De positie van de binnenvaart De aanpak van het onderzoek De resultaten van het onderzoek Projecten in De financiering van het onderzoek Het onderwijs Vernieuwingen in het onderwijs

7 4.2 Project-college Werfinrichting en werfbedrijf(mt711) Project-college 'Financiering van schepen' Introductie Colleges Afgestudeerde ingenieurs scheepsbouw Overige activiteiten Maatschappelijke dienstverlening Contacten met het buitenland Publikaties, presentaties en lezingen Annex 1 De stafvan de sectie scheepsbouw in Annex 2 Financieel overzicht van de sectie scheepsbouw (budget 1998) Annex 3 Overzicht van rapporten en publikaties in Annex 4 Colleges basisstudie (eerste drie jaar) Annex 5 Herziene opzet facultatieve vakken Annex 6 Afstudeerders sinds Annex 7 Overzicht van afstuderenden (per 1 jan. 98)

8 1 Voorwoord De scheepsbouw verandert. Van een opleiding Maritieme Techniek en in het bijzonder van de leerstoel Scheepsbouw mag worden verwacht dat er op veranderingen wordt geanticipeerd en er een visie is op de toekomst van deze industrie. Dit is een aanzet daartoe. Het doel van dit boek is om aan te geven waarom bepaalde keuzes in onderwijs en onderzoek worden gemaakt, wat het onderzoek inhoudt, welke projecten worden uitgevoerd en wat de resultaten daarvan zijn. De perceptie die bij de leerstoel Scheepsbouw van het vak bestaat moet duidelijk zijn. Het onderwijsprogramma van de leerstoel is op een aantal plaatsen vernieuwd, zowel in de basis van de studie, als in het afstudeerprogramma. Met name voor de eerstejaars studenten dient de opleiding motiverend en herkenbaar te zijn. De 'rate of success' en de 'kwaliteit' (een begrip dat in het onderwijs te pas en te onpas wordt misbruikt) worden vooral door de motivatie bepaald. Een reden voor een zware maritieme component in het eerste jaar. Een deel van het programma wordt in de vorm van projecten verzorgd, waarbij de studenten zelfstandig moeten werken en met het bedrijfsleven contact moeten zoeken. Tevens worden studenten als student-assistent ingeschakeld bij onderdelen van de onderzoeksprojecten. Het onderzoek behoort op nieuwe ontwikkelingen in de technologie voor te lopen. Om de lezer een oordeel te kunnen laten vellen of dit inderdaad het geval is, worden de thema's van het onderzoek beschreven met samenvattingen van de projecten. Er is een visie op het onderzoek voor de komende jaren opgesteld, waarin de waargenomen ontwikkelingen in het buitenland mede zijn verwerkt. Aangegeven is hoe de lopende projecten daarin passen. Omdat de TU Delft internationaliseert en met ingang van september 1998 een tweejarig programma voor buitenlandse studenten met een 'bachelors degree' start, zijn eveneens samenvattingen van de colleges in de Engelse taal opgenomen en is het boek voorzien van een 'summary'. Een woord van dank voor deze uitgave is op zijn plaats voor het commentaar en de bijdragen van het Nederlands Instituut voor Maritiem Onderzoek (NIM), in het bijzonder drs. F.M. Roschar, dr.ir. U. Nienhuis MBA en ir. E.W.H. Keizer. Tevens mogen de bijdragen van ir. C. Dirkse en ir. R.J.J.F. Takken en student-assistent PJ.F. Klooster niet onvermeld blijven. Dit boekje heeft eveneens tot doel de lezer uit te dagen tot een reactie. Commentaar en suggesties voor verbeteringen of aanvullingen zijn welkom. Ik wens U veel leesplezier. Prof ir. S. Hengst Delft, juni 1998

9 2 Summary The section 'Shipbuilding' is responsible for education and R&D in two areas i.e. 'Ship Production' and 'Inland Waterway Transportation'. The educational programme, the courses and the background of the R&D programme for the industry and ofphd students are briefly described. The subjects ofthe thesis ofmsc students, mostly in relation with R&D projects, are listed. The aim of this summary is to provide insight in the goals, methods of working and achievements of the section 'Shipbuilding' of the department of Marine Technology of the Delft University oftechnology. 2.1 Introduction Based on past experience, the achievements over the last years and the trends in the development in shipyard technology and the developments in communication- and information technology, a policy for the coming years is formulated and regularly updated. The focus for R&D has been, and will remain, on R&D relevant for the Dutch Shipbuilding Industry and the 'output' of naval architects specialized in ship-production / operations management Research This policy is based on the specific conditions and characteristics of the Dutch shipbuilding industry. Size and types of ships are the main reasons that new technologies applied in the socalled 'large size' shipbuilding cannot be applied to the medium and small size shipyards in the Netherlands without careful study, analysis and evaluation. The approach for R&D on new technologies is the result of economical constraints and the different production systems as weil as the experience that a measurable step by step development is needed. The international performance, is the result ofthe R&D for the 'home market', which has to perform in an international competitive market. The participation in international (European) R&D programmes is lirnited to subjects of general interest. In general, the European R&D prograrnmes are controlled by the larger shipyards. A careful selection of the topics for R&D is required to make an effective use of the capacity in manpower. The economical cycies do have an impact on the volume of R&D work initiated by the industry. The support provided by the govemment for R&D - through the Netherlands' Institute for Maritime research (NIM) - has a stabilizing effect and makes it possible to combine the R&D for the industry with R&D for the longer term. 3

10 On the other hand, the policy trom the government towards project oriented financing is pushing the focus ofr&d towards the industrial needs. Because financing is possible through contract research for the industry, this type of R&D is getting priority. The turn-over is gradually increasing. The trend seems to be towards 'laboratories at the shipyards'. The reasons are understandable. The R&D is carried out under the 'real' circumstances and conditions at the production sites, which is neccesary to obtain reliable results. Precautions must be taken to avoid disturbanees during production. Clear targets wiil stimulate the interest of the industry in R&D increases and the wiilingness to cooperate and to increase the size and duration of the projects. The industry is faced with the fact that emerging technologies e.g. cad-cam and robot applications do require naval architects with another background. Examples of projects are: t/ Improving methods and technologies in ship-repair. R&D in cooperation with eight shipyards, carried out in nine projects. The lead time of each project varies trom six months to two years. Two new R&D projects have been initiated. t/ Accuracy and dimensional control. Two shipyards and two suppliers are participating. The lead time ofthe project is two years. The first project will be fina1ized in 1998 and continued. t/ Robotization of welding. Participating are shipyards and suppliers. The lead time of the projects is two to three years. New projects are being prepared in cooperation with TNO. For reasons of capacity and complementary know-how the 'supply side' for R&D is cooperating in all projects. PROGRESS (project Oriented Research for Shipbuilding and Shipping) combines the R&D institutes active in shipproduction Education Allthough the maritime market is extremely sensible for econornical 'ups and downs', neither the intake of students nor the demand for naval architects seems to be etfected by the economical cycles. The appeal of the maritime studies in the Netherlands studies seems not to be influenced by the econornica1 developments and (external) market conditions. The basic prograrnme (fust three years) and the MSc-prograrnme for naval architects specializing in ship-production do have an international orientation. Since a major part of the naval architects wijl have to work in an international environment, the specific aspects of shipproduction are treated in this context. The evaluations given by the shipbuilding industry, indicate that the quality ofthe education of the naval architect is good.the value of the 'MSc-product' is weil known and appreciated in the market, both on national and international level. 2.2 Research in Ship Production and Inland Waterway Transportation Shipbuilding is defined as: Gaining knowledge and developing methods and technologies to 'efficiently obtain and execute contracts for the building of ships'. 4

11 Aims o IdentifY, and improve the knowledge about factors influencing the shipbuilding process, i.e. the relation between the product and the production Develop, analyze, evaluate and validate (economical potential) production systems or methods to build ships. e Obtain insight in the constraints for the industrialization ofthe production proces. o Develop 'quality' to a practice which can be related to the day to day operational performance of shipyards and shipowners, based on parameters which are applicable on the shop floor. This requires methods to: t/ analyze and evaluate constraints, t/ find, compare and validate solutions, t/ evaluate concepts for production facilities, including marketing & sales and productdevelopment, t/ measure the impact oftechnology, for the small and medium-size shipyards in the Netherlands. Approach A long term R&D prograrnme in cooperation with shipyards, suppliers and other R&D institutes in the Netherlands, taking into consideration that the shipyards are different in size, trom small to medium size, and operating in different markets. Expertise is drawn trom all available sources (shipyards, university, consultants and R & D institutes). Projects do cover all the stages of production, trom product-development (effects on production) up till and including final assembly. In cooperation with the industry and R&D institutes proposals are prepared, organized, controlled and evaluated. Most projects are limited in size and time (approx. 12 month). Four main lines define the projects: o Management and organization of the production process, with the aim to develop methods to improve the manufacturing process through analysis of the different stages of the process (engineering), plate and profile handling (assembly) and modelling the The relation between the design of the (steel)construction, and the production process, considering the available production technology, and facilities. e Analyzing, evaluating and validating new technologies in ship production, i.e. automation, mechanization and robotization. o Inland waterway transportation and the capabilities of the shipyards specialized in inland waterway ships; product development is a function ofboth market and production facilities. Within each topic projects and sub-projects are formulated. Some projects do have a theoretical background and focus on the research for general methods on production- and operations management. The aim is to enable the industry to measure productivity, evaluate new production technologies or organizational tools. 5

12 Ii1 Achievements The contract-research for the industry and the government has an annual turnover close to one million guilders. From 1992 till 1998 some 18 projects have been completed. Until the year 2000 six projects are en route, six are in a preparatory stage. The projects are sponsored by shipyards, related industries and the government within the socalled SMO-programme (a specific maritime R&D programme, for the maritime sector, proposals are ranked by an independent committee to stay within the available budget). The focus is on the evaluation and impact of information technology for e.g. robotization and dimensional control (projects with different yards). Some 50 reports have been delivered to the industry since For international symposia (a.o. the shipproduction symposia in the USA, Duisburg in Germany, IMDC etc.) an average of one paper and one publication are produced annually. In the Netherlands regular presentations are made on meetings of the Koninklijke NVTS (four sections) and published. Since 1992 nine books have been published in Dutch and two in English. Approximately one seminar is organized annually. A method usefull for small and medium size yards to apply Electronic Data Processing, combining estimating and planning, has been developed. Novel structural designs which can be built against minimal costs have been developed in cooperation with some shipyards for inland waterway vessels. Prospective A long term R&D prograrnme for the shipbuilding industry which comprises: ti' on the short term, re-evaluation of present shipyard production methods. ti' on the medium term, the development of(new) parameters to prepare (revised) cost-benefit analyses for the validation of new technologies (robots) for small and medium size yards, taking consideration of the different shipyards in size, specialization and production systems. ti' on the long term the development of methods to define prospective technologies for competitve production systems. For inland waterway transportation: ti' innovative shiptypes for inland waterways, based on reliable cost-benefit analyses. Impacts The development and transfer of knowledge about the shipbuilding proces, keeping the shipyards involved in the development of new technologies which have a potential to improve competitiveness. Light weight, low cost, environment al fiiendly ships for inland waterway transportation. Remark The problems related to the product development, production and facilities of shipyards for inland waterway vessels are much different trom sea-going vessels. This is illustrated by e.g. the impact of the development of intermodal transportation which is changing the traditional 6

13 lay-out of the containerships on inland waterways and the ships for the transport of gas and chemicals which are demanding different safety requirements due to the extemal risks etc. The overall dimensions are for a great extent controlled by the physical conditions of the waterways (Jocks, bridges, waterdepths etc.). The approx. 50 shipyards working in the market for inland waterway shipping are usually small size yards. Since the Netherlands have a large share in the inland waterway shipping (some 7000 of a total of ships in northwest Europe are sailing under Dutch flag, some 6000 are privately owned) and the average age ofthe vessels is over 30 ears, there is a close relationship between builders and owners. This results in a very competitive market with smal! margins for all parties concerned. Overhead is small, design and engineering are based on skill, operational knowledge and experience on the behaviour of ships on rivers and canals. Contrary to what might be expected, many ships are equipped with advanced, today's technology. R&D efforts must have short term measurable effects. 2.3 Financial performance of the section shipbuilding The financial performance is based on the output (production) of the section. The model is used for all departments in the faculty and is based on different performance indicators for education and research. Project financing is obtained trom different sources: ti' E.U. (BRITE- EURAM, CRAFT), ti' a R&D prograrnme for the maritime industries, the so called SMO prograrnme, ti' prograrnmes for specific R&D topics, such as sustainable development, ti' direct contracts with the industry. A review is given in annex 2 (in Dutch). 2.4 Past performance The combination of technology (construction and manufacturing), economical analysis and shipyard organization forms the basic elements for R&D and education since 1887 of the chair 'shipbuilding' in the department ofnaval architecture. During a century shipyard technology and organization went through fundamental changes effecting both education and R&D due to the introduction of new technologies and the resulting alterations in equipment, lay-out, working methods and organization of shipyards. From wood to steel and GRP, trom riveting to welding in steel construction. Lofting changes to numerically controlled cutting and bending of plates and profiles. Modularization and preoutfitting are introduced, effecting the appearance of the yards. Shipyard technology and -organization, production preparation and engineering, prefabrication and assembly are leading to continuous changes in shipyard lay-out. The introduction of new materiais, automation, robotization, information- and communication technology will again change the shipyard in the coming decades. The chair 'shipbuilding' has continuously been involved in these developments. At present shipyards are involved in R&D projects on dimensional control, robotization, the development of information systems for production technology, organizational studies etc, both in newbuilding and shiprepair. Through the participation in the R&D projects the msc students are 7

14 I ~ ~ ~~---r_i directly involved in the industrial developments, to the benefit of the industry and the education. This is based on a long standing cooperation. 2.5 Education Naval architects graduated in 'Ship Production' Since 1945 some 210 naval architects graduated in 'shipbuilding'. The most ofthem (approx. 60%) are employed by shipyards. Based on the present developments this number is expected to increase in the coming years. The importance of improving the production methods in the shipbuilding industry, getting better insight in the opportunities to increase productivity in both new construction and ship repair is acknowledged by the industry. Apart from economical reasons tbis is a1so driven by the need to adopt the production processes to governmental rules and requirements for working conditions - pushing the industry to look into further automation and robotization - and requirements for environmental friendly production systems. Annex 6 gives a review ofmsc graduates since 1983, Annex 7 lists the MSc students in sbipproduction on the fust ofjanuary Programme The courses ofthe fust three years are described in paragraph The first year covers the steel construction of the ship and the metal processes wel ding, cutting and forming. The aim is to introduce the student in the primary processes of the shipbuilding and a1so to prepare the student for his first stage of practical work. The second year covers work preparation, CAD/CAM, the lay-out of yards, means of transportation, launcbing etc. The tbird year covers the organizational aspects. Marketing, sales, planning, engineering and assembly are related to the overall performance of a shipyard. The MSc student is specializing in the theory of unique manufacturing and operations research in combination with the management aspects such as project-management, finance, law, labor relations and organization. Teamwork is combined with individual tasks. Msc thesis The subjects for an MSc thesis are in general chosen in cooperation with the industry. The work is done by the MSc-students in the industry Revision and Renewal of program me Since 1993 gradually changes and improvements have been introduced in courses, courseware etc. Apart from the 'Lecture notes', English textbooks have been introduced for the first three years, a1lowing students to take a broader look into shipbuilding. In cooperation with Trondheim an English textbook is under preparation. The presence of the Maritime Information Centre (MIC) provides the students with an excellent access to world-wide specialized data-bases. There is a gradual and carefull movement towards 'Project Oriented' courses. In 1994 a so called 'Projectweek' has been introduced as an experiment in cooperation with the Ship Design Group. 8

15 The experiment proved to be successfui. Students are working in groups on subjects provided by the industry. The industrial partners are providing guidance in cooperation with the staff The practical exercises have been integrated to an integrated design-engineer-build and test activity. In the courses for ship construction and ship production will be integrated into project-oriented course with the integration of structural design and production. Second year As in the first year, practical excercises have been integrated where possible (mt7lo). Third year The course mt711 has been completely changed and tumed into a project, the students are working in groups. The project is linked to the design-project. The study of production and operations management in shipbuilding is organized in working sessions. Students are studying subjects and perform a presentation (for the group) on subjects linked to production and operations management. The group has to prepare a design of a shipyard suitable for the production of certain ship types. Forth and fifth year The fourth and fifth years courses are organized around themes i.e. t/ Organization, planning and controlling unique product manufacturing (ship repair, new construction etc.) t/ Quality and quality control in shipbuilding and shiprepair, considering the human factor as the prime factor. t/ Financing ofships. (a course, organized in cooperation with shipyards, shipowners, banks). t/ The role oftechnology (automation, robotization, information, communication). t/ Inland waterway shipping Description of courses (first three years) First year mt700 Introduction to Shipbuilding Hengst, prof.ir. S., ir.c. Dirkse Credit points: 2 Subjects: Manufacturing equipment for shipbuilding and offshore. Fabrication of steel and profiles. Cutting and wel ding processes. Conversion of plates and profiles into parts. Period: 0/0/0/0/4 Exarnination: Written Description: Textbooks: Lay-out and production methods in shipyards, Introduction shipproduction processes, numeri cal control, CAD/CAM, blasting and pre-conservation, cutting and welding processes, machine cutting, tolerances and accurancy, rolling, bending, pressing. Bending of profiles. Heating and cooling. Introduction of other machinery processes. Classification societies and rules. Shipproduction; Storch, Hammon, Bunch 9

16 Intent: The course is designed to provide insight in shipyard productionsystems, - methods and -equipment i.e. materiais and processes in shipbuilding. mt800 Introduction to the structural design of ships Vink, ir. J.H., ir. C. Dirkse, profir. S. Hengst Credit points: 3 Subject: Period: Examination: Intent: Description: Textbooks: Second year A. Basics for structural design of riveted and bolted connections, welded connections. B. Basics for structural design of ships, loads, materiais, strength. 0/0/0/4/2 Written The course is designed to provide insight in and obtain knowledge about the structural design of ships. A. Structural design of connections. Flows of energy through a system as results of loads. Means to control flows of energy. Application in different connections (bolted, riveted, welded). Different types of connections have to be translated in a model, which is representative for the structure, which makes it possible to analyze the structure. B. The first part deals with different types of offshore structures and ships as weil as the functions for which they are designed, materiais applied and the way plates and profiles are joined together. In the second part loads and responses (of the structure) are treated, different types of structural design are discussed as weil as the integration of structural design, including calculations, and manufacturing. Since mt700 and mt800 do have a close relation (concurrent engineering in shipbuilding) it is the intention to start with a thematic, integrated approach of the courses in 1998/1999. Shipproduction; Storch, Hammon, Bunch Introduction in structural design (in Dutch); Hengst Structural design, mechanical engineering (in Dutch); Vink, Houtman mt710 Launching of ships. CAD/CAM and engineering Hengst, prof ir. S., ir. C. Dirkse Credit points: 2 Subjects: Launching methods, numerical controlled processes. Period: 0/0/0/2/0 Examination: Description: Written The course is designed to provide insight in and knowledge about theoretical and practical aspects oflaunching and numerical controlled processes. A. Launching Longitudinal Launching: Arrangements: one way with propping ways or two or more ways for larger ships. sliding ways, ground ways. 10

17 Textbooks: Intent: transfer of shipweight trom building blocks to slipways. grease types, max. allowable grease pressures, coefficient of friction, deciivity of launchways. prevention of movement by triggers. launching curves and critical phases: tipping, sternlifting, stability, strength aspects. dynamics oflaunching. stopping ofthe vessel; drag types. Sideways launching: methods of sideways launching. sliding ways, grease, pressures, deciivity. types oftriggers. ship motions. B. Numerically controlled processes Robots in shipbuilding. Specific shipbuilding software for engineering and production, e.g. Steerbear (KCS), NAP A, PIAS, NUF AS, AUTOKON (KCS), FORAN. Introduction to Shipbuilding Technology; Dr.Ir. K.J. Saurwalt Provide insight launching methods and caiculations and production preparation methods in shipyards. Third year mt711 Ship production, shipyard lay-out and organization Hengst, prof. ir. S. Credit points: 2 Subjects: Shipyard organization, building processes, methods and systems, slipways, building docks. Period: 0/0/0/2/2 Examination: Essay and presentation Description: Shipyard production systems and processes, material processing and handling, plate and profile preparation, transportsystems, pre-fabrication, pre-assembly, sub-assembly, building blocks. Sizing of blocks, pre-outfitting, panel-lines, machine and piping shops,. Assembly lines, shipway-assembly, cranes. Different building systems (Single shipp, Semi Tandem, Canalock, Twin Lock etc). Introduction to project-management and analysis of production systems, compensated tonnage. Textbooks: Ship production; Storch, Hammon, Bunch Intent: The course is designed to prepare lay-out of a shipyard and the facilities as a function ofthe activities. 11

18 PhD students In 1997 one PhD student graduated. In the beginning of 1997 two PhD students are working on two projects in cooperation with the industry. Expert knowledge in ship repair / data base research in ship repair A. SrdocMSc Ship repair is a complex, dynarnic and stochastic process. Repair of ships is time- and costdriven and therefore the goal is to accomplish a repair project as fast as possible at the lowest costs. It is not easy to establish the shortest possible time for a repair job. Lead times depend on many circumstances, often mutually dependent, not only within a single project, but also in the context ofthe entire shipyard situation. And this situation may change quickly. To keep the repair project within the settled delivery time, management should be able to support decisions by reliable information. The right decision is under the present conditions far trom triviai, not only due to the large number of activities involved, but also due to the uniqueness of repair projects and the uncertainty associated with the process. Standardization, in a technological sen se, could be a basis to improve management support, but it is unlikely to become arealistic opportunity because of the variety in vessels and the technology applied. Existing techniques, methods and tools dealing with knowledge are e.g. expert systems. The quality of an expert system mainly depends on its knowledge base. To build a knowledge base is a difficult task for repair activities because the knowledge acquisition is critical. Machine leaming algorithms, developed within artificial intelligence (AI), could be useful in extracting knowledge and obtaining clear and sound rules, not trom experts but trom databases. Since ship repair is complex, consisting of many activities, a better understanding and organizsation of the data domain is needed before applying appropriate machine learning algorithms. This may offer support for better resource management, besides the skilfulness and experience of the managing staff. Therefore research is worthwhile to explore the possibilities of a database. Lire cycle management (LCM) in the naval sector Ir. J. Stavenuiter Research objectives The objects of this research are: t/ Analyse existing LCM concepts and the problems resulting when these are put into practice. t/ Based on the analysis, to develop, validate and implement an LCM model to be used to set up a practical LCM architecture, to make LCM more cost-effective. According to the literature and other sources, no LCM model as intended yet exists. 12

19 Project outlioe: Background The increasing complexity, cost and size of equipment, in combination with shorter economic life cycles of high-tech products, is stimulating the need for systems able to analyse life cycle costs in relation to all operational aspects. Organizations give ever more attention to cost reduction. To handle this challange, there is a wide choice of methods and techniques, mostly the resuit of scientific or industrial organization research. After more than 10 years experience with LCM, mainly for the Royal Netherlands Navy, this shows the difficuity of implementing scientific methods into practical and profitable solutions. Prob/em definition T 0 develop a method to design and implement LCM architecture, capable of handling specific demands for any type of organization. This method will consider organizational goals and capabilities, the state of the art of LCM methods and economic aspects. Approach The start is a literature study and defining research parameters. The resuit of this study will be a structured overview of all LCM aspects within their respective areas and will form the basis for an R&D project characterized as a type of business management study. The project consists of an inquiry and interviews with several representative organizations within the research area. The result wiii be the definite problem definition and the specifications necessary to develop a useful LCM model The development phase starts with a design of a conceptual LCM model. This model will be tested and improved by carrying out several case studies. Expected results The research should lead to a scientifically justifiabie and practically applicable LCM model. This will be a computer application, with dynamic process modelling techniques, to be used as a tooi for staff and management support of capital intensive equipment. Theoretical relevance The first implication is the wide scale of relevant literature, resuiting in aselection and classification problem. The second implication will be to model the reality of LCM regarding to the total time and width span Societal relevance The slogan: "LCM from lust to dust' iiiustrates the impact of LCM on the work environment. To be able to keep the world livable in the future, we must be concious ofthe way we make, use and maintain our equipment and if possible, re-u se it again. 13

20 3 Een visie op het onderzoek 3.1 Overwegingen De scheepsbouw wordt gekenmerkt door een samenspel van onderling verschillende productie processen en een verscheidenheid aan technische disciplines. Het onderzoek richt zich op de mogelijkheden het productieproces in de scheepsbouw - met dat scala aan technische disciplines - te verbeteren. Verschillen in producten, scheep stypen, afinetingen e.d. maken dat de variatie in de inrichting en uitrusting van werven groot is. Omdat bij de werven de nadruk meer en meer ligt op de eindassemblage en het samenspel met de leveranciers en onderaannemers belangrijker wordt, is voor de te maken keuzes uit nieuwe technologieën inzicht gewenst in zowel technische als economische prestaties van de toepassing op een werf. Dit inzicht vraagt om kennis die stoelt op betrouwbare gegevens. Er is een reeks van onderwerpen die de aandacht verdienen: ti' De lay-out van een scheepswerf Welke factoren bepalen de wijze waarop het bedrijf is ingedeeld. Wat is de invloed van de bouwstrategie en -methode op het vervaardigings- en assemblage proces, de routing en de transportmiddelen. ti' Het te water laten van schepen en de daarbij gehanteerde technieken en methoden. ti' De organisatie van een werf en de planning van het proces. ti' Planningtechnieken en -methoden. Theoretische modellen en de mogelijke toepassingen in de praktijk. Doorlooptijden en uren. ti' Het meten van de productiviteit. ti' De basis van de beheersing van het proces ligt bij de begroting. Dus ook onderwerpen als de opzet van een kostprijsbegroting van een schip en het evalueren van tarieven, manuren, materialen en componenten vragen met de effecten van koerswisselingen de aandacht, evenals de marktmechanismen en de factoren die de marktprijzen bepalen. Samengevat: het onderzoek behelst de ontwikkeling van kennis, methoden en technieken voor het op een efficiënte wijze verkrijgen en realiseren van een opdracht voor de bouw van een schip met de daarbij behorende nazorg. Ongeveer 70% van de kostprijs van een schip bestaat uit de toelevering van materialen, equipment en het werk van onderaannemers (bij sommige werven is dit meer dan 80%). De toegevoegde waarde van het werk dat de werf in eigen beheer uitvoert, bedraagt ongeveer 30%. Het inkoopbeleid en de efficiënte uitvoering van de werf-gebonden activiteiten bepalen de concurrentie-positie van een scheepswerf (prijs, levertijd en kwaliteit van een schip). Enerzijds is dus sprake van bedrijfs-externe aspecten, bepaald door de 'omgeving' van de scheepswerf, zoals afzetmarkten en markten van toeleveranciers met de daarin optredende veranderingen. Activiteiten als marketing, verkoop, inkoop, kostprijs-analyse, begroten, de financiering e.d. zijn extern gericht. 15

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