Meerjarenplan. Steunpunt VLAS Vlaams Armoedesteunpunt. Promotor-coördinator: Danielle Dierckx, Centrum OASeS, Universiteit Antwerpen

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1 Meerjarenplan Steunpunt VLAS Vlaams Armoedesteunpunt Promotor-coördinator: Danielle Dierckx, Centrum OASeS, Universiteit Antwerpen Publicatiedatum: 15/12/2011 P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 1

2 Inhoud 1 Mission of the PRC Formation of the Consortium... 4 OASeS, University of Antwerp (Initiator)... 4 CSB, University of Antwerp... 5 HIVA, Catholic University of Leuven... 5 University College Karel de Grote-(KdG)... 6 University of Gent (UG) Work packages... 8 WP 0 Management... 9 WP 1 Multidimensional poverty in Flanders: a descriptive and comparative analysis WP 2 Reference budgets for social participation WP 3 Building a longitudinal database for the study of children (and families) in poverty Longitudinale dataverzameling gezinnen in armoede WP 4 Poverty and migration: policies and social work interventions WP 5 a+b Child poverty WP 6 - Prospective analysis of societal developments WP 7 - Poverty impact assessment WP 8 - Flanders Europe WP 9 - Governance challenges for social innovation WP 10 Empowerment and Participation WP 11 Yearbook on Poverty and Social Exclusion WP 12 Knowledge Platform WP 13 Expert reports and Policy driven research projects Opportunities to collaborate with other Policy Research Centres Management Algemeen management HRM beleid Financieel beheer Logistiek Huisvesting Algemene diensten en faciliteiten Andere departementen Budget Global budget Jaarbudget Partner 1.1 UA, OASeS Partner 1.2, UA CSB Partner 2.1, KULeuven HIVA P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 2

3 6.2.4 Partner 3.1, Karel de Grote-Hogeschool ADDENDUM BIJ DE BEGROTING P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 3

4 INLEIDING 1 Mission of the PRC The Policy Research Centre on Poverty and Social Exclusion (VLAS) wants to understand the dynamics of poverty and social exclusion in Flanders and in comparative perspective with other regions in Europe. The PRC will develop strategies and support for policymakers and practitioners to contribute to the eradication of poverty and social exclusion in Flanders. This mission is based on the multidimensional perspective on poverty and social exclusion and is connected to the belief that an inclusive and transversal approach is needed in social action and policies. It pleads also for research on micro, meso and macro level, because processes on a higher level, like globalization and liberalization, influence poverty at lower levels and vice versa. A mixture of research methods should guarantee that poverty is investigated in different ways. The PRC not only wants to study how large the problem is (e.g. how many people are experiencing poverty), but also what kind of problem it concerns (e.g. Who lives poverty? What causes poverty? How does it persist? What are coping strategies?). Concerning social policies, the PRC analyses and advices public policies, but also invests in knowhow on new social work interventions. Poverty eradication is indeed a wicked social problem that needs a multi-actor governance. This approach justifies the composition of the consortium. 2 Formation of the Consortium The consortium consists of four partners with complementary expertise and skills. OASeS (University of Antwerp) and HIVA (KULeuven) are taking most responsibility in the work packages. These two research centres have a long tradition of research into poverty and social exclusion, in being involved in international debates and in implementing research results into policy and social practice. Also the Centre for Social Policies Herman Deleeck (CSB) of the University of Antwerp is highly respected for its research in social policies in a broad sense. Karel de Grote-Hogeschool is selected as fourth partner because of the particular experience in bridging the gap between academic research and social work interventions. The fifth partner is the University of Gent, Department of Social Welfare Policies. They are in particular experienced in qualitative research methods and research into the field of youth, children, social welfare and social services. The selection of these partners is balanced and responds to the necessary expertise and skills we mentioned in our mission. The PRC needs to meet the standards of: - Qualitative and quantitative research - Thematic research and policy-oriented research - Descriptive and prescriptive research - Gender-balanced research - Diverse research teams (in age, experience, disciplines) The selected teams meet these standards because of their complementarity. OASeS, University of Antwerp (Initiator) The research group on Poverty, Social Exclusion and the City is part of the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp. The more prominent research topics of the centre are: poverty and other forms of social exclusion (poverty indicators, the daily life of the poor, life events and social mobility), migration and ethnic minorities, urban policy, social housing, social economics and supported employment, social networks. This research has resulted in acclaimed publications such as the yearbook on 'Poverty and Social Exclusion', the 20th edition of which will be published later this year. P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 4

5 Promotor-Coordinator of the PRC will be Prof dr Danielle Dierckx. She is doctor in political and social sciences with a thesis on poverty policies in Flanders. She is a lecturer in the Master of Social Work (UA) and senior researcher at the Research Centre OASeS. She built her academic expertise on policy analysis, governance, poverty and social exclusion through several projects on demand of governments at all levels (from Europe to the local level) and scientific funds (e.g. FWO, IWT). Prof. dr. Stijn Oosterlynck is Assistant Professor at the department of Sociology at the University of Antwerp, where he teaches courses on urban sociology, poverty and inequality and social stratification. He coordinates the Research Centre on Poverty, Social Inequality, Exclusion and the City (OASeS) and is also a post-doctoral fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders at the Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Spatial Planning at K.U.Leuven. The founding father of OASes is Emeritus Jan Vranken (Em.Prof.dr). He has been doing research on poverty and related matters since He co-ordinated a number of European projects (three successive projects of the Preparatory Actions for Poverty 4 of the European Commission: A Model to Evaluate Actions and Policies on Social Exclusion (1999), Policy-relevant databases on Poverty and Social Exclusion (2000) and Non-monetary Indicators of Social Exclusion and Social Inclusion (2001) and the FP5 project UGIS) and participated in several others (such as URBEX). He was recently promoter of FP7-project FACIT, the Belgian representative in the Management Committee of COST A26 on City Regions. He acts regularly as independent expert, also in supporting OASeS. CSB, University of Antwerp Research at the Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy is concerned with poverty and social inequalities in relation to social security and other forms of institutionalised solidarity within the welfare state. The research approach a) is highly empirical b) builds on a thorough understanding of the formation and content of policy, c) strives for cumulative answers to the question of how an optimal balance can be attained between welfare growth and welfare distribution under changing social, economic and demographic circumstances, and d) is part of the academic tradition of the social policy sciences. It takes a national as well as an international perspective. The core of the Centre s research activities consists of the development and interpretation of social indicators which draw on large-scale survey data and which capture key societal trends in a clear, concise and valid way. Director of the Centre is Prof. dr. Bea Cantillon. She holds a Doctorate in Political and Social Sciences. She is president of the Belgian Social Security Association, chairperson of the Board of Governance of the Foundation for International Studies on Social Security and serves on the Research Committee of the International Social Security Association. She is fellow of the Royal Belgian Academy. Collaborators for the PRC are Dr. Natascha Van Mechelen and Drs. Bérénice Storms (for CVs, see section 4). HIVA, Catholic University of Leuven The institute HIVA is a strategic partnership between K.U.Leuven and the Christian Labour Movement. This team consists of over 80 qualified academic researchers and employees. HIVA has a multidisciplinary staff and specializes in policy-oriented and practice-oriented research on work and society. It conducts high-quality, innovative academic and policy-related research that works for people and society. HIVA translates research findings into policy advice and individually tailored training. Attention for the problems affecting workers, socially vulnerable groups, social organisations and movements in society is always the common thread. The centre actively cooperates with social organisations, governments, businesses and other knowledge centres, and in this way has been creating a bridge for over 30 years between science, policy and practice, locally and worldwide. HIVA focuses on several themes of concern for a caring, solidarity-based and sustainable society. It aims to work to ensure greater social justice, more participation and equal opportunities for all citizens in this society. The research theme Poverty ad Social Integration is studied from the viewpoint of various different disciplines and using a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods. There is also interest in how research can be translated into concrete methodologies and instruments. The research is grounded in the empowerment paradigm and aimed at reinforcing socially vulnerable groups in society, such as people in poverty, socially vulnerable young people and children, the P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 5

6 shelterless and homeless, and people with a disability. Important research lines are: 1) the provision of assistance and services to vulnerable groups with the development of methodologies and instruments and accessibility and quality studies; 2) incorporating empowerment into practice and policy; 3) the profiles and perceptions of socially vulnerable groups; 4) the evaluation and effectiveness of policy with regard to poverty and social inclusion (local, national and European/international level). Head of this research group Poverty and social integration is Prof. dr. Tine Van Regenmortel. She holds a PhD in Psychological Sciences and has special expertise on the empowerment paradigm. Prof. dr. Ides Nicaise, head of the research group Education and Lifelong Learning, is also staff member of this research group. He holds a PhD in economics and is chairman of the Belgian Resource Centre for the Fight against Poverty, a centre created by law as an interface between the government, the civil society and grassroots organisations defending the interests of the poor. A collaborator for this PRC is research manager drs. Steven Groenez. He holds a Master s Degree in Commercial Engineering, with a major in human resources management, from the University of Leuven. He also holds a Master s Degree in Political Sciences from the same university. He is currently working on a PhD project entitled "Beyond meritocracy? Explaining persistent social inequality in education. Central to his work is policy evaluation of activation and anti-poverty policies with special interest for children. University College Karel de Grote-(KdG) The Research Group of the Department of Social-Agogic Work of the University College Karel de Grote focuses on applied research for the field of social work, inspired by the research paradigm of Modus 2 and models of cooperative knowledge production. The Research Group provides scientific support for social work organizations, practitioners and policy makers in analyzing societal processes, evolutions in client profiles and their needs, and good practices of social work; in the development of methodological or reflection tools, in the evaluation and impact assessment of social work interventions and in the translation of international methodological trends in social work into the local context in dialogue with stakeholders. Central is empowering research which supports strengths based social work and structural social work. We use quantitative and qualitative research methods and action research and work transdisciplinary (with attention to the practice wisdom of practitioners and the client perspective). Prof. dr Kristel Driessens is doctor in political and social sciences with a thesis on poverty and social work. She is a lecturer in the Master of Social Work (UA) and senior researcher at the University College Karel de Grote. For this team the University College engages also drs. Bea Van Robaeys and Jan Depauw. University of Gent (UG) The Department of Social Welfare Studies is one of the ten Departments based at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of Ghent University, and is involved in teaching and research as one of the three Departments in the field of Educational Sciences (respectively the Department of Social Welfare Studies, the Department of Education, and the Department of Special Education). The range of degrees include Bachelors, Masters and Doctors in Educational Sciences, and Masters and Doctors in Social Work. The Department of Social Welfare Studies coordinates the Master in Social Work, provided by UGent, Arteveldehogeschool, Hogeschool Gent en Hogeschool West Vlaanderen. The Department of Social Welfare Studies comprises three interconnected strands of research: social pedagogy, social work, and family pedagogy and parent support. The Department aims at studying the interactions between the construction of social problems, social policy and social work. The reciprocity between theory, policy and practice is a point of particular interest. This implies a specific way to understand the production, transmission and dissemination of scientific knowledge and a commitment to social change. Prof. dr Michel Vandenbroeck is professor at the department. He is teaching Early Childhood Care and Education; Family pedagogy; and Planning in Social Work Policy. His research concerns ECEC and parent support. Since October 2011, he is president of the Curriculum Commission of the Master in Social Work. P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 6

7 Dr Griet Roets is postdoctoral researcher on Mothers and children as carriers of poverty: social work activation strategies in relation to living in poverty. She coordinates the postacademic course on poverty and participation at the University of Gent. P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 7

8 3 Work packages The research programme of this PRC may be presented by the following figure. Figure: Overview of research programme by work packages SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTIONS - Reflective tool for diversity and poverty in social work interventions (WP4) - Monitoring intervention programmes for children (WP5a) - Evaluating accessibility of services for children and parents (WP5b) - Empowerment measurement (WP10) - Applied Academic Centre (WP10) - Participation (WP10) Yearbook on Poverty (WP11) PROBLEM DEFINITIONS PUBLIC POLICIES - Welfare state versus welfare society (WP4) - Poverty Impact Assessment (WP7) - European policies in Flanders (WP8) - Governance and social innovation (WP9) - Multidimensional poverty measurement (WP1) - Authoritative Panel on Indicators (WP1) - Reference budgets (WP2) - Longitudinal database JONG (WP3) - Poverty among migrants (WP4) - Child poverty (WP5a+b) - Prospective analyses (WP6) Overview of the work packages Work packa ge N Work package title Lead beneficiary 0 PRC Management Coordinator 24 1 Multidimensional poverty OASeS 8 measurement 2 Reference budgets CSB 36,33 3 Longitudinal database HIVA 28 4 Migration and Welfare State OASeS 54 5 Child Poverty HIVA 79,8* 6 Prospective research OASeS 8 7 Poverty Impact Assessment OASeS 8 8 Multilevel governance: Europe HIVA 12 Person months 9 Social innovation and OASeS 48 governance 10 Empowerment and participation HIVA Yearbook Poverty and Social OASeS 56 Exclusion 12 Knowledge Platform Coordinator 4 13 Expert reports and Policydriven All teams To be specified research (B-projects) TOTAL 407,1 P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 8

9 *50,4 person months of this work package will be funded with additional means and will be conducted by University of Gent, Department of Social Welfare Policies WP 0 Management Work package number 0 Start and End month: 1-48 Work package title PRC management Participants Person-months/ beneficiary: Name work package: Management 2. Period: January December Person months: senior researcher: 24 months (50% during four years) 4. Package leader: OASeS Danielle Dierckx 5. Collaborative partners: / 6. Description of work package: The PRC on Poverty and Social Exclusion aims to become a centre with a clear added value in the field of poverty research in Flanders. The PRC combines the expertise of research centres with a reputation of internationally rewarded research on poverty and social exclusion. Therefore the PRC invests in a central staff that coordinates activities, monitors timetables and deliverables, and develops procedures to guarantee the quality of the research of the PRC. The Management staff of the PRC will also provide the basis for an efficient communication and co-operation within the team and for maintaining a constructive dialogue with the steering bodies, like the Flemish government, the policy council, the steering committee and other stakeholders. A promotor-coordinator, D. Dierckx (OASeS-UA), will be appointed. She will be responsible for the management of the Policy Research Centre as separate entity. In addition, every member of the consortium will contribute to maintain the coherent structure of the PRC with its cohesive programme and visibility towards external users. The promotor-coordinator: - will be responsible for the implementation of the multi-annual programme - will effectively steer the PRC - is accountable, mandated and responsible regarding the Flemish government - will represent the PRC externally towards third parties, including other PRCs - coordinates the reporting - is responsible for the financial management, including the specific budget and annual financial statements - supports the consultations among researchers and with the steering bodies (e.g. policy council, steering group, executive council), in particular with the representatives of the people experiencing poverty P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 9

10 - coordinates service delivery - coordinates internal and external communication - develops HRM-policies - is responsible for subcontracting and its follow-up - stimulates the national and international exchange of expertise on poverty and social exclusion Particular work packages in which the coordinator is involved are Management (WP 0) and Knowledge Platform (WP 12). Besides the function of coordinator, this person will also be involved in the PRC by conducting some research and supervising researchers from OASeS in WPs 1, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 11. Administrative support should guarantee that the PRC functions as independent centre. This support consists of: - Administrative tasks for the coordinator, management council, researchers (e.g. reports of management meetings, dispatching surveys, hiring job students, lay-out) - Logistic organization of seminars and the Knowledge Platform (see WP 12) - Internal communication: editorial newsflash, reporting - External communication on research activities and results by website and newsletter 7. Nederlandse vertaling Binnen het VLAS wordt uitdrukkelijk gekozen voor een deeltijdse coördinatiefunctie. Daarmee wenst het Steunpunt een meerwaarde te creëren op het vlak van inhoudelijke en organisatorische samenhang. Danielle Dierckx wordt aangesteld als deeltijdse promotor-coördinator. De promotor-coördinator: - Is verantwoordelijk voor de uitvoering van het meerjarenplan - moet het steunpunt daadwerkelijk sturen - is aanspreekbaar, voldoende gemandateerd en verantwoordelijk tegenover de Vlaamse overheid en vertegenwoordigt er het Steunpunt - vertegenwoordigt het steunpunt naar derden, inclusief andere steunpunten en belanghebbenden - coördineert de inhoudelijke rapportering - is verantwoordelijk voor het financieel beheer, waaronder de opmaak van een aparte begroting en jaarlijkse afrekening - begeleidt het overleg tussen de onderzoekers en met de aansturende organen (bv. beleidsraad, kennisplatform, stuurgroep, dagelijks bestuur), met bijzondere aandacht voor het draagvlak onder de vertegenwoordigers van de mensen in armoede - coördineert de dienstverlening - stuurt de interne en externe communicatie aan - voert HRM-beleid P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 10

11 - sluit onderaannemingscontracten af en volgt ze op - bewaakt dat binnen de verschillende onderzoekslijnen de opgelegde functies van het Steunpunt worden vervuld (bv. samenwerking met Vlaamse administraties, SVR) - stimuleert de nationale en internationale uitwisseling van expertise over armoede WP 1 Multidimensional poverty in Flanders: a descriptive and comparative analysis Work package number 1 Start and End month: 1-48 Work package title Multidimensional poverty in Flanders: a descriptive and comparative analysis Participants Person-months/ beneficiary: 8 1. Name work package: Multidimensional poverty in Flanders: a descriptive and comparative analysis 2. Period: January December Person months: senior researcher: 2 months per year: 8 months 4. Package leader: OASeS 5. Collaborative partners: / 6. Description of work package: The notion of poverty has gradually been enlarged from an income-based to a multi-dimensional concept. As early as 1979, Townsend called for a definition in terms of deprivation. In Flanders, the work of Vranken et al. ( ) brought the non-monetary dimension of poverty to the fore. These conceptual insights inspired different researchers to look for alternative ways to measure poverty using different deprivation indicators (Dewilde, 2006; 2007; Dewilde & Raeymaeckers, 2007). Also at the level of the European Union deprivation indicators are used to develop a broader, multidimensional measurement of poverty. The population identified in framing the EU-2020 Strategy poverty target has been defined as follows: persons in the member states either below a country specific relative income poverty threshold, above material deprivation threshold, or in a jobless household. In its Flemish Action Plan on Poverty Reduction , the Flemish government has stated, following conclusions of the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion, to take the lead in developing a broad set of poverty-indicators with an emphasis on non-monetary indicators. Both within social science and policy circles, the growing conviction is that the concepts used in poverty research are in fact multi-dimensional, and have to be operationalised as such. This multidimensionality has two faces. Firstly, poverty can manifest itself on one or more life domains. Secondly, longitudinal panel data point to the dynamic nature of poverty: most people who are 'poor' at one moment in time are poor only for a short period in their life. The first part of this work package focuses on the measurement of multi-dimensional poverty in Flanders. We will distinguish different poverty domains and examine their persistence over time. The second part compares poverty between Flanders and a selection of ten European countries. We propose to use the database of Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). Poverty in Flanders: a descriptive and dynamic analysis Concerning the multi-aspectuality of the poverty concept, the definition by Townsend (1979: 31) is still widely agreed on: 'Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 11

12 they lack the resources to obtain the type of diet, participate in the activities and have the living conditions and amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged, or approved, in the societies to which they belong. They are, in effect, excluded from ordinary living patterns, customs and activities'. Put differently, poverty is a social and relative concept, depending on the standards of living in society. Townsend's operationalisation, based on a set of non-monetary indicators, attempts to identify deprivation on several domains of life. Although the author stresses that 'the concept of resources rather than income is used in recognition of the contribution made to standards of living by income in kind from various sources', the poverty line is determined by using household income. Likewise, in most later research, poverty is by definition related to a lack of financial resources (c.f. Whelan & Whelan, 1995). Despite the general agreement on Townsend's definition, the literature has been dominated by discussions on its operationalisation. The most important debate has taken place between those who favour a direct measurement and those who call for an indirect approach (Ringen, 1988). In the first case, poverty is measured directly using information on living standards or consumption. In the latter case, poverty is measured indirectly based on the resources people dispose of, where income is usually the only indicator. This discussion has been animated further by the repeated finding that different methods classify different population groups as 'poor' (c.f. Kangas & Ritakallio, 1998; Whelan et al., 2001a). In this research we will follow the extensive research of Dewilde (2006; 200p; Dewilde & Raeymaeckers, 2007). Using the method of latent class analysis, this author shows that income must be regarded as one aspect of poverty. Therefore, in this research we will use an approach where the monetary dimension is given a specific place. If poverty is a multi-aspectual phenomenon, then we have to take this into account in its measurement. As opposed to conventional practice, the consideration of both monetary and non-monetary indicators at the same time is not really contradictory: a lot of so-called non-monetary indicators include a monetary component (for instance, not being able to afford an annual holiday) (Atkinson et al., 2002). Thus, the debate concerning the measurement of resources (income) versus outcomes (living conditions) has been misgauged, since from a dynamic perspective, both can be considered as a direct or indirect consequence of different types of life events, related to changes in household structures or labour market participation. Furthermore, the impact of these life events is mediated by a range of background characteristics, earlier life-course trajectories and institutional factors (Dewilde, forthcoming; Andreß & Schulte, 1998). When trying to operationalise a multi-aspectual poverty concept, the researcher is confronted with many theoretical and methodological choices (Dewilde & De Keulenaer, 2002). These choices are related to the available data, the life domains to be included, the selection of indicators per domain, and the choice of a method to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators in a measurement model. A first step in the development of a multi-aspectual poverty measure concerns the data that will be used. In this research we will use the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC database). This database includes a representative sample of households in European countries and allows us to compare poverty among European countries. Next, the SILC data base offers a wide variety of poverty measures referring to income and deprivation. These variables allow us to construct a very broad and multidimensional poverty measure. Third, the SILC offers an insight in the composition of the population. We can investigate the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of both individuals and households. We will use the SILC databases from 2005 until 2012 and compare the poverty percentages of Flanders among 7 different time periods. In this way we can investigate the evolution of deprivation and income poverty in Flanders. As a second step we have to determine the relevant life domains. We follow Dewilde (2006;2007) stating that indicators related to education or the labour market can be considered as determinants rather than indicators of poverty. Thus, these indicators will not be included in our multi-aspectual measure. Furthermore, research shows that the available indicators on social relations are only weakly related to poverty, and are subject to notable cross-national variations (Gallie, 1999). Therefore, we will limit our analysis to three poverty domains that also has been used by research of Dewilde: housing deprivation, financial stress and limited financial resources. The thirds step refers to the aggregation of indicators and domains in a multi-aspectual poverty measure at the individual level can be achieved at in many ways. In the literature, methods vary from the simple addition of scores on indicators and domains to the calculation of weights for each domain/indicator. We draw further from research of Dewilde (2006; 2008; Dewilde & Raeymaeckers, P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 12

13 2007; Dewilde & Vranken, 2005). In these publication Dewilde distinguishes the indicators that can be used to measure poverty on the three poverty domains mentioned in the above (housing deprivation, financial stress and limited financial resources). We use these findings to construct an index for each of the three poverty domains. Comparative analysis Finally, in each phase of this research project, we will try to make the link with the institutional context of the welfare state. Many research has shown that the macro context of the welfare state influences the poverty risk into a large extent (Dewilde, Muffels, Fourarge, 2004). In literature these differences among European countries are explained by three different types of macro characteristics: the level of income replacement (basic income schemes, unemployment insurance and the level of pension), labour market flexibility and family friendly policies (childcare and parental leave) and health care (sickness benefits). Therefore we argue that it is important to compare the poverty risk of Flanders with other European countries. Starting point is the concept of welfare regimes as defined by Esping-Andersen (1990). Based on the cross-national variations along three dimensions (the relationship market-state in the deliverance of welfare, the social stratification effects of the welfare state, and the extent of decommodification or market-independence), this author identifies his well-known 'worlds of welfare': the Nordic social-democratic welfare regime, the Anglo-Saxon liberal welfare regime and the Continental conservative-corporatist welfare regime. Without going into the many theoretical and methodological comments and additions, we can state that most authors nowadays agree that the Southern European countries can be classified into a specific fourth European cluster. Next, we can also distinguish different Eastern European countries. In this research we compare the poverty risk of Flanders with a selection of eleven European countries. This selection is based on the four types of welfare regimes. 1. United Kingdom (Liberal welfare regime) 2. France, Germany & the Netherlands (conservative welfare regime) 3. Finland & Denmark (Social democratic welfare regime) 4. Spain & Greece (Southern welfare regime) 5. Poland & Slovenia (Eastern Europe) For this analysis we also use the SILC 2005 until SILC Doing so, we not only make a crosssectional comparison, but also compare the evolution of the poverty risk among different countries. In this way we gain more insight in the extent that poverty changes in Flanders are comparable with the evolution in other European countries. Authoritative panel on indicators The PRC wants to structure the multiplicity of indicators and monitors on poverty and social exclusion in Flanders. Therefore an Authoritative Panel will be founded. This panel consists of the most important producers and users of indicators on poverty and social exclusion (e.g. research service of the Flemish government, ADSEI, Child and Family, UA-OASeS, UA-CSB, HIVA, Decenniumdoelen 2017). Goals of this panel are exchange of expertise and coordination of analyses and use of the data. Deliverables - Report on the measurement of multi-dimensional poverty and its persistence in Flanders - Comparative report on poverty in ten European countries - Authoritative panel on indicators Nederlandse samenvatting Multidimensionele armoede in Vlaanderen: een beschrijvende en vergelijkende analyse. P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 13

14 De definitie van armoede is de afgelopen decennia verruimd van een louter op inkomen gebaseerd, naar een multidimensioneel concept. Verschillende onderzoekers zijn dan ook op zoek gegaan naar alternatieve manieren om armoede te meten en introduceerden verschillende deprivatie-indicatoren. Ook de indicatoren op Europees niveau ondergingen dezelfde evolutie. Deze multidimensionaliteit van armoede is tweezijdig. Enerzijds komt armoede voor in verschillende levensdomeinen, anderzijds blijkt uit longitudinale studies dat armoede dynamisch is: de meeste mensen die arm zijn op een bepaald moment in hun levensloop, zijn dit slechts voor een relatief korte periode. Armoede in Vlaanderen: een beschrijvende en dynamische analyse In dit eerste deel onderzoeken we hoe we armoede het beste multidimensioneel kunnen meten. We gebruiken hiervoor de EU-SILC data van 2005 tot We bekijken eerst de verschillende armoedepercentages van Vlaanderen in 7 jaar en gaan zo na hoe persistent armoede in Vlaanderen is. Vervolgens bepalen we de relevante levensdomeinen. We baseren ons hiervoor op Dewilde (2006;2007) die stelde dat indicatoren met betrekking tot onderwijs of de arbeidsmarkt eerder beschouwd kunnen worden als determinanten in plaats van indicatoren. Daarom bakenen we onze analyses af tot drie levensdomeinen: wonen, financiële armoede en beperkte inkomens. Als laatste stap maken we een index, conform deze van Dewilde & Raeymaeckers (2007) voor de drie bovenvermelde armoededomeinen. Een vergelijkende analyse Het tweede deel zal dan armoede in Vlaanderen vergelijken met de andere lidstaten (op basis van de EU-SILC data). In elke fase van de analyse trachten we verbanden te leggen met de institutionele context van de welvaartsstaat. Verschillende onderzoekers hebben immers aangetoond dat de macrocontext van de welvaartsstaat een invloed uitoefent op het armoederisico (Dewilde 2007, Muffels, Fourarge 2004). Daarom is het belangrijk om de armoede te vergelijken tussen de verschillende EU-lidstaten. Esping-Andersen stelde in 1990 een typologie op van verschillende welvaartsstaatregimes. Als we deze typologie toepassen dan onderscheiden we in Europa vijf verschillende welvaartsregimes. Deze worden vertegenwoordigd door een of meer landen die we bijgevolg in onze vergelijking zullen opnemen: 1. UK (liberaal welvaartsregime) 2. Frankirjk, Duitsland en Nederland (conservatieve welvaartsregimes) 3. Finland en Denemarken (sociaal-democratische welvaartsregimes) 4. Spanje en Griekenland (Zuidelijk welvaartsregime) 5. Polen en Slovenië (Oost-Europese welvaartsregimes) Ook deze analyse zullen we doen op EU-SILC data van 2005 tot We trachten hiermee meer inzicht te krijgen of armoede door de jaren heen dezelfde evoluties ondergaat in de verschillende landen en welvaartsregimes. Bibliography ANDREß, H.-J. en SCHULTE, K. (1998), Poverty Risks and the Life Cycle: The Individualization Thesis Reconsidered, in: ANDREß, H.-J. (ed.), Empirical Poverty Research in a Comparative Perspective, Ashgate: Aldershot, ATKINSON, T. et al. (2002), Social Indicators. The EU and Social Inclusion, Oxford: Oxford University Press. DEWILDE, C. (2002), De impact van life events op sociale uitsluiting en armoede, in: VRANKEN, J. et al. (eds.), Armoede en sociale uitsluiting. Jaarboek 2002, Leuven: Acco, DEWILDE, C. en DE KEULENAER, F. (2002), Huisvesting: de vergeten dimensie van armoede, Ruimte en Planning, 22, 2, DEWILDE, C. (2006), Becoming poor in Belgium and Britain: the impact of demographic and labour market events, sociological research online, 11(1) DEWILDE, C., VRANKEN, J. (2005), De multidimensionele meting van armoede in de Europese Unie: een categorische benadering, Belgisch tijdschrift voor sociale zekerheid, 47(1), P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 14

15 DEWILDE, C. & RAEYMAECKERS, P., (2007), Multidimensionele armoede in Europa. Individuele en Institutionele determinanten. Leuven: ACCO. DEWILDE, C. (2008) Individual and Institutional determinants of multidimensional poverty: a European comparison, Social Indicators Research, 86(2), ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambrigde, Polity Press. GALLIE, D. (1999), Unemployment and Social Exclusion in the European Union, European Societies, 1, 2, p HAGENAARS, J.A. (1990), Categorical Longitudinal Data. Log-Linear Panel, Trend and Cohort Analysis, Newbury Park: Sage. KANGAS, O. en RITAKALLIO, V.-M., (1998), Different Methods - Different Results? Approaches to Multidimensional Poverty, in: ANDREß, H.-J. (ed.), Empirical Poverty Research in a Comparative Perspective, Ashgate: Aldershot, KAZEPOV, Y. (1999), At the Edge of Longitudinal Analysis. Welfare Institutions and Social Assistance Dynamics, Quality and Quantity, 33, MUFFELS, R. & FOURARGE, D. (2004), The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation, Social Indicators Research, September, 68 (3): ØYEN, E. (1996), Poverty Research Rethought, in: ØYEN, E., MILLER, S.M. en SAMAD, S.A. (eds.), Poverty: A Global Review. Handbook on International Poverty Research, Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, RINGEN, S. (1988), Direct and Indirect Measures of Poverty, Journal of Social Policy, 17, 3, TOWNSEND, P. (1979), Poverty in the United Kingdom. A Survey of Household Recources and Standards of Living, Hammondsworth: Penguin Books. TOWNSEND, P. (1987), Conceptualising Poverty, in: FERGE, Zs. en MILLER, S.M. (eds.), Dynamics of Deprivation, Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company Ltd., VAN HOOREBEECK, B. et al. (2002), Validiteitsproblemen rond de Belgische ECHP-data, CSB-nota, juli VRANKEN, J. et al. ( ), Armoede en sociale uitsluiting. Jaarboek , Leuven: Acco. WHELAN, B.J. en WHELAN, C.T. (1995), In What Sense is Poverty Multidimensional?, in: ROOM, G. (ed.), Beyond the Treshold. The Measurment and Analysis of Social Exclusion, Bristol: The Policy Press, WHELAN, C.T., LAYTE, R., MAÎTRE, B. en NOLAN, B. (2001a), Persistent Income Poverty and Deprivation in the European Union: An Analysis of the First Three Waves of the European Community Household Panel, EPAG, Working Paper 17, University of Essex, Colchester, WHELAN, C.T., LAYTE, R. en MAÎTRE, B. (2001b), Persistent Deprivation in the European Union, EPAG, Working Paper 23, University of Essex, Colchester, WP 2 Reference budgets for social participation Work package number 2 Start and End month: 1-48 Work package title Reference budgets for social participation Participants Person-months/ beneficiary: 32,5 0,33 1. Name of work package: Reference budgets for social participation 2. Period: January December 2015 P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 15

16 3. Person months: a. junior researcher (SR): 24 months person months à 100% b. senior researcher: 4,5 months à 100% c. package leader: 1 month per year à 100% (= 4 person months à 100%) 4. Package leader: CSB 5. Collaborative partners: a. Internal: HIVA, 0.33 month à 100% b. External (subcontracting) K.H.Kempen, 3,5 months à 100% 6. Description of work package: Situation Researchers at the K.H.Kempen, in close collaboration with researchers from the Center for Social Policy Herman Deleeck developed in May 2009 for the first time, de novo Flemish reference budgets for social participation (Storms & Van den Bosch, 2009a, 2009b). The starting point for the development of these budgets consists, not in the classic product categories such as food, clothing, household goods etc, but rather in the fundamental needs that must be fulfilled in order that people could participate in society, in a manner that is compatible with human dignity. In 2010 researchers from the Center for Social Policy Herman Deleeck, together with researchers from the K.H.Kempen and researchers from the University of Liège, extended the applicability of these reference budgets and calculated budgets for a decent living in Wallonia and Brussels (Van Thielen et al., 2010). In addition, they broadened the living conditions of families by developing reference budgets for the elderly, working families, newly composed households, families with children in higher education, owners and families with health problems. Societal and academic relevance At the moment, a wide variety of organizations make an appeal to these reference budgets for social participation. A lot of public centers for social welfare (OCMW s) are using them for granting additional income. They also use them, as well as other debt mediation centers (CAW s, private lawyers) for settling income maintenance, debt rescheduling, financial education and debt prevention. Also other organizations make use of these reference budgets as objective guidelines for assessing whether or not certain situations are contrary to human dignity (e.g. social services of universities and university colleges, the Commission responsible for handling complaints within the scope of the Flemish Health Insurance, the Flemish League against Cancer,..). Besides their social relevance, the development of reference budgets also serves a scientific purpose. Determining the financial resources that someone minimally requires in order to be able to fully participate in society may be regarded as a concrete operationalisation of the poverty notion. Deriving the necessary minimum income threshold and the accompanying equivalence scales from these reference budgets, one can use them as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy of minimum income protection. They also provide important information on the relative character of poverty and the adequacy of currently used poverty thresholds. However, to utilize these reference budgets as suitable tools in the field of social policy, social work and policy research, there is some work to be done. Description of work Activity 1: adjustments of budgets over time First of all the reference budgets need an adjustment to changing prices and a changing standard of living over time since they were developed in June This activity leads to a good practice, showing how to adjust budgets in the short and the long run. a. For a period of one to five years, adjustments can be based on the consumer price index (prices per product group). However one has to be prudent with these adjustments by indexation, as the consumer price index is calculated on mean prices, where the prices for goods and services which are included in the reference budgets are mostly calculated at a lower price level. Sometimes low priced products evolve differently from mean priced products (e.g. the evolution of computer P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 16

17 prices). So it is necessary to compare the evolution of the price indexes with the evolution of real price levels to find out the most adequate way to adjust each product over a short time. b. In a longer term, certain items in the baskets will inevitably become obsolete, so that they need to be eliminated and, as the case may be, replaced on the basis of the same criteria as used in the composition of the present basket. In order to find out which items should be replaced, omitted or superadded and which is the most appropriate term to adjust the baskets, we want to consult experts and organize focus groups. In the meanwhile we propose to work on a five yearly bases (note: the baskets used for the calculation of the consumption price index are revisited every two years). For some baskets we deviated by necessity from the preferred normative approach in the composition of the reference budgets. This is the case for the housing basket, were rent and consumer costs are merely illustrative and calculated on the basis of the 2005 Housing Survey. In order to adjust this basket over time, rent and amortization costs must be recalculated on the basis of the new survey. Other costs which are merely illustrative are education costs for children in secondary and higher education, child care costs and costs linked with sickness and invalidity. Also these costs must be adjusted in a longer term, using the newest survey data. Activity 2: the renewal of some existing baskets and the development of a new basket Beside the adjustment of the budgets over time, some baskets of goods and services have to be renewed. a. For the housing basket, we think it s more opportune to calculate consumer costs (water, gas and electricity) on the basis of normative criteria (using existing energy norms and criteria for sustainable water consumption), then on the basis of median household expenses. Experts will be consulted in order to renew these consumer costs in the housing budget. b. A newly to develop basket is related to the capability of Lifelong learning (LLL). In modern societies, both employability and active citizenship are dependent upon having adequate social competences for taking part in and making a contribution to economic and social life. Therefore Lifelong learning should be incorporated in the list of intermediate needs that must be fulfilled in order to fully participate in society and a corresponding basket should be developed. This basket will be developed in close collaboration with HIVA experts and ordinary citizens (consulted by focus groups). Activity 3: Reliability of focus groups results A third important activity aimed to increase the validity of the reference budgets, concerns the reliability of the focus groups results. In order to ensure maximum acceptability of the reference budgets, focus groups are the appropriate methodology to deliver crucial information about needs, but there is a danger that the composition and the dynamics of these groups determine the outcome. Like the method prescribes, we used homogeneous groups (of persons with similar household composition, activity situation, health status and income position) when constructing our reference budgets for social participation. In other European countries sometimes mixed groups are used. In order to make sure that the research results are reliable (i.e. consistent and replicable), valid (for which households are the reference budgets applicable and adequate?) and comparable (between family types and between regions or countries), one needs a common and valid strategy (recruitment strategy, topic list, interview technique, ). Therefore we will do some fundamental research on the validity and reliability of using the focus groups technique when constructing reference budgets for social participation. Questions to be answered are: How to recruit which kind of people? How to reconcile the homogeneous composition of focus groups with a valid answer on the minimum necessary for all citizens? How to ensure comparability between reference budgets of different household types when discussion take place in different groups? What are the right questions on the topic list? How to train interviewers and observers? Activity 4: The usability of reference budgets for social, political and scientific purposes. The fourth activity is aimed at making the reference budgets usable for politicians, social workers, lawyer s ordinary citizens, social organizations and social policy researchers. Therefore different steps should be taken. a. First of all they should be parameterized, i.e. reduced to a set of equivalence factors and cost amounts, which could be combined in various ways to estimate the reference budget for every single household. P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 17

18 b. Secondly it will be useful to know the gross incomes that correspond with the net amounts of the reference budgets. These gross incomes can be used as income ceilings for all sorts of income based allowances and subsidies. These gross incomes shall be calculated by MISIM. c. Thirdly, it is important to realize that there is no one to one relationship between the level of the reference budgets and an adequate income ceiling or between the level of the reference budgets and the corresponding poverty thresholds. As the relation between means and actual opportunities to fully participate in society partly depends on individual capacities, it s a huge balancing act to determine the minima in satisfiers to produce an optimal outcome (i.e. the ability to fully participate in society). In order to handle this difficulty, the currently developed reference budgets ascertain minimum, but feasible quantities needed by informed and competent persons (living in a given societal context) who don t have any special needs (bad health, ). This road leads to a level of need satisfaction below almost no one can lead a life compatible with human dignity. Since not all persons have the presumed competences (and especially poor people are lacking them) many people will need more economic resources to be able to fully participate in society. For analogous reasons, circumspection is due in the application of these reference budgets in determining whether households should be granted additional assistance from public local welfare centers or in setting the level of disposable income in collective debt settlements. They can however, serve as a reference income. One must then determine for each client separately whether the baskets and amounts should not be adapted (i.e. mostly increased) according to their concrete circumstances and issues. Therefore, it is an interesting investigation to examine how far the actual characteristics (health status, living conditions) and competences (attitudes and skills), of poor (and non-poor) people are removed from those underlying the reference budgets. Existing surveys and focus group discussions will be used for this examination. The results of this research are not only useful to readjust the budgets (for some households) when used as poverty thresholds or when used as income ceilings for policy goals; they also give politicians information for setting up anti-poverty prevention campaigns. 7.Time table Activity Timing 1a Adjustment in the short run 1/1/ /12/2015 1b Adjustment in the long run 1/1/ /12/2013 2a Development of normative energy budgets 1/1/ /12/2012 2b Development of LLL basket 1/1/ /12/ Fundamental research on the use of focus groups in the development of reference budgets a Parametrisation of reference budgets 1/1/ /12/2014 4b Calculation of corresponding gross incomes 31/12/ /12/2015 4c Adaptation of budgets to Households' real needs 1/1/ /12/2014 5b Evaluation of the adequancy of the minimum income protection schemes Activiteit 1a P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 18

19 Activiteit 2a Activiteit 2b Activiteit 3 Activiteit 4b Activiteit 1a Activiteit 1b Activiteit 3 Activiteit 4b Activiteit Activiteit 1a Activiteit 4a Activiteit 4b Activiteit 4c Activiteit Activiteit 1a Activiteit 4b Activiteit 5 8. Deliverables Journal paper concerning the use of reference budgets for social participation as poverty thresholds (2015) CSB-bericht on the adequacy of minimum income protection schemes (2014) A European seminar on the validity and reliability of focus group data when constructing reference budgets (2013) Journal paper on the construction of reference budgets for social participation, especially on the validity and reliability of focus group results (2015). 9. Valorisation Half-yearly updated prices of the Flemish reference budgets for social participation (June and December of each year) Five yearly completely updated reference budgets (medio 2014) 10. Nederlandse samenvatting In mei 2009 verscheen het boek Wat heeft een gezin minimaal nodig? Een budgetstandaard voor Vlaanderen (Storms & Van den Bosch, 2009), waarin voor de eerste maal de novo referentiebudgetten voor maatschappelijke participatie werden uitgewerkt voor Vlaanderen. Later breidden we de toepassingsmogelijkheden van de budgetstandaard verder uit door referentiebudgetten te berekenden voor een menswaardig leven in een Waalse en Brusselse samenleving en door de leefsituaties van gezinnen sterk uit te breiden (Van Thielen et al., 2010). Deze studies kwamen tegemoet aan sterk levende behoeften. Vele organisaties en personen moeten immers dagelijks leefsituaties en inkomens van gezinnen beoordelen in functie van de menselijke P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 19

20 waardigheid. Dit geldt bijvoorbeeld voor het toekennen van aanvullende steun door OCMW s of voor het bepalen van de hoogte van de leefgelden in het kader van de schuldbemiddeling. Naast hun grote maatschappelijke relevantie, hebben deze referentiebudgetten voor maatschappelijke participatie ook een sterk wetenschappelijk valorisatiepotentieel. Het bepalen van de hoeveelheid financiële middelen die iemand minimaal nodig heeft om volwaardig aan de samenleving te kunnen participeren, kan immers worden gezien als een concrete operationalisering van het begrip armoede. Zowel in het wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de meting van de armoede als in het onderzoek naar de doeltreffendheid van het minimabeleid zijn referentiebudgetten waardevolle vergelijkingsmaatstaven. Doch vooraleer ze volledig inzetbaar zijn in de praktijk van het sociaal werk, de sociale politiek en het sociaal beleidsonderzoek, moeten nog een vijftal stappen worden gezet. In een eerste activiteit onderzoeken we hoe de bestaande referentiebudgetten op korte termijn efficiënt kunnen worden aangepast aan de veranderende prijzen en op lange termijn aan de zich wijzigende levensstandaard. In een tweede activiteit nemen we de korf adequate huisvesting volledig opnieuw onder de loep in functie van de resultaten van de nieuwe Vlaamse woonsurvey en onderzoeken we de mogelijkheid om normatieve budgetten voor energie te ontwikkelen. Daarnaast ontwikkelen we een extra korf met het oog op het vervullen van de behoefte aan levenslang leren, die bij de ontwikkeling van de Vlaamse budgetstandaard ten onrechte niet werd meegenomen. In een derde activiteit onderzoeken we op welke manier focusgroepen hun rol als publieke referentiegroepen bij het opmaken van nationale referentiebudgetten het best kunnen spelen. Meer in het bijzonder bestuderen we of en hoe de homogene samenstelling, zoals voorgeschreven door de methodiek, kan worden verzoend met de noodzakelijke brede consensus van alle maatschappelijke geledingen over wat minimaal noodzakelijk is. Een vierde werkpakket staat volledig in functie van de praktische bruikbaarheid van de referentiebudgetten. In eerste instantie onderzoeken we hier hoe equivalentieschalen kunnen worden afgeleid uit de bestaande referentiebudgetten zodat het mogelijk wordt om voor alle mogelijke typegezinnen uitspraken te kunnen doen over de hoogte van een menswaardig minimuminkomen. Ten tweede doen we een beroep op STASIM om bruto inkomens af te leiden van de (netto) referentiebudgetten zodat een vergelijking mogelijk wordt met bestaande inkomensplafonds voor het toekennen van Vlaamse uitkeringen en subsidies. Ten derde onderzoeken we via secundaire dataanalyse en focusgoepen in welke mate deze normatieve referentiebudgetten aansluiten bij de reële leefomstandigheden (gezondheidstoestand, competenties, ) van Vlaamse burgers, inz. bij deze van kwetsbare burgers. Deze informatie is nodig om realistische aanbevelingen te kunnen formuleren over het gebruik van referentiebudgetten als inkomensmaatstaven of als armoedelijnen. Tot slot laat bovenstaande informatie ons toe om in werkpakket 5 gericht uitspraken te doen over de doeltreffendheid van het inkomensbeschermings- en armoedebestrijdingsbeleid. Literature Storms, B., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009a). Wat heeft een gezin minimaal nodig? Een budgetstandaard voor Vlaanderen. Leuven: Acco. Storms, B., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009b). What income do families need for social participation at the minimum?a budget standard for Flanders, CSB Berichten (pp. 32). Antwerp: Center for Social Policy Herman Deleeck. Van Thielen, L., Deflandre, D., Baldewijns, K., Boeckx, H., Leysens, G., Marie.-Thérèse, C., et al. (2010). Minibudget. Wat hebben gezinnen nodig om menswaardig te leven in België? Antwerpen: Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck. WP 3 Building a longitudinal database for the study of children (and families) in poverty Work package number 3 Start and End month: 1-48 Work package title Longitudinal database for the study of children Participants Person-months/ beneficiary: 28 P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina 20

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