# Krisis TABLE OF CONTENTS. Tijdschrift voor actuele filosofie. Articles HENK BORGDORFF ARTISTIEK ONDERZOEK IN HET GEHEEL VAN DE WETENSCHAPPEN 56-70

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1 Tijdschrift voor actuele filosofie TABLE OF CONTENTS Krisis, 2009, Issue 1 Special issue RUTH BENSCHOP STST ON ART AND THE ART OF STS: AN INTRODUCTION 1-4 PETER PETERS RETRACING OLD ORGAN SOUND. AUTHENTICITY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ARTISTIC ARGUMENTS 5-19 VIVIAN VAN SAAZE DOING ARTWORKS. AN ETHNOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE ACQUISITION AND CONSERVATION OF NO GHOST JUST A SHELL RUTH BENSCHOP EXPERIMENTING THE LISTENER. SOUND ART AND THE DOING DONE TO AUDIENCE MATTHIJS VERSTEEGH SOCIOLOGY AND SCIENCE. A SHORT CONSTROVERSY STUDY ABOUT REMBRANDT S PAINTING Articles HENK BORGDORFF ARTISTIEK ONDERZOEK IN HET GEHEEL VAN DE WETENSCHAPPEN KOEN BEUMER HET DOMESTICEREN VAN DE RAT. MENS-RATRELATIES IN DE TWINTIGSTE EEUW Reviews GIJS VAN OENEN FILOSOFIE VAN DE PRAXIS: WAT LOLLE NAUTA (NIET) HEEFT NAGELATEN THEO DE WIT WALTER BENJAMIN EN CARL SCHMITT OVER DE HEILSBETEKENIS VAN POLITIEKE KRACHTEN EN MACHTEN CHRISTOPHE ANDRADES KUNNEN STUDENTEN DE ACADEMIE REDDEN? GUUS DIX FOUCAULT EN HET (NEO)LIBERALISME TON GROENEWEG VOLUMINOUS QUESTIONS

2 Journal for contemporary philosophy RUTH BENSCHOP STS ON ART AND THE ART OF STS: AN INTRODUCTION 1 Krisis, 2009, Issue 1 The laboratory life of TRF (thyrotropin-releasing factor), Pasteur s microbes, scallops in St Brieuc Bay, bicycles, surgical procedures, amateurs and professionals in Berkeley s museum of vertebrate zoology, Gino, case studies. 2 This somewhat arbitrary list of some of the things that Science and Technology Studies (STS) 3 scholars have studied over the years gives a good indication of what might yet be studied: the sky is the limit! So why then is Damien Hirst s diamond inlaid skull not on this list? Or Picasso s Guernica, or Samuel Beckett s Waiting for Godot? I exaggerate, of course. Although For the Love of God has not, as far as I know, been scrutinized by an STS-researcher, the world of art has not been completely unexamined from an STS perspective. Often, however, art has been studied as an extension of questions about science, for instance, its history and shared roots, the role of artists in creating the visual apparatus used by scientists, or science and its imagined future in film and fiction. This special issue aims to sketch the area in which independent STS research particularly Actor Network Theory inspired STS research of the arts might move, as well as naming some possible effects on STS of studying artistic objects. Besides showing that the arts can be investigated with STS questions and approaches, this introduction also aims to identify some of the innovations STS will have to make in order to continue doing so fruitfully. I will start by indicating three reasons why STS might be interested in studying the arts, after which I will turn to some of the challenges such a study would face, meanwhile indicating thematically the body of research that has already made my makeshift list. STS has always tended to focus on worlds that have strong ideological claims truth, progress, health as well as societal clout. A quick and dirty history of STS would say that in the early days, scholars with an interest in, as well as a societal concern about, science started breaking open the ivory towers of science. They showed how science was like any other kind of work and how technology does not work by itself, and in doing so, aimed at analysing the content of these practices as much as their procedures. As the topic list above shows, gradually, they turned to other objects of study, each with its own brand of self-grandifying narrative deserving to be laid bare. More specifically, STS has three areas of interest that make the arts a relevant object of study: (1) STS research into subjectivity and the senses, (2) STS interest in technology and materiality, and (3) STS interest in boundaries between science and other societal realms, such as the arts. First of all, the focus on subjectivity and the senses. While in the beginning, STS focussed on what might be considered the hardest cases the natural sciences and on technologies that you can actually touch gradually, researchers began to study social and more applied sciences and technologies. Medicine in particular became well-researched. The objects of study here were maybe less tangible, but their societal import no less real. Not only things turned out to be heterogeneously constructed, but subjects too. With this interest in the construction of the subject came a new focus (and an old Foucaultian one) on techniques of the subject. The question shifted from how patients, women, men, artists became defined heterogeneously, and in practice as particular entities with their own characteristics, habits and inclinations, to how over time the maintenance of such subjects was done. Ways of tasting, of childbearing, of listening were described as ongoing, mundane and mutual processes of attunement of objects and subjects, no longer distinguishable in that process. Crucial to understand these processes of attunement were the classic intermediaries: the senses. Research on what those senses sense focused on the expertise of everyday experiences, but gradually came to include more elite areas as well, such as tasting wine and listening to music. After all, from a 1

3 Journal for contemporary philosophy Ruth Benschop STS on Art and the Art of STS: Introduction perspective that starts from users everyday expertise, anything users spend time doing became a possible object of study, resulting in a democratization of attention for both the commercial products of popular culture as well as of the non-commercial products traditionally associated with the arts. Secondly, STS research into materiality and technology also suggest the arts as an interesting object of study. From a focus on the production of technology, via an interest in users input in production, STS has increasingly begun to focus on practices of usage especially as they are shown to be inextricably wound up with methods of production. Notably, interest in sound and the technological practices involved in the making of and listening (or trying to refrain from listening) to it has resulted in the burgeoning interdisciplinary field of sound studies, bringing together approaches from STS, cultural studies, and the history of the senses. In this field, music from its most mundane appearance as ringtone or pop on the radio, to the highbrow culture of experimental music is one of the sonic objects studied. More broadly, STS interest in material and technological practices of use suggest why we do not find studies of Guernica or For the Love of God, or if we do, why they are not immediately recognizable as such. For as STS scholars do elsewhere, their studies of the arts focus mainly on backstage, practical and preparatory activities constituting works of art or people s engagement with these works. Finally, the arts come into focus from the STS interest in boundaries, boundary crossing and interdisciplinarity. STS scholars increasingly focus their attention on the boundaries between art and science: Both from a sense that the arts and sciences should not be so far apart as they now often seem to be, as from the observation that amalgams are emerging that cannot meaningfully be described either as art or science. The movement from the side of the arts is particularly striking. Artists can be seen to engage in science and technology in a variety of ways: as parasite, critic, participant observer, co-researcher, employee, customer, etc. Their engagement with the very objects STS researchers commonly study is interesting given the mutual interest STS and the arts have in intervention. What seems to be developing is a hotchpotch of STS scholars as well as artists studying and intervening in science and technology, as STS scholars at the same time begin to study the interweaving of the arts and sciences. What might practices of intervention by STS scholars in the arts look like, given the artists own politics of intervention? And what does this concern with (politics of) intervention within the arts mean for STS and its own concerns about intervention? And in particular, how should STS deal with artists growing interest in art as a public arena for political debate? These last questions draw attention to the issue of how the study of the arts might affect STS itself. As STS research of science has continually needed to contend with scientists counterarguments against its constructivist claims, as well as developing a reflexive discourse and methodology to try and develop further its own empiricist style of research, and its inferred truth-claims, the question is what the study of the arts will engender in STS itself. A couple of issues readily suggest themselves. First of all, STS will have to elaborate how its approach and findings might relate to existing research of the arts (aesthetics, art history, psychology & sociology of art, phenomenology of art, etc). Such domains have much more to say about how art is experienced, how to situate artistic works in relation to their art historical tradition, as well as matter- of- factly providing criteria to aesthetically evaluate and differentiate artistic products and artistic creativity. How will STS contribute to appraising the value of the arts from its common habit of insisting on ordinariness, heterogeneous ensembles and trivial work? Or how will it change how such appraisals are supposed to be made? Secondly, and related to this, STS scholars are not alone in starting to analyze the arts, art scholars as well as artists themselves are starting to use STS concepts and approaches as well as cooperating with STS scholars (think for instance of the presentations and discussions between artists, curators, art critics and historians and STS scholar Bruno Latour on current notions of producing knowledge in contemporary artistic practices organized at BAK in Utrecht, the Netherlands in ). How should STS take account of this increasing interweaving of object and method of approach? Particularly since, thirdly, the arts is an area that often shares some of the debunking, deconstructing and wakeup-calling habits belonging to STS. Do ways of theorizing and methods of research that STS scholars have developed over the years work for the arts as well, or are innovations (or modesty) necessary? Can STS learn from 2

4 Journal for contemporary philosophy Ruth Benschop STS on Art and the Art of STS: Introduction the way in which contemporary artists interfere for example from highly controversial interventionist work by Martijn Engelbregt who incited heated debate by sending out official looking forms inviting people in Amsterdam to report any illegal immigrants they might know. The main aim of the project was to discover how people would react. It s art in the form of a research, says Engelbregt. 5 or are artists interventions too asymmetrical for STS? Tentative answers? An STS approach to the arts would resist a categorical evaluation of artistic effort and consequently insist on analyzing specific cases and the vocabularies associated with them in order to suggest ways in which the artworld (cf. Becker 1982) itself defines, differentiates and evaluates art. Moreover, rather than applying set analytical tools, an STS approach would try to gain theoretical inspiration from the artworlds examined to understand not what is said about these worlds, but what is done to create and sustain them. And lastly, an STS approach would pay as much or maybe more attention to the constitutive role of moments, places and people that often are considered beside the point in understandings of art: so where the paint is made, when the composition is being rehearsed, who does the lighting, and who hums along on her daily jog. Together, these moves would allow for the articulation of questions that situate art in scattered, various and sometimes unexpected locations and moments. The issue starts with a contribution from Peter Peters introducing us to the specialist world of organ restoration. By analyzing two different styles of trying to recreate an old organ sound, he shows that what counts as an authentic sound depends on the material argument the reconstructed/ing organ makes. These arguments, at once scientific (related to the expertise of the restoration) and artistic (related to aesthetic expertise), belong to different traditions and thus enable different ways of reaching an aesthetic judgement. In the article he combines the third strand of STS attention for heterogeneous practices of science and art with the STS struggle to create normative standpoints from empirical descriptions. how works of art achieve permanency through specific practices of conservation that bear their mark on the work involved. Her PhD research, from which she has drawn this article, looks at current conservation practices of contemporary art. Contemporary art, more than the cliché traditional notion we have of art as paintings and sculptures, challenges conservation because of its conceptual nature and often fleeting materiality. In her article, van Saaze analyzes how the active and influential conservation of No Ghost Just a Shell, a seminal art project initiated by French artists Philippe Parreno and Pierre Huyghe, co-determines its nature. To understand and appreciate art today, she argues, necessitates the taking into account of such practices. In its attention for the background, mutual and ongoing work necessary to constitute a work of art, her article belongs to the second strand of STS interest in the arts, that of technology and materiality, as does my own article. My article uses STS research of scientific experiments to try and understand how in practice current sound artistic productions can be thought of as experimental. I argue that sound artists themselves use a loose notion of experimentation deriving from the genre of experimental music. In this view, sound art should engender, and be appreciated by, a free, experimental listener. During the article, I develop an understanding of several sound art productions of the Maastricht sound and music studio Intro in situ as attempts to interest listeners in ways that should be conceived as lying between the very oppositions of freedom and coercion experimental music uses to formulate its ideal listener. Matthijs Versteegh takes us to what we (immediately) associate with true art as well as classic STS: he focuses on two (supposed) Rembrandts and analyzes the experts debate on the issue. He uses the classic STS controversy study to great effect, particularly for art historians maybe not so used to this perspective, showing how the Rembrandts (or not) are an effect of the experts debate. Like Peter Peters focus on the organ restorers not-naïve attempts to retain or reclaim the authentic organ sound, Vivian van Saaze also analyzes 3

8 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound to do research that was meant to recreate the original sound of renaissance and baroque music. Pioneering musicians like Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Gustav Leonhardt and Frans Brüggen played on restored original instruments or replicas, they played from critical edition texts and they adjusted the size of choirs, orchestras and ensembles to historical conventions. Musicians became researchers who studied autographs, sketches, and drafts of a composition. They based their interpretations on primary source materials ranging from instrumental and theoretical treatises to surviving instruments, iconography, historical archives, references in literature, journals, newspaper reports, sometimes letters, diaries, catalogues, advertisements, and for the post 1900 music, even recordings (Lawson and Stowell, 1999: 17-41). Critics of the early music movement argued that this scientific strategy resulted in performances that focused on mere sound and completely lacked the living, expressive qualities of the music. 4 Since the days of pioneering recordings of the works of Monteverdi and Bach by Harnoncourt and Leonhardt, baroque and classical repertory has become the domain of specialised conductors, musicians, ensembles and orchestras. European early music, which nowadays includes music as recent as from the 1920s, has been reinterpreted and recorded in a wide variety of historically informed performances and become an essential part of modern music culture. This development would have been impossible without the flourishing development in instrument building and restoration, making it possible for musicians to play string, wind, and keyboard instruments from different time periods. Surviving instruments were used to study and experiment with matters of technique, style, and interpretation. Instrument builders took these old instrument as a starting point to relearn old practices of instrument building. Again, this research was not just organological in character, but was part of an animated debate on what was called historically informed / inspired performance practice (HIP) (Lawson and Stowell, 1999; Haynes, 2007). The restoration and rebuilding of old church organs was closely related to the reinterpretation of early music by musician-researchers and the corresponding development of instrument building (Fidom, 2000). However, organs present a special case. They are large and expensive instruments, that were not simply replaced, but more or less continually extended and restored in different periods. In the 19 th and early 20 th centuries this often meant that large parts of the organ were removed, replaced, or that new elements were added. Old organs thus reflect the influence of ages. Traces of the original have been kept, but often in a changed state. A conference in Groningen in 1969 to commemorate the North German organ builder Arp Schnitger ( ), who built many organs in the northern provinces of the Netherlands and Germany, marked the start of a lively discussion on what could be called historically informed organ restoration (Davidsson, 2000). Existing organs should not be restored to the match the technical and artistic criteria of today, but rather brought back as much as possible to the state they were in when they were first built. The restoration of organs should be based on scientific research into the original disposition of the organ. 5 Interlude on Authenticity and Music The scientific goal of restoring organs to their original state is closely related to the artistic ideal to recreate its original sound. This combination of descriptive and normative intentions is expressed in the concept of authenticity that has been central to the debate on the performance of early music. 6 According to the analytic philosopher Peter Kivy (1995), we can distinguish between at least four ways to link the notion of authenticity in a meaningful way to musical performance practice. These are (1) faithfulness to the composer s performance intentions; (2) faithfulness to the performance practice of the composer s lifetime; (3) faithfulness to the sound of a performance during the composer s lifetime; and (4) faithfulness to the performer s own self, not derivative of or an aping of someone else s way of playing (Kivy, 1995: 7). Kivy then distinguishes between the practical question if these forms of authenticity are possible, and the normative question whether they are desirable. After he refuted the possibility of the first three forms, Kivy argues for a fourth kind of authenticity based on the individual style and originality of the performer. Where there is no such thing as authenticity in the singular, 7

9 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound he welcomes any mix of authenticities, that withstands the only relevant test there is: the test of listening (1995: 285). Kivy is not alone in his conclusion that the concept of authenticity in music represents an ideal to be aimed at, rather than an attempt to reproduce the actual past performance. To develop this point, Davies (2002) draws a contrast between performing and copying. Whereas copying could be done in a mechanical process, performing always involves the personal creativity of the performer. Performing must go beyond that which is given in order to present accurately what is given. But nothing not present in the original needs to be brought to copying (2002: 66-67). James O. Young (2002) takes a very different view, arguing that the concept of authentic performance is not a useful one. Because each age must interpret Bach for itself, there cannot be an authentic and ideal performance of a composition but, rather, many. If the early music movement has enriched musical experience, he argues, it is not by giving authentic performances, but by giving successful ones. [An early music performance] is valuable not because it bears some relation to past performances, but because present listeners find it artistically appealing (2002: 77). The American musicologist Richard Taruskin was one the first to defend the position that authenticity in musical performance has little to do with being faithful to anything that happened in the past, be it the composer s intentions, the actual sounds, or the practices of music making. In his essay The Pastness of the Presence and the Presence of the Past (1988, reprinted in Taruskin, 1995), he wrote: I am convinced that historical performance today is not really historical; that a thin veneer of historicism clothes a performance style that is completely of our own time, and it is in fact the most modern style around; and that the historical hardware has won its wide acceptance and above all its commercial viability precisely by virtue of its novelty, not its antiquity. (Taruskin, 1995: 102) By describing the authentic music movement as a profoundly modern approach to early music, Taruskin acknowledges the fact that any musical performance is historical in the sense that the present always actively participates. The pastness of the presence is as much implied by it as the presence of the past (Taruskin, 1995: 106). This discussion of authenticity is relevant for the topic of this paper. In the act of restoring organs, as in the performance of early music, the past is not only represented as a material reality, but also as an ideal. This underlines the ambiguity of the historical and applied research that is necessary to recreate the sound of Northern European organs from the 17 th and 18 th centuries. The primary goal of this research is not to answer the question how it really was. 7 Rather, as I will argue, it focuses on rendering relevant contexts that can be used as evidence in what is both a scientific and an artistic claim: the restoration of the sound of 1780 in its present beauty. As I will show in my first case study, backing up this claim implies that a passage is built that links the past to the present in a convincing way, both scientifically and artistically. Roden: Reconstructing Breathing Wind In 1780, the organ builder A.A. Hinsz completed an organ in the Catharina church in the small village of Roden, in the northern Dutch province Drenthe. The economy of the poor rural community was based on agriculture, and the organ was paid for by a wealthy lady who lived in a nearby borough, called De Mensinghe. Hinsz originally came from Hamburg in North Germany, where he was influenced by the great organ builder Arp Schnitger. In 1728, he moved to Groningen and he became one of the most sought-after organ builders of his time. After it had installed the Hinsz organ, Roden became part of what could be called the organ geography of Groningen. 8 The Hinsz organ came with two keyboards, a pedal board, a disposition consisting of 17 stops, and some playing aids, such as the possibility to couple the manuals (Tuinstra, 2006a). After the organ had been revised in the nineteenth century and renovated in the 1930 s and 1950 s of the last century, it was recently restored in

11 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound could be trod by foot (Boerema, 2006). This reintroduced the breathing wind in the organ and thus gave it its original tone quality: The breathing wind gives the old organ sound a certain suppleness and tunefulness, that makes it more lively and less stiff. A correct dimensioning of the wind system renders a balanced tone and gives us a very artistic means of expression. (Interview scientific adviser). The tuning of the pipes and the restoration of the wind system in the Hinsz organ in Roden are exemplary for the way in which the team tried to build a convincing argument for the claim that the sound it now produces is the sound of This argument consists of heterogeneous elements: the original material still present in the organ; written sources like the test report from 1780; the knowledge of the original organgeography, i.e. the local knowledge, practices, habits, measurings, and musical routines that can be deduced from similar organs in the North of Holland. It also consists of the intersubjective artistic judgements that result from the dialogue between the scientific adviser, the organ builder and the church organist. Göteborg: Casting Pipes on Sand Whereas in Roden old sound was produced by restoring an existing organ, the North German Organ Research Project at Göteborg University took a wholly different approach to reach the same goal. This project aimed at building a copy of the 1699 Schnitger organ in the Lübeck Dom, that was destroyed during a bombing raid in 1942, and of which only some photographs remain. In its time it was a famous organ. Johann Sebastian Bach travelled on foot all the way from Thüringen near Weimar, to Lübeck, to hear this organ and its organist, Dietrich Buxtehude. The scholars and craftsmen in the project that started in the early 1990s and was financed, among others, by the Swedish government and the European Union, built the new organ in the Örgryte church, one of the larger churches in Göteborg. The aim of the project was to gain the theoretical and practical knowledge and experience necessary to construct, in a Swedish church, an organ in the way it might have been built by Arp Schnitger in the late 17 th century in North Germany. Building an exact copy of the Lübeck Dom organ would be impossible, if only because it would not fit in the Swedish church. The ambition was therefore to come as close as possible to the language of Schnitger: So, using the most coherent collection of pipework to survive from any Schnitger organ, we tried to learn about the craft processes that produced the original object, in order to perform them well enough to build a new object in the same language as the original. [...] Schnitger and his fellow organ builders knew what an organ looked like and sounded like, because they knew the patterns of the language that made up all of the things that it would have to do. [...] The historical instruments themselves have to be read just like any other primary source, to coax out and define what the pattern language really was for the Arp Schnitger school of organ building. Then the ways of working had to be understood, copied, tried out, and finally performed, in a continuous dialectic interplay between theory and practice. (Speerstra, 2003: 18 and 19). This quote is taken from a 400 page edited volume written by many authors, all of whom were involved in the project. It offers a detailed documentation of the ten year process. First, it describes how the dimensions of the new organ were deduced from the three remaining photographs of the organ in the Lübeck Dom by analyzing the position of the photographer, the distance to the organ façade, the relative angles, etc. It continues to document the construction of the organ case and the carvings, both made from Swiss oak. Much attention is paid to documenting the construction of the wind system and the pipes. Compu-ter simulations and full-scale model experiments were done to under-stand the wind flows in the wind supply system, from the bellows to the pipe feet. A method was reconstructed for casting the metal for the organ pipes on sand, according to seventeenth-century practice. In order to create a comparative perspective in which the Roden case and the Swedish project can be compared, I focus on two aspects of the project: the organ s pipes and the wind system. 10

13 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound In modern organ building traditions, the casting bench is made of stone or wood and it is covered with a cloth. In some earlier traditions, however, the casting bench was covered with a layer of sand. An important question was whether the material properties of the pipe metal were dependent on using sand or cloth when casting. When cast on sand, the quality of the pipe metal was very different from the metal that was cast on cloth. This had to do with the amount of time it takes for the metal to cool down. The sand bed causes a quick decrease in temperature, which results in a harder metal. According to the researchers, the casting temperature, the type of sand, and even the proportions of trace materials in the metal all had an effect on the end result. Figure 2: Slanted casting bench, Plate LXIV from Dom Bédos, LArt du facteur d orgues (1770). Source: Speerstra, 2003: 173. If the casting bench is moved at a constant speed, the metal sheet thins out toward the end, a characteristic that the 17 th century organ builder calculated. Historic pipes are often thinner at the top, and therefore weigh less at the top than at the bottom, giving better stability and simultaneously a better resonance in sound. (Carlsson [et.al.], 2000: 41) Figure 3: Turning the cast sheet onto a rolling cart. Sand can be seen clinging to the underside of the sheet. Source: Speerstra, 2003: 212. Researchers in the project tried to relearn the practice of casting metal sheets for organ pipes by finding answers to questions such as: did Schnitger cast on sand or cloth? If he cast on sand, what sand layer thickness did he use? What type of sand did he use? Did he mix any oil or water into the sand and if so, what type of liquid and how much did he use (see Figure 3). In a popularized account of the Swedish organ project, published under the title Tracing the Organ Master s Secret, the authors hint at the somewhat romantic image of craftsmen trying to unravel the secrets of the old organ master: 12

14 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound Pipe casting is also its own art! Slow and careful training is required to be able to control the outcome of the casting process. [...] The material was respected, and both the sound and stability of the pipes maintained the most favorable quality. Workers skilled in traditional handcrafts have always operated with a great respect for the quality of traditional material, dimensions, the design, and size and shape of hand tools. This perspective reveals a complex interaction with significant implications for the end results, in our case, the acoustical quality of the organ pipes. (Carlsson [et.al], 2000: 16). Comparing Roden and Göteborg Comparing the ambitious North German Baroque Organ project to the restoration of the Hinsz organ in Roden is of course problematic in many ways, considering the differences in scope, means and goals. The main similarity lies in the fact that both projects aimed at reconstructing the sound of the past. In both cases, this is done by studying the knowledge and practices of 17 th and 18 th century organ builders and trying to understand the material language they spoke in building their instruments. In both cases we see a combination of scientific research methods and artistic debates on the preferred end result. The main difference is that in the case of Roden, the passage to the past had a clear destination: an original organ embedded in a historical organ geography, that provided contexts for the decisions the organ restorers had to make. In the case of the Swedish organ the destination was not so much an existing organ, but a sound ideal, the sound of the North-German baroque organ as Arp Schnitger used to build. To reach this destination, the past was brought to the present by studying many different organs: the bellows came from Zwolle, the wind system from Magdeburg and Zwolle, the dimensions of the organ façade from Lübeck, the wood from Switzerland, the wind system from the computer simulations at Chalmers University. 14 If both projects mobilize the past in different ways, what can be said of the different notions of authenticity that are established in the process of restoring an old organ or building a copy of a historic organ? Neither the restoration team in Roden nor the scholars / craftsmen in Göteborg are as naïve to think that they could actually reproduce old sound in the literal sense. However, this does not mean that the organ restorers and builders have given up the artistic ideal of original sound. Achieving this goal, however, does not depend on the availability of an original instrument, as was the case in Roden. As Harald Vogel, a German organist and organ scholar who was active in the Swedish project, writes: We have actually come to the point now where replicas come closer to the original sound than the surviving originals themselves. Building new instruments in historical styles is a path that we must take in the future. There are two reasons why we cannot take our antique instruments closer to their original state then they are now. The first is that there are additions to the original material that we cannot take away. The second is that, in restorations, we have not gone far enough in many respects. I think, therefore, that the Göteborg project is a turning point in the history of restoration and replica in Europe: ideally, restoration should always be related to a replica. (Harald Vogel in Speerstra, 2003: 345.) This statement resonates with a claim that Bruno Latour made in a recent article in which he attacks the notion of the original in art. Great art is not a point of origin, he argues, but a trajectory, that can be compared to a river. 15 A given work of art should be compared not to any isolated locus but to a river s catchment, complete with its estuaries, its tributaries, its dramatic rapids, its many meanders and of course also with several hidden sources. [...] To give a name to this catchment area, we will use the word trajectory. A work of art no matter of which material it is made has a trajectory. (Latour, 2008) Latour argues that it is useless to focus on the source, and forget about the trajectory. On the contrary, it is precisely the quality of the trajectory that renders the originality and the strength of a work of art. In the end, all art is reproduced constantly, be it in the performing arts through performances, or the visual arts in museums. Translating Latour s metaphor to organ restoration, we could say that the work scholars and practitioners 13

17 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound of a performer, as was done in the days of musical romanticism. In terms of art criticism, analyzing aesthetic frames thus helps to specify the often implicit criteria that are used to distinguish between what Latour calls good and bad reproductions. Retracing old organ sound by studying the work of organ restorers and builders of replicas at first seemed to entail an upstream passage to a silent world of authentic sounds. In fact, what they do is to construct material arguments and thus add new downstream tributaries and branches. In other words, their research does not restore something that was already there, but can be seen as a form of continuous artistic innovation. Acknowledgements I am grateful to Ruth Benschop and Johan Luijmes, as well as well as two anonymous referees for Krisis, for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Peter Peters is assistant professor at the Department of Philosophy of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences of Maastricht University and professor in the research centre Autonomy and the public sphere in the Arts of Zuid University, Maastricht. He has published Time, Innovation and Mobilities (Routledge, 2006). In the 1990s, he was editor of the Dutch journal Mens en Melodie and published Zoeken naar het ongehoorde (1994) and Eeuwige Jeugd: Een halve eeuw Stichting Gaudeamus (1995). He can be reached via: References Augé, M. (1995). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. London: Verso. Boerema, H. (2006) De longen van het Hinsz-orgel. In: Nes, A. van & H. Boerema (eds). Het Hinsz-orgel in de Catharina-kerk te Roden. Roden: Stichting tot Behoud van het Hinsz-orgel te Roden. Booth, W.C. [et.al.] (2003) The Craft of Research. [second edition]. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Carlsson, A. [et.al.] (2000) Tracing the Organ Masters Secrets. The Reconstruction of the North German Baroque Organ for Örgryte Nya kyrka. Goteborg: GOArt. Davidsson, H. (2000) Orgelbouw in Noord-Europa sinds 1969: historische interesse en vernieuwing. In: Fidom, H. (ed.) (2000) Het orgel: een historisch instrument. Vier lezingen over historiserende orgelbouw. Groningen: Stichting Groningen Orgelland, Davies, S. (2002) Authenticity in musical performances. In: Neill, A. & A. Ridley (eds). Arguing About Art. Contemporary Philosophical Debates. London: Routledge. Dijk, Peter van. (2000) Van neobarok tot historiserend : een koersverandering in de Nederlandse orgelbouw. In: Fidom, H. (ed.) (2000) Het orgel: een historisch instrument. Vier lezingen over historiserende orgelbouw. Groningen: Stichting Groningen Orgelland, Fidom, H. (ed.) (2000) Het orgel: een historisch instrument. Vier lezingen over historiserende orgelbouw. Groningen: Stichting Groningen Orgelland. Harnoncourt, N. (1985) Musik als Klangrede. Wege su einem neuen Musikverständnis. Kassel: Bärenreiter. Haynes, B. (2007) The End of Early Music. A Period Performer s History of Music for the First Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kivy, P. (1995) Authenticities. Philosophical Reflections on Musical Performance. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. 16

20 Journal for contemporary philosophy Peter Peters Retracing old Organ Sound 14 The contrast of between the historic and geographic situatedness of the Roden organ and the placelessness of the Swedish copy reminds of the distinction between places and non-places that Augé (1995) makes. 15 I thank Vivian van Saaze for pointing out this article to me. 16 I take this model from Booth [et.al.], who in turn refer to the Toulmin argument formalism. Building a material argument can be compared to what Latour (1987) describes as science in action : To determine the objectivity or subjectivity of a claim, the efficiency or perfection of a mechanism, we do not look for their intrinsic qualities but at all the transformations they undergo later in the hands of others. (Latour, 1987: 258). Material arguments can thus be seen as a gamut of weaker and stronger associations (ibid., p. 259). 19

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