1 Progressing towards Quality Education for All version March 2014, by Els Salembier Summary Content Summary 1 Introduction 2 Why focus on quality 3 Motivation 4 Logical frame 5 Focus point: audit travel 6 & budget Focus point: promotion 8 Focus point: 9 The Swallow CCM report 10 Afrodidact 12 This program is taking the Dakar Framework for Action (United Nations, 2000) as general framework. In particular, it wants to work on goal 6: Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. The specific aim for this program is: Promoting a practical sic schools in their improvement of educational processes. The research question raised is: Which is a practical framework for improvement of quality education in basic schools in developing countries, that comprehensively covers the interrelated components of teaching & learning processes? The research will be executed through an audit travel, by a team of external experts. easy and practical information). Focus point: The Swallow The Swallow, Centre of Emancipating Education (The Gambia) is the fieldwork where this program is based on. From this initiative, the plans for research and network are developed. In this bottom -up approach, the basic work should not be forgotten. The Swallow will still function as a test case for the implementation of the quality school model, framework for basic schools in developing countries, for improvement of quality education. Focus point: Audit travel Objective of this research is not only theoretical studies. The practical approach aims to assist ba- Focus point: Promotion of the pedagogical approach The case study will be published as a script, a practice guide for schools searching for inspiration on improvement: with the details of the pedagogical approach, including the advises of the audit (in and will therefore be continued supporting. The specific objective for the program of The Swallow is: improving quality education in The Gambia, through an emancipatory approach. accessible English, with
2 P a g i n a 2 P r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Introduction Afrodidact wants to proof and promote the best practice example of the The Swallow, Centre of Emancipating Education, is established in 2002 in The Gambia, West-Africa. The Swallow is a legal association, registered as a local non-profit organisation. The Swallow wants to be a meeting place and a source of inspiration for the renewal of education in The Gambia. The main activity is a nursery and primary school, where other activities are related to: the integration of health education, youth work on food security & health and research about a different pedagogical approach. All those activities are not fully developed yet. Will they ever be? The Swallow is always experimenting with new ideas. However, the first results and the interested reactions of parents and external educational workers, are calling for the next step of action: the dissemination of positive experiences. After an official school visit by the ministry of education of The Gambia, they gave a total score of 92.99% and wrote in their report: (this) school should be used as a model centre for other schools to visit. In addition to the daily educational work of The Swallow, an international and a more scientific level would be very interesting. This program would not only give more possibilities to execute the program of The Swallow, as described here, but would also give a broader dimension through exchange possibilities with other countries and educational centres. This is what Afrodidact is about: proving and promoting the best practice example of The Swallow towards other schools and educational organisations. With this program we are in line with the Dakar framework for Action (2000), which established an agenda for achieving good education quality, by the United Nations: EFA Dakar goals 1.Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. 2.Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality. 3.Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes. 4.Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and pedagogical approach of equitable access to basic and con- The Swallow. tinuing education for all adults. 5.Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005 and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to (and achievement in) basic education of good quality. 6.Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and life skills.
3 P r o p o s a l f o r a u d i t o f T h e S w a l l o w P a g i n a 3 Understanding education quality Why focus on quality? The goal of achieving universal primary education (UPE) has been on the international agenda since the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights affirmed, in 1948, that elementary education was to be made free ad compulsory for all children. This objective has been restated many times in international treaties and United Nations conference declarations. Many of these instruments, however, remain focused upon the quantitative aspects of education policy. Most recently, the United Nations Millennium Declaration set out the commitment to achieve UPE by 2015, without specific reference to its quality. In many countries striving to guarantee all children the right to education, focus on access often overshadows the issue of quality. Other important instruments do emphasize the importance of quality, however. Goal 2 of the Dakar Framework for Action (2000) commits nations to the provision of primary education of good quality, and goal 6 includes commitments to improve all aspects of education quality so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. A new consensus is building up round the imperative to improve the quality of education. How well students are taught an how much they learn are likely to have a crucial impact upon the length and value of their schooling experience. Quality can influence parents choice to invest in their children s education. The range of intrinsic and social benefits associated with education, from better protection against disease to higher personal income, is strongly dependent on the quality of the teaching-learning process. Quality in the critical tradition While the critical approaches encompass a vast array of philosophies, they share a concern that education tends to reproduce the structures and inequalities of the wider society. Though many retain the founding humanist principle that human development is the ultimate end of thought and action, they question the belief that universal schooling will result automatically in equal development of learners potential. As a reaction against this, advocates of an emancipatory pedagogy suggested hat critical intellectuals should work to empower marginalized students by helping them analyze their experience and thus redress social inequality and injustice. Especially as progress towards Education for All results in enrolment of children from communities that where formerly socially distant from the school system, we are convinced about this critical approach. In brief, critical pedagogues tend to equate good quality with: - education that prompts social change; - a curriculum and teaching methods that encourage critical analysis of social power relations and of ways in which formal knowledge is produced and transmitted; - active participation by learners in the design of their own learning experience. A framework for understanding education quality The number of factors that can affect educational outcomes is so vast that straightforward relationships between the conditions of education and its products are not easy to determine. In the EFA report on quality they characterize the central dimensions influencing the core processes of teaching and learning through a framework: Learner characteristics - Aptitude - Perseverance - School readiness - Prior knowledge - Barriers to learning Enabling inputs Teaching and learning process - learning time - teaching methods - assessment, feedback, incentives - class size Teaching & learning materials Physical infrastructure & facilities Human resources: teachers, principals, inspectors, supervisors, administrators School governance Outcomes - Literacy, numeracy and life skills - Creative and emotional skills - Values - Social benefits Context - Economic and labour market conditions in the community - socio-cultural and religious factors - (aid-strategies) - educational knowledge & support infrastructure - public resources available for education - competitiveness of the teaching profession on the labour market - national governance & management strategies - philosophical standpoint of teacher & learner - peer effects - parental support - time available for schooling and homework - national standards - public expectations - labour market demands - globalisation While the framework is by no means the only one available or possible, it does provide a broad structure which can be used for the purpose of analysing policy choices for its improvement. The program of The Swallow is using this structure to develop a framework for improvement that comprehensively covers the interrelated components of the education system and allows opportunities for change and reforms to be identified.
4 P a g i n a 4 P r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Motivations The development of a framework for improvement is according the findings of the EFA and UN What we know about what matters for education quality is reflected in these conclusions: - First, an examination of country-specific experience reveals that very different school systems have produced either low of high average levels of achievement. Much is to be learned from further comparisons among and within countries. - second, debates within the education community regarding adequate teaching practices are not settled. Hence, experimenting with alternative practices is necessary, especially as progress towards Education for All results in enrolment of children from communities that were formerly socially distant from the school system. (EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005: Education for All, the Quality Imperative). A framework for improvement should contain the various dimensions of education Research and recommendations have been done on a broad scale of topics: literacy, health education, classroom environment, life skills,... How can these international recommendations be made useful at school level? We want to incorporate as much as possible of these topics in a general and holistic framework. For schools wanting to work on improvement, it will give a more covering overview on where to get started and what should be reached. A framework for improvement should be developed bottom-up & top down In lot of countries education is high priority. Governments are working on teacher trainings, educational materials, etc. Top down work only is not enough in education, however. Out of our practice in The Gambia we experienced that school by school, teacher by teacher have to be convinced on new policies and new ways of education. And it is only at the daily field work that real innovations can be developed. This bottom-up approach is supplementary to the efforts done by governments and international levels, in order to convince people at micro level about the suitability of a general framework. The link between and translation from theoretical research to education in practice is therefore an important point of attention. A framework for improvement should be useful & practical for the target groups Quality education has to consider the needs of people, especially in conditions where basic needs of children and adults are not fulfilled. Schools will have to incorporate actions to fulfil the immediate basic needs of their students at the short end, and training programs for the skills (future) adults need to take care of their own basic needs. Quality education has to consider as well, the difficult conditions of education in developing countries: lack of educational resources, unqualified teachers, etc. Facts and findings, recommendations and proposals coming out of this research, should be expressed in understandable language, at the level of school & class work. In the developed framework existing research & literature can be integrated, bottom-up approaches can be showed, various opinions and methods can be covered. It should be a practical instrument for schools and educationalists willing to work for better education. A framework for improvement should be encouraging the initiatives of the target groups As advocates of emancipatory education, we would like to focus on encouragement and the effect of positive experiences. The development of the framework, based on positive examples, will confirm the schools and educationalists in their efforts, will stimulate active participation in the design of and in exchange about their own learning processes.
5 Intervention Indicators Sources Context GA (Dakar Framework for Action, 2000, United Nations: Goal 6: ) Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. SA Promoting a practical framework for basic schools in developing countries, for improvement of quality education. ER ER 1: Research towards best practices on improvement of quality education through the development of a practical framework, is executed. ER 2: Organisations on education and schools are supported for the improvement of quality education, through being informed on alternative practices of The Swallow, as example of best practices in The Gambia. ACT ER 1: Micro study of educational & pedagogical approach of The Swallow; by preparing, executing and reporting on an audit travel, organised by Afrodidact (vzw De Zwaluw) ~Phase 1: to develop an audit method (context, input, process, output) ~Phase 2: to execute the audit in The Gambia with a team of external experts ~Phase 3: to report on the audit ER 2: Promotion on the pedagogical approach; ~Phase 1: to develop a script with the details of the pedagogical approach, including the advises of the audit (in accessible English, with easy and practical information) -Phase 2: to publish the script & research results - Phase 3: to promote the publication, to inform & distribute the publication to organisations working on education. - To give background information and support to interested organisations/schools. The Dakar Framework expanded definition of quality sets out - the desirable characteristics of learners (healthy, motivated students), - processes (competent teachers using active pedagogies), - content (relevant curricula) - systems (good governance and equitable resource allocation). A framework for basic schools is developed, upgraded through research & debates, illustrated, published, promoted and available for basic schools in developing countries. The practical framework of The Swallow, that comprehensively covers the interrelated components of teaching& learning processes, is evaluated by external experts during an audit travel. A min of 100 organisations/schools are receiving information about the framework and pedagogical approach of The Swallow. Means: - 1 Program Coordinator (Els Salembier) - Collaboration of various external experts - Budget for preparation, audit travel and promotion. Yearly Global Monitoring Reports on Education for All, Unesco Publication of the framework. Report of the research done. Publication on the framework, including audit report. Report on organisations/ schools that received the publication. U N and their member countries are investing and working towards the Dakar Framework for Action. External experts with various backgrounds cooperate. Various donors and support are found for financial background. P r o p o s a l f o r a u d i t o f T h e S w a l l o w P a g i n a 5 Logical frame GA: general aims SA: specific aims ER: expected results ACT: activities
6 P a g i n a 6 P r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Focus point: audit travel The practical approach aims to assist basic schools en their improvement of educational processes. Expected result 1 of this program is: ER 1: Research towards best practices on improvement of quality education through the development of a practical framework, is executed. Objective of this research is not only theoretical studies. The practical approach aims to assist basic schools en their improvement of educational processes. The case study will be published as a script, a practice guide for schools searching for inspiration on improvement. The research questions raised are: Which are the components of the practical framework for improvement of quality education as adapted in basic school The Swallow (The Gambia)? Which are the indicators and outcomes of this approach? In which way are inputs and outcomes different from other Gambian schools? Which practical framework can be proposed for education in developing countries, that comprehensively covers the interrelated components of teaching& learning processes? Methods The research is organised and developed by the supporting non profit organisation of The Swallow in Belgium: vzw De Zwaluw. Phase 1: to develop an audit method (context, input, process, output). Phase 2: Micro study of the educational & pedagogical approach of The Swallow by a team of external experts, through a field visit, with observations, interviews, document studies and context observations. Phase 3: to report on the audit Description of approach according a general framework for understanding education quality. This projects is a multidimensional approach with focus on programs on basic needs of people: -physical needs -safety needs -belonging needs -esteem needs -cognitive needs -aesthetical needs -need for self-actualisation Timing -March 2014: composition of the team of external experts; fundraising -April 2014: preparation visit to The Swallow -May-September 2014: development of the audit method -October-November 2014: audit travel in The Gambia -December 2014: writing report. Team Organisation responsible for the audit travel is vzw De Zwaluw. A team with a variety of people with different background and input will be selected in Belgium. Input Scientific inputs pedagogical & primary level Prof. Dr. Ides Nicaise, HIVA Leuven Bart De Wilde & Pascal Lagaet, VSKO Gent didactical & nursery level Carine Van Overtveld, autonome kleuterschool Melsele Special needs, emancipating & society Belgian auditing system public relations Practical organisation Marleen Clissen, VVKBuO Brussel Jan Devos, Onderwijsinspectie Brussel Coco Jr Els Salembier
7 P r o p o s a l f o r a u d i t o f T h e S w a l l o w P a g i n a 7 by person total PREPARATIONS Office utensils & printing 150 PR and advertisement 150 Transport & communication 200 Total preparations 500 AUDIT TRAVEL (7p/7days) General functioning Plane tickets & Accommodation Daily allowances for expenses Transport in situ 200 Office utensils & printing 150 Specific activities Budget estimation for the Promotion of The Swallow framework Activities for target groups during audit 150 PR and advertisement 200 Visits to other schools a.o. 200 Total Audit Travel REPORT Office utensils & printing 500 PR and advertisement 200 Transport & communication 200 Total completion 900 GRAND TOTAL for audit travel PROMOTION Office utensils & printing PR and advertisement 500 Transport & communication 400 Expert allowances GRAND TOTAL for promotion 4.000
8 P a g i n a 8 P r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Focus point: Promotion of the pedagogical approach Expected Result 2 of this program is: ER 2: Promotion on the pedagogical approach. ~Phase 1: to develop a script with the details of the pedagogical approach, including the advises of the audit (in accessible English, with easy and practical information) -Phase 2: to publish the script & research results. - Phase 3: to promote the publication, to inform & distribute the publication to organisations working on education. To give background information and support to interested organisations/schools. Evaluation report from the Belgian Governement, 2007 Naam Belgische NGO : Bevrijde Wereld (BOLO) Naam land : Gambia Naam lokale partner: The Swallow (Centre for emancipating Education) Dossierbeheerder: Carol Durieux Bezoek uitgevoerd door : Carol Durieux, Manuela Ramis en Marc De Feyter op 14 april 2007 Beschrijving : The swallow is een educatief centrum, werkzaam sinds Het werkt via research, aanmaak educatief materiaal & methodes en promotie hiervan, aan het verspreiden van kwaliteitseducatie, vanuit emanciperend oogpunt. Binnen het programma van BOLO wordt 1 actie van de Swallow gefinancierd: Opbouw van een kennis en vormingscentrum omtrent voedselzekerheid in Serrekunda. Het centrale gegeven is een experimentele basisschool, waarrond de andere activiteiten draaien: het integreren van gezondheidsopvoeding, kinder- en jongerenwerking in het kader van voedselzekerheid en gezondheid, onderzoek en studie naar pedagogische aanpak, en het naar buiten brengen van vernieuwende educatieve materialen, teneinde ook andere scholen en educatieve organisaties te stimuleren om educatie te verbeteren en vernieuwen. Binnen deze actie is 1 coöperant tewerkgesteld. Subsidie : ,16 EUR In het volgende programma van the Swallow ( ) is er een verschuiving van de focus op educatie rond voedselzekerheid naar educatie rond andere topics. Om deze reden zal deze actie in het volgende programma van BOLO niet meer worden gefinancierd. STERKE PUNTEN : - De partner heeft verschillende inkomensgenerende activiteiten : verhuur van een winkel, gebruik groenten van de schooltuin, verkoop souveniers aan de bezoekers. Bovendien verwerft zij inkomsten via het oudercomité en scholen via internationale uitwisseling. - Jaarlijks volgen Belgische studenten (toekomstige leerkrachten) een stage in the Swallow, dit laat een uitwisseling toe omtrent inhoudelijke thema s enerzijds en het opzetten van experimentele settings/ontwikkelen van materiaal anderzijds - Participatieve werking: de doelgroepen worden sterk betrokken (kinderen, jongeren en ouders) - Er is een duidelijke overdrachtstrategie uitgewerkt die zal toelaten dat the Swallow op het einde van het programma zonder hulp van de coöperante en zonder subsidies van DGOS naar behoren kan blijven functioneren. - Aangezien in Gambia binnen het onderwijs weinig aandacht wordt geschonken aan voedselzekerheid, zijn de activiteiten van the Swallow uiterst relevant. - Het oudercomité heeft een sturende functie. De leden van het oudercomité worden verkozen en komen 1 maal per maand samen. Zij geven advies aan de partner en sturen bij daar waar het nodig is. - De educatieve materialen worden aangemaakt in overeenkomst met het nationale curricula (department van educatie) zodat deze in alle officiële erkende scholen kunnen worden gebruikt - Meerdere organisaties zijn geïnteresseerd in de educatieve materialen aangemaakt door the Swallow waardoor er een samenwerking groeit met meerdere organisaties. Vooral de kleuter en lagere scholen in Gambia zijn geïnteresseerd. ZWAKKE PUNTEN : De Gambiaanse overheid geeft geen steun aan dit soort organisaties wat maakt dat ze voor 100% afhankelijk zijn van externe financiering of eigen middelen.
9 P r o p o s a l f o r a u d i t o f T h e S w a l l o w P a g i n a 9 Focus point: The Swallow The Swallow, Centre of Emancipating Education (The Gambia) is the fieldwork where this program is based on. From this initiative, the plans for research and network are developed. In this bottom-up approach, the basic work should not be forgotten. The Swallow will still function as a test case for the implementation of the quality school model, and will therefore be continued supporting. The specific objective for the program of The Swallow is: improving quality of education in The Gambia, through an emancipatory approach. Methods The Swallow will: - advocate emancipating education in The Gambia; - show a model school, execute research and develop learning and teaching methods; - support nursery and primary schools towards a more emancipating approach; - establish links between South and North to strengthen the dissemination of emancipating education. As the learner is at the heart of the learning process, so the school is at the centre of the education system. Reforms to improve quality should give appropriate weight to enabling schools to improve their own per- formance. Schools however, cannot effect meaningful change without sufficient capacity and considerable ongoing support. This support is covered by this research, for the pedagogical inputs, and by various sponsors (with Art for Africa as main sponsor and the Belgian Province of West-Flanders as sponsor on infrastructure) for the financial inputs.
10 P a g i n a 10 P r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d s Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l Official report from The Gambia: CCM SCHOOL VISIT 2013/06/28 TEAM MEMBERS ALH MUSA N SUSO TEAMLEADER ALH. OUSMAN BAH ABDOUBACARR JALLOW MARTIN GOMEZ HADDY JACK PA AMAT SECKA CLUSTER MONITOR OMAR BARROW DRIVER BAMFA SAMBOU DRIVER STUDENTS PERFORMANCE NAT GRADE 3: ENG 86, MATHS 71, INTEGRATED STUDIES 64 NAT GRADE 5: 100% PASS FOR ALL SUBJECTS LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT School vision and mission FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgeting projections done. Financial plan in place meeting all indicators. Bank Account with Trust Bank. Cash book available and up to date. Receipt and vouchers available. Auditing done and reports provided accordingly. in place. School improvement Plan available and approved by SCHOOL POLICIES SMC chair. All required policies available. Policy content meet minimum standards. MISSION STATEMENT Welcome at The Swallow (picture not available) Cluster: BAKOTEH ANNEX Name of school: THE SWALLOW LOWER BASIC SCHOOL Type of school: LOWER BASIC AND NURSERY Name of Headmaster: ANNETTE JAITEH Cluster Monitor: PA AMAT SECKA ASSETS MANAGEMENT Asset register available but assets not valued. Maintenance register available meeting all requirements. Handing over report being prepared currently. STAFF MANAGEMENT Attendance and punctuality up to date with the minimum targets met. Punctuality and attendance data available up to date and analyzed. Performance management plan in place. Staff training team established and plan in place. Classroom observation conducted and documented. SCHOOL DATA Enrolment, transition and completion data documented and analyzed. Data on instructional hours available and analyzed. Student performance data available, documented and analyzed. Personnel data well kept. Inside the classroom Food time Disabled child... CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT WORK PLANNING AND LESSON LESSON DELIVERY ORGANISATION OF TEACHING TIME PREPARATION There is evidence of lesson plans Classroom Organisation indicators met. Regional calendar available and developed with all indicators met. Method of delivery suitable to the there is evidence of SMC and PTA Teaching learning aids well pre- minimum standards. being informed about its content. School calendar available. pared used. Curriculum enrichment activities Presentations of lessons exemplary. Composite time table and class done. Teaching and learning resources time table available. indicators met? also those of behaviour management.
11 P r o p o s a l f o r a u d i t o f T h e S w a l l o w P a g i n a 11 ASSESMENT SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Home work is given at least twice a week, marked and feedback given. COMMUNITY PARTICIAPTION PTA constitution adopted accord- Classrooms well furnished. Offices and staffroom kept clean and Continuous and assessment indi- ingly. tidy. cators in place except for written PTA/SMC active. Kitchen and food store indicator more assignment feedbacks. Internal and external exams indica- Participatory performance monitoring indicators in place. than met. A well kept toilet facilities and school tors met Evidence of community participa- yard. Feedback on performance given tion in the maintenance of school Functional school garden in place. and documented. facilities. STUDENT WELFARE TEACHING AND LEARNING Model school feeding program where RESOURCES food is served free to both staff and Core and supplementary text students. books available. Teaching equipment such as gar- No school food service in place as food is provided by the school at zero cost. den, PE and Home economics ones Extracurricular activities indicators are available. met. Local materials used. Library indicators met. School is well secured, with relevant safety and security indicators met. Resources in a class... Nursery level 3 and 4 INDICATORS UNDER THE CON- CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT TROL OF THE RED AND HQ s DIRECTORATES Organisation of teaching time: Regional calendar, teaching and LEADERSHIP AND MANAGE- learning aids, classroom organisa- MENT: tion and use of teaching & learning Source of life clean water area School improvement plan approved by RED. RED is not signatory to their account. Landing over report not done previous but now done. resources indicators met. Core and supplementary text books available for all grades. Cluster monitor involved in the development and preservation of local materials School should be used as a model centre for other schools to visit Monitoring and Quality Assurance All indicators met, including community, SMT and a system in place. Quality analysis done. Substantial positions filled but no trained mentor Performance management indicators met. School not trained on PPM and school management due to being private. TOTAL SCORE out of 100: 92,99 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Classrooms adequate, suitable and well furnished. Offices and staffroom well furnished and suitable. Toilet facilities surpassed the minimum standards. Water and hygiene standards are high. MONTORING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE External Monitoring: Cluster monitoring done according to minimum standards; RED monitoring done except for visit by itinerant teachers even though the school has a child with SEN; no monitoring done by HQ Directorates. OBSERVATIONS The staff are cooperative and well motivated. The school is well resourced. Food is provided at no cost to all staff and children. No fees are paid by pupils and stationery is provided in fact they continue to sponsored their pupils up to grade 9. Toilets well built and kept. Management eager to learn. There is child with SEN who made the school to make a ramp. RECOMMENDATIONS HQ monitoring should be done. Itinerant teacher needs to visit all schools to help children with SEN. Private schools should be involved in PPM another quality Assurance trainings done. Assets should be numbered and valued. School should be used as a model centre for other schools to visit.
Meerjarenplan Steunpunt VLAS Vlaams Armoedesteunpunt Promotor-coördinator: Danielle Dierckx, Centrum OASeS, Universiteit Antwerpen Publicatiedatum: 15/12/2011 P a r t 3 A c r o n i e m : V L A S Pagina
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