Authors: Sofie Vandendrïessche, Lies Vansteenbrugge, Kris Hostens, and Hannelore Maelfait. ijy o _. tl leo

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1 Instituut vr LandbuwíX l?n Visserijnderzek JELLYFISH, JELLYPRESS AND JELLYPERCEPTION ILVO MEDEDELING nr 142 nvember 2013 S. Vandendriessche L. Vansteenbrugge K. Hstens v I W ^-G X S ^8>Q >-. / i V H. M aelfait(1) I (1) PAK (Prvinciaal A nkerpunt Kust) 0Landbuw en Visserij

2 Jellyfish, jellypress and jellyperceptin ILVO MEDEDELING nr 142 nvember 2013 ISSN Wettelijk Dept: D/2013/10.970/142 S. Vandendriessche L. Vansteenbrugge K. Hstens H. M aelfait(1) (1) PAK (Prvinciaal A nkerpunt Kust)

3 JELLYFISH, JELLYPRESS A N D JELLYPERCEPTION Prject MEMO, activity 3 Final reprt - Belgian case study Study cnducted within the framewrk f the Interreg IVa 2 Seas prject M EMO (" M nem ipsis eclgy and mdeling: Observatin f an invasive cmb jelly in the Nrth Sea")

4 Authrs: Sfie Vandendrïessche, Lies Vansteenbrugge, Kris Hstens, and Hannelre Maelfait Cver: cpyright M erh - Kiekebe album "De Medusa Stichting" ijy _ tl le Ifremer - ^ * C e f a S T be cited as: Vandendriessche S., Vansteenbrugge L., Hstens K., M aelfait H. (2013) Jellyfish, jellypress and jellyperceptin. ILVO mededeling nr 142, ISSN , 21pp. 2

5 Cntents Abstract...4 Intrductin...5 Material and Methds... 6 Study area... 6 Media search... 6 Questinnaire survey...6 Results... 7 Jellypress... 7 Jellyperceptin...10 Discussin Jellyperceptin in the turism industry: cmparisn with ther studies...14 Fisheries: interpretatin f anecdtes Jellypress versus jellyperceptin...16 Relevance t integrated castal zne management and research...17 Mnemipsis leidyi? References Annexes

6 Abstract During the last decades, the number f reprts n invasins and blms f jellyfish has increased, bth in scientific literature as in the general media. There is hwever n clarity abut a glbal rise f gelatinus Zplanktn due t the lack f extended tim e series, and due t the fact that public perceptin is ptentially driven by the media. Hwever, public perceptin is a key driver in plicy decisins, including castal zne gvernance and research funding. Cnsequently, it is useful t investigate the variability within public perceptin and the relatinship between media and public perceptin in the light f plicy. This was investigated within a case study at the Belgian cast regarding the perceptin n jellyfish and the cnsequences f jellyfish blms, based n the results f a questinnaire survey and a media search. The results indicate that perceptin is nly partly driven by the press if it cmes t jellyfish. Persnal experience seems t be at least equally imprtant as driver. Additinally, the results indicate that there is a large variatin in perceptin n jellyfish, in this study illustrated by the differences in perceptin between beach turists and divers. The lack f knwledge abut differences between jellyfish species turns ut t be a key issue determining perceptin. Bth the variability in perceptin and the species issue are imprtant fr the incrpratin f the jellificatin prblem in integrated castal zne management. In first instance, it is imprtant t extend perceptin surveys t all grups directly and indirectly affected by jellyfish. By ding s, pprtunities may emerge fr cperatin between scientists, plicymakers and public parties in the frm f citizen science. Secndly, management actins cncerning jellyfish increases shuld include the prvisin f species-specific infrmatin, fr example by distributing leaflets and putting up warning bards n the beach. This wuld likely result in a higher acceptance f jellyfish, a better cmmunicatin between scientists and the public, and in a better quality f data in citizen science prgrams. 4

7 Intrductin During the last decades, the number f reprts n invasins and blms f jellyfish has increased, bth in scientific literature as in the general media (Cndn et al, 2012). Such invasins and blms can have a substantial impact n human activities, including the clgging f fishing nets and cling water intakes in pwer plants, an increase in stings amng turists, ecnmic lsses in the turism industry, and damage t aquaculture systems (Purcell et al, 2007; Ber, 2013). Given these smetimes dramatic cnsequences, the number f reprts has increased and the public, thrugh the media, became aware f the "cean jellificatin prcess" which is presumably driven by human impacts such as eutrphicatin, climate change, verfishing, hard substrate additin, aquaculture and transprt f nn-indigenus species (Richardsn et al, 2009; Purcell et al, 2007; Purcell, 2012). Hwever, histric data n jellyfish blms are very scarce, and althugh there is evidence f lcal and/r glbal jellificatin (Brdeur et al, 1999; Licandr et al, 2010; Brtz et al, 2012), Cndn et al (2012) have questined a glbal rise f gelatinus Zplanktn based n the lack f extended tim e series, and n the fact that public perceptin is ptentially driven by the media. Studies n public perceptin regarding jellyfish have recently been carried ut in Germany (Baumann, 2009; Baumann & Schernewski, 2012), in M alta (Ciantar, 2012), in France (Bnnet, 2013) and in Califrnia (Kaneshiri-Pinheir, 2013), and were based n data f jellyfish abundances and results f surveys. The evlutin f the number f jellyfish articles in the general media was analyzed by Cndn et al (2012), in which the number f Ggle News articles was cmpared with the number f scientific papers in W eb f Science in the perid In Germany, Baumann (2009) reprted n a similar analysis frm fur newspapers ver the last 30 years. Bth authrs fund an increase in the media reprts n jellyfish. The influence f the general media n public perceptin cncerning jellyfish, was hwever nt addressed in any f these studies. Hwever, public perceptin is a key driver in plicy decisins, including castal zne gvernance and research funding. Cnsequently, it is useful t investigate the variability within public perceptin and the relatinship between media and public perceptin in the light f plicy. This was investigated within a case study at the Belgian cast regarding the perceptin n jellyfish and the cnsequences f jellyfish blms. The study was triggered by the ccurrence f the nn-indigenus ctenphre Mnemipsis leidyi in Belgian waters (Van Ginderdeuren et al, 2012), and the subsequent threats t cmmercial activities such as fisheries and turism. The current study was designed t answer the fllwing research questins: 1 / W hat is the perceptin f peple frm the turism and fisheries industries n jellyfish and n the sci-ecnmic threats assciated with jellyfish blms? 2 / W hat are the main messages spread by the general media abut jellyfish and d these messages agree with the public knwledge and perceptin? The answers t these questins were discussed in the fram ewrk f integrated castal zne management. 5

8 M aterial and Methds Study area The study was carried ut at the Belgian cast. The Belgian part f the Nrth Sea (BPNS) is situated in the suthern bight f the Nrth Sea and is characterized by an intense explitatin f its natural resurces (e.g. fisheries, sand extractin, renewable energy) and a high level f disturbance (e.g. dredging, beam trawl activity, shipping, turism) (Maes et al, 2005). As such, it can be categrized as a regin with high human impact, where jellyfish culd prliferate and cause prblems (Purcell, 2012). Jellyfish blms f Chrysara hysscella, Aurelia aurita r Cyanea lamarckii have been reprted repeatedly in the general media, but the recent scientific interest in jellyfish was triggered by the bservatin f the nn-indigenus and ptentially invasive ctenphre Mnemipsis leidyi in Belgian waters (Van Ginderdeuren et al, 2012). The current analysis was carried ut as part f the internatinal prject MEMO, in which sci-ecnmic cnsequences f M. leidyi presence and abundance w ere investigated. Media search Using the digital press archive Mediargus (www.mediargus.be), all Flemish newspapers issued between January 1, 2000 and September 21, 2012 were searched fr articles featuring jellyfish. All results were entered in an Access database listing title, date, surce, species (if specified), regin (if specified), categry (health, science, cnsequences f blms, and drama) and key wrds (wrds that cnvey the cntent f the article, selected by the authr f this study). Every article was scanned fr mentins f causes and threats f, and slutins fr jellyfish blms. Fr the analysis, nly articles in which jellyfish were the key news item were retained. Mentins f jellyfish in travel reprts, in satiric clumns (in which 'jellyfish' is mstly used as a reprach), advertising and sprts items were nt used. Questinnaire survey Fr the survey, three grups were targeted, i.e. the turism industry, pwer plants with cling w ater intakes and the fisheries industry. Fr each grup, a questinnaire was develped. Since nly few peple knw the differences between species, the survey was generalized t "jellyfish", i.e. Scyphza, Flydrza and Ctenphra. The questinnaire fr the turism industry was adapted frm the ne develped within the GELAMED prject (Bnnet, 2013), while the pwer plant and fishermen surveys were develped within the MEMO prject (Schaafsma et al, 2013). In the turism industry questinnaire, the questins are all multiple-chice and clsed. They can be subdivided in (1) persnal infrmatin (gender, age, relatin t the cast), (2) persnal perceptin n jellyfish (experiences, emtins, bservatins) and (3) a persnal pinin n the imprtance f jellyfish increases and their cnsequences, n their causes and n plicy measures. The questinnaire features a general part fr all participants and specific parts nly filled ut by turists and recreants, prfessinals frm the turism industry r lcal fficials. These specific parts cnsider specificatins n turist activities (timing, type) and impact f jellyfish abundance n these activities, specificatins n prfessinal activities and perceived threats fr these activities, and perceived threats and pssible plicy measures, respectively. The fisheries and pwer plant surveys were less persnal, and cntained questins n bservatins f jellyfish, reactins f fishermen and industrials, and financial 6

9 lsses. Stries, persnal experiences and remarks frm respndents were listed and used in the interpretatin f the results. The questinnaire survey was dne in summer Questinnaires were distributed bth physically (field survey at the beach and dike f Ostende) and digitally ( survey). At the tim e f the field survey, jellyfish (C. hysscella) were present in the w ater and n the beach. Their abundance was mderate, i.e. turists and recreants never saw mre than five individuals in the w ater r n the beach n the day f the survey. Results Jellypress In ttal, 140 articles were used in the analysis. Since 2000, the ttal number f articles has steadily increased twards a peak in 2010 (fig 1). Abut a quarter f the articles dealt with lcal jellyfish news n the Belgian part f the Nrth Sea (BPNS). Their number remained lw with a mderate peak in 2005 and increasing numbers since = i t laii I lcal Figure 1. Evlutin f the num ber f articles featuring jellyfish in the Flemish general media since 2000 (all = general news; lcal = lcal news related t the Belgian Part f the Nrth Sea) In abut half f the articles, the jellyfish species was specified. The representatin f species differed substantially ver the years (fig. 2). The Nrth Sea jellyfish species were mentined mst and included Aurelia aurita, Chrysara hysscella, Cyanea lam arckiic yanea capillata and Rhizstma ctpus. Articles n Mnemipsis leidyi first appeared in 2000, reprting n its deleterius effects in the Caspian Sea. In 2010, the presence f this species in the Nrth Sea was first reprted in the press and kept getting press attentin in Reprts n ther species mstly riginated frm the Atlantic (UK and USA), the Mediterranean (especially Spain, which is a ppular hliday destinatin), and frm the Pacific (especially Australia and Japan)(fig. 3). 7

10 100% unspecified Turritpsis nutricla Tiburnia granrj Stmlphus nmurai Rhizstma ctpus Physalia physalis Carybdea marsupialis Pelagia nctiluca Mnemipsis leidyi Cyanea lamarckii Cyanea capillata Chrysara hysscella Chirnex fleckeri Carukia barnesi Aurelia aurita Figure 2. Evlutin f featured jellyfish species in the Flemish general media since Percent f articles mentining specific regin/cuntries/bassins Figure 3. Gegraphic rigins f jellyfish news appearing in Flemish general media Mst articles reprt n the ccurrence and cnsequences f jellyfish blms (71% f all articles, 87% f the articles cncerning the BPNS). Scientific findings (e.g. "Scientists make jellyfish frm a rat") accunt fr 14%, and health related tpics (e.g. cures fr stings) fr 4% f all articles (10% and 3% f the BPNS articles, respectively). Reprts n dramatic encunters with jellyfish accunt fr 12% f all articles, while nt a single drama article was published abut the BPNS. The headlines f these articles are usually quite spectacular (e.g. "Jellyfish kills wman in Sardinia"), and are predminantly abut encunters with Carukia barnesi and Chirnex fleckeri in Australia, r with Physalia physalis in suthern Eurpe. The tp 30 f key wrds reflects the general messages f the press releases. They mstly refer t (1) the causes and ecnmic cnsequences f jellyfish blms, and (2) the persnal risks invlved with (pisnus) jellyfish encunters. When nly cnsidering articles featuring M. leidyi, the key wrds are all abut the eclgical and ecnmic threats psed by this nn-indigenus species. 8

11 Table 1. Tp 30 f key wrds, subdivided in wrds referring t jellyfish blms and persnal risks. Bld red wrds represent the tp 2, bld black wrds represent the tp 10. j e l l y f i s h b l m s verfishing in festatin warm th glbal warm ing w ind fis h e rie s f d p llu ti n te m p e ra tu re c a tc h c lim a te change n e ts p la n k t n s tu d y p e r s n a l r is k s washed ashre t u rist swim beach pisn c h ild re n d e a d in n c e n t le th a l sea w a te r s u m m e r s m a ll s tin g p ain te n ta c le s a lle rg ic In 47% f the articles, specific causes f jellyfish blms were mentined, the mst imprtant nes being natural causes such as weather, currents r ppulatin dynamics, the lack f natural predatrs due t verfishing, and glbal warming. Specific threats and impacts were mentined by 41% f the articles. Impacts n fisheries and aquaculture, and cnsequences fr turism were by far the mst imprtant (fig. 4b). Slutins were mentined in nly 14% f the articles, f which the remval f jellyfish (in sme cases fr cnsumptin), the installatin f beach fences and the (re)intrductin f predatrs such as turtles were the mst cmmn (fig. 4c). The relative imprtance f causes, threats and slutins were hwever nt mentined in any f the articles. causes threats - impacts natural cl water intake/pwer plant shipping/ ballastwater pllutin/ eutrphicatin impact n turism/clsed beach verfishing/ lack f predatrs glbal warming/climate change impact n fisheries, fish stcks & aquaculture % f causes mentined % f threa ts m entined slutins - measures intrduce predatr stp verfishing Figure 4. Relative imprtance f causes, impacts and slutins fr jellyfish blms, as derived frm articles in the Flemish general media. remval/cnsumptin % f slutins mentined 9

12 Jellyperceptin In ttal, 69 questinnaires were cmpleted fr the turism industry. Only three fishermen respnded, s these results will be presented as anecdtal infrmatin. There were n respnses f representatives frm pwer plants with cling w ater intakes (table 2). The gender and age distributin amng participants f the turism industry survey was balanced with 53% men and 47% wmen, and with 13% 18 t 29 year lds, 24 % 30 t 39 year lds, 25% 40 t 49 year lds, 19% 50 t 59 years lds and 19% ver 60. Mst respndents (65%) visited the Belgian cast year rund fr recreatinal purpses, and tw enty percent f the respndents nly visited the cast during the summer mnths. Cmmercial activities carried ut by respndents, such as the explitatin f a surf club r a bar, cntinued year rund. Recreatinal activities carried ut by the respndents included running and walking (64% f respndents), swimming (32%), diving (41%), sunbathing (18%), sailing, surfing, shpping, eating, fishing, sleeping etc. Since the respnses by divers (32) were abundant cmpared t the ther respnses frm the turism industry (37), these grups were treated separately in the analyses. Table 2. Number f respnses and used medium per survey grup turists - recreants 25 field survey divers 32 turism prfessinals 5 field survey lcal fficials 7 fishermen 3 pwer plants representatives 0 ^ T u ris m industry When asking respndents abut 5 wrds they assciate with jellyfish, the results are quite different fr divers and ther recreatinists (fig. 5): divers fcus n anatmic characteristics (including beauty), distinguish between species and mentin the need fr cautin, while ther recreatinists d nt distinguish between species and are almst cmpletely fcused n negative aspects such as stings, the smell, the feeling when yu step n a jellyfish, etc. Key wrds related t ecnmic and eclgical cnsequences f blms were virtually absent frm the list. 10

13 key wrds divers key wrds ther respndents nettle cells beautiful tentacles slimy transparant elegant pain sting cautin diversity nuisance gelatinus sea ful abundant beach Prtugese man ' war underwater dangerus clurs m p 0 ful nu sanee danger tentacles transparant beautiful cautin beach different species slippery elegant pisnus Figure 5. Key wrds assciated w ith jellyfish, as derived frm surveys by divers (left) and frm ther respndents frm the turism industry (right) All divers and 86% f the ther respndents had seen jellyfish during the last five years, but the latter admitted they had paid little attentin t jellyfish presence. Seventeen percent f the respnding divers had the impressin that the number f jellyfish had increased, while this was nly 5% fr the ther respndents frm the turism industry. One beach turist remarked that he might have the wrng impressin since Flemish beaches are cleaned very ften. When persns wh perceived an increase were asked whether the number had increased with factr 2, 5, 10 r 100, mst admitted they had n idea r nuanced the questin based n interspecific r seasnal differences. An bserved increase f M. leidyi, fr example, was specifically mentined by tw divers. Respndents were asked a number f questins t establish their frame f mind during a (hypthetical) encunter with a number f jellyfish. Mst peple said they stay calm and certain, sme get nervus and tense r dwnright scared but cautin is the dminant emtin (fig. 6). During several interviews, it was stated that n risks are taken when children are invlved, especially since mst f the turists cannt tell the difference between stinging and harmless species. That is nt the case with divers, wh usually have a gd knwledge f species and are mre at ease during a jellyfish encunter. Glbal change and verfishing were indicated mst ften as causes f the cean jellificatin prcess (35 and 29% f the respndents, respectively)(fig. 7). Ballast w ater transprt and life cycle characteristics f jellyfish were each mentined by 15% f the respndents. During the field survey, mst peple expressed the understanding that all prcesses are linked and that multiple interacting factrs are at the base f lcal and/r glbal jellyfish increases. Sixty-five percent f all respndents felt that they d nt knw enugh abut the recent develpments in jellyfish and wuld like t receive mre infrmatin abut the m atter (fig. 7). 11

14 jellyfish and state f mind 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% n I m re r less I yes divers th e r t u ris ts Figure 6. Variatins in the fram e f mind f divers and ther peple frm the turism industry during a (hypthetical) jellyfish encunter 70 Accrding t yu, w hat are the causes f cean jellyficatin? Wuld yu like t receive mre infrmatin? Figure 7. Perceived causes f jellificatin (blue) and the desire t receive mre infrm atin n the m atter (green) by respndents frm the turism industry (including divers) 12

15 As fr persnal invlvement, mst peple felt that lcal and/r glbal jellyfish increases d cncern them but they als mentined that there is little they can persnally d abut it (fig. 8). Hwever, ptential increases f jellyfish are cnsidered as a majr issue. One respndent made the cmparisn with txic algal blms. Mst respndents indicated that the recent develpments are the result f a glbal prcess and that the prblem shuld be dealt with as such. it desn't cncern me it is my prblem it is a small prblem I can make a difference it is a glbal prblem it is an imprtant issue Figure 8. Clr chart representing persnal invlvement f respndents based n three statements, in a scale f 1 t 5 (light green t dark green) A multiple chice questin was used t find ut what industry the public perceives t becme mst affected by an increased prevalence f jellyfish. Mst respndents (58%) checked fishermen and aquaculture farmers, 34% checked turists and recreants, 18% checked the turism industry (restaurants, camp site wners, etc.), and 9% checked lcal inhabitants. Nne f the respndents checked the lcal gvernments. perceived sectrs affected lcal gvernm ents fisheries & aquaculture t u rist sectr turists & recreants Inhabitants Figure 9. Sectrs mst affected by an increased prevalence f jellyfish, as derived frm survey results (turism industry) Tw respndents remarked that turists will nly limitedly be affected because they will simply g elsewhere. This was nt cnfirmed by the survey results: nly 27% f the turists and recreants (including divers) said they wuld chse anther destinatin if jellyfish shuld be abundant (> 10 jellyfish visible n the beach r in the water). Seventeen percent stated that they wuld, hwever, change their activity (e.g. give up swimming). If the jellyfish wuld appear t be harmless and peple wuld be infrmed abut it, then half f this seventeen percent wuld change their mind. Fr thers, nly seeing jellyfish is enugh t change their activity. The risk f jellyfish stings is the mst imprtant factr fr turists and recreants, including divers, t make this decisin. Mst respndents think that increasing jellyfish densities will result in a substantial increase f stings. The risk f a beach clsure by lcal gvernments and life guards is estimated t be lwer, althugh lcal fficials indicated beach clsures as prbable results f jellyfish blms. Respndents carrying ut cmmercial activities at the cast are mst cncerned abut an increase in jellyfish stings and a decrease in cmmercially im prtant fish, factrs that might negatively impact the returns frm 13

16 turism and fisheries and the reputatin f the castal regin. Answers f lcal fficials agree with these cncerns and add the pssibility f increasing preventin csts t the list f cncerns. All csts resulting frm jellyfish blms (jellyfish fences, clean-ups, damage, etc.) shuld be paid fr by sciety thrugh taxes, accrding t 89% f the respndents. A minrity thinks that the turism industry r the fisheries industry shuld carry the csts (6 and 13%, respectively). Mst respndents (52%) feei that a remedy fr jellyfish increases shuld aim at lng-term results and shuld deal with the underlying causes, such as verfishing and pllutin (fig. 10). Still, 29% f the respndents thinks it wuld be a gd idea t start fishing fr jellyfish and prcess them in fd, medicine and csmetics. Only 1% sees a slutin in fenced swim znes. As fr the initializatin f preventive and mitigating measures, initiatives shuld be taken n a natinal and glbal level accrding t lcal fficials. slutins - measures reduce p llu ti n fish and cnsum e jellyfish Figure 10. Relative imprtance f pssible slutins, as derived frm the turism industry survey results Respnses by fishermen were very limited, but we believe the anecdtal infrmatin is still valuable given the perceived threats t the fisheries industry. One f the fishermen claimed that jellyfish are f n cncern fr him since the net he uses features large meshes in the tp panel, thrugh which jellyfish can easily escape. Anther fisherman reprted a Cyanea blm in the UK, mre precisely in the Liverpl Bay in M ay 1988, that resulted in a lt f jellyfish bycatch and a relcatin t ther fishing grunds, which in turn resulted in an additinal fuel cst. A castal fishermen reprted Rhizstma bycatch in September 2012 f an rder f magnitude that inhibited fishing. Nne f these fishermen were aware f ever having seen r caught the ctenphre M. leidyi. Discussin Jellyperceptin in the turism industry: cmparisn with ther studies The results f this study n public perceptin are based n a limited and gegraphically lcalized questinnaire survey. Althugh the number f respndents is small cmpared t the surveys carried ut in Germany (Baumann & Schernewski, 2012), Califrnia (Kaneshir-Pinheir, 2013) and France (Bnnet, 2013), the main results are quite similar. In accrdance t the GELAMED survey (France) fr example, the image f jellyfish is rather negative and especially beach turists have little sympathy 14

17 fr the creatures. In the present study, it was clear that the perceptin f recreatinal divers Is quite different and mre psitive In general. This Indicates a substantial variatin In perceptin within the grup f recreants. Althugh recreants such as yachtsmen, recreatinal anglers, surfers and divers are vastly utnumbered by beach turists sensu strictu, we think It Is wrthwhile t Include them In surveys as this ne. Additinally, reginal differences (castal cities and regins) and scial differences (prfessinal status) such as the nes bserved In France (Bnnet, 2013) shuld be Investigated In mre detail. Anther result that agrees with previus surveys Is the request fr Infrmatin abut jellyfish species, their eclgy and the prblems they can cause. Mst turists cannt tell the difference between jellyfish species (except fr divers) r between stinging and harmless types, and are thus cautius with all jellyfish. A number f turists wuld give up 'relcatin' plans In case f high jellyfish abundances If they wuld be Infrmed that the jellyfish were harmless. Additinally, the majrity f respndents feei that they knw t little abut recent jellyfish develpments t answer questins n causes, threats and slutins, and wuld like t receive mre Infrmatin n the matter. Since Baumann and Schernewskl (2012) prved that prviding Infrmatin Is effective t Increase the beach users' acceptance f jellyfish, beach management measures cping with jellyfish Increases shuld therefre Include different cmmunicatin tls fr a brad public and fr beach users such as warning flags, leaflets, Infrmatin bards and frecasts. Fisheries: interpretatin f anecdtes A recent study In Slvenia by Nastav et al (2013) shwed that high jellyfish abundances can result In reduced fish catches, In deteriratin f the fish quality, and In Increased csts due t Increased fuel use, thereby reducing the Incme f fishermen. The lw respnse rate f the survey distributed amng Belgian fishermen culd Indicate that jellyfish are nt (yet) cnsidered a majr prblem In Belgian fisheries. Indeed, ne f the fishermen states that the mesh size f beam trawl nets allws jellyfish t escape. On the ther hand, Increased fuel csts fllwing relcatin t jellyfish-free fishing grunds and clgging f nets were reprted. Additinally, Maes et a I (2013) reprt n statements f Belgian fishermen abut reduced catch quality during spring blms, partly due t Increased bycatch f sea gseberries (Pleurbrachia pileus) and ther jellyfish species. Especially the clgging by barrel jellyfish (Rhizstma ctpus) In the nearshre area (fig. 11) Is Imprtant In the light f Integrated castal zne management, since these bservatins are directly linked t the quality f the swimming w ater and can be used as Indicatins r warnings fr beach Infestatins. 15

18 Figure 11. Catch n bard f a fishing vessel, featuring large barrel jellyfish (sept. 2012, cpyright Philippe Gdfrid) Jellypress versus jellyperceptin The secnd aim f this study was t identify the influence f the press n public jellyfish perceptin. The study results seem t indicate that perceptin is nly partly driven by the press if it cmes t jellyfish. Persnal experience seems t be at least equally imprtant as driver. Gershwin (2013) wrte that "T mst peple, jellyfish prblems are abut stings. The public health aspects f jellyfish blms can be persnally stressful and can greatly impact turism.". This is cnfirmed by the results f ur survey, and especially by the analysis cncerning the frame f mind during a jellyfish encunter, and the key wrds given by turists. The latter were almst cmpletely fcused n negative aspects such as stings and the smell, while key wrds related t ecnmic and eclgical cnsequences f blms were virtually absent frm the list. On the ther hand, cnsequences f blms were the main tpic in 71% f the articles in the press. Articles describing dramatic encunters with jellyfish made up 12% f all jellyfish related publicatins in the general media, but nne f them described dramatic encunters alng the Belgian cast. Cndn et al (2012) already stated that the general media prbably raises the general apprehensin tward jellyfish by publishing these dramatic and newswrthy stries. On the ther hand, the survey results f Baumann and Schernewski (2012) in Germany shwed that the public was well-aware f the fact that there were n life-threatening jellyfish in the area. This is prbably als the case fr turists at the Belgian cast. Anther difference between press and public is the perceptin f an increase in the number f jellyfish (table 3). Mst articles in the Flemish, but als in the French general media (Bnnet, 2013) indicate a reginal and/r glbal jellyfish increase and the "rise f slime" is presented as a fact. In cntrast, the survey results shwed that nly 10% f the respndents perceived an increase in jellyfish, thereby relying n their persnal bservatins r admitting t their lack f attentin t trends in jellyfish numbers. This is similar t the results in Bnnet (2013), in which the majrity f respndents did nt perceive an increase. Anther emerging issue in the press vs. perceptin cmparisn is related t the identificatin f jellyfish species. While 50% f the media articles specifies ne r mre jellyfish species, differences between species are unknwn t mst respndents, especially t beach turists (table 3). Cnsequently, species-specific infrmatin prvided by the media is nt assimilated in the general knwledge abut jellyfish. Other infrmatin, such as causes, threats, cnsequences f and slutins 16

19 fr jellyfish prblems is similar in the Flemish media and in the survey results. Fr this type f infrmatin, the media des seem t have an influence n the public knwledge. This seems lgic, since this infrmatin can hardly be derived frm persnal experience, while the general media is used as the main surce f infrmatin by the majrity f the public. Table 3. Summary f the cmparisn between press infrm atin and public perceptin cncerning jellyfish and their blms jellypress jellyperce ptin species species specific in abut 50% f articles general, except f r results f divers perceptin n je llyfica ti n increase nly 10% f respndents perceive increase key wrds tp 10 washed ashre, verfishing, pisn, beach, w ind, sting, ful, slim e, nuisance, danger, sea, glbal w arm ing, w arm th, swim, infestatin, tu rist tentacles, pain, transparent, fear m st im p rtan t causes Natural causes + glba 1change & verfishing glbal change & verfishing m st im p rtan t threats fisheries & turism fisheries & turism best slutins je lly fis h remval and cnsum ptin stp verfishing and pllutin, je lly fis h fishing Relevance t integrated castal zne management and research The cumulative impact f multiple human activities causing m re-frequent jellyfish blms is likely t require a multifaceted integrated management respnse (Richardsn et al, 2009), which shuld be based n quantitative data n the public perspective f jellyfish and hw jellyfish influence sciety (Kaneshir-Pinheir, 2013). In Eurpe, an integrated fram ewrk exists thrugh the prcess f Integrated Castal Zne M anagement (ICZM). Its implementatin is based n eight principles (2002/413/EC), f which especially the principle abut "the invlvement f all parties cncerned" is imprtant in the cntext f jellyfish and jellyperceptin. In this study, we fund that there is a large variatin amng surveyed grups in perceptin cncerning jellyfish presence, and in the reactins and emtins they evke. Cnsequently, it is imprtant t extend perceptin surveys t all grups directly and indirectly affected by jellyfish. By ding s, pprtunities may emerge fr cperatin between scientists, plicymakers and public parties. Ber (2013), fr example, described citizen science as an alternative methd t evaluate the presence and abundance f gelatinus Zplanktn, with gd results in the Mediterranean (e.g. and Spt the jellyfish at Since the current study indicates that the public relies n persnal bservatins and experiences with jellyfish, these bservatins can be used as a mnitring tl r alert system fr jellyfish alng the Belgian cast as well (e.g. thrugh a smart phne app fr swimmers; Gershwin, 2013). Fr retrspective analyses, hwever, public memry has prven nt t be very useful, since peple's memries are highly influenced by their present perceptin. Mre specifically, Baumann et al (2012) fund that the answer t the questin f increase during the last five years was influenced by the amunt f jellyfish in the w ater at the tim e f the interview. Of curse, science based n citizen perceptin and knwledge is nt an ptin if participants are unfamiliar with jellyfish eclgy r differences between species. This is yet anther reasn why ne f the first management actins cncerning jellyfish increases shuld be the prvisin f species-specific infrmatin, fr example by distributing leaflets and putting up warning bards n the beach. This wuld likely result in a higher acceptance f jellyfish (Baumann & Schernewski, 2012), a better cmmunicatin between scientists and the public (Bnnet et al, 2013) and in a better quality f data in citizen science prgrams (Ber, 2013). 17

20 Cmmunicatin abut jellyfish is a cping strategy and can be rganized n a lcal r reginal level. Of curse, such cmmunicatin measures d nt reslve the jellificatin issue. Since there is a significant relatinship between jellyfish blms, human activities and envirnmental perturbatins (Brtz, 2011; Purcell, 2012), and since the Belgian part f the Nrth Sea is increasingly and intensively used fr many human activities, it is likely that jellyfish blms f lcal and nn-indigenus species will ccur even mre ften in the future. Cnsequently, drafting a management plan featuring mitigating strategies is a necessary next step, which, given the transbundary nature f the prblem, shuld be tackled n an internatinal level and shuld address all underlying causes, as was indicated by the survey results. Mnemipsis leidyi? Althugh this study was triggered by the presence f Mnemipsis leidyi in Belgian waters, the jellyperceptin survey was generalized t "jellyfish" fr practical reasns. Still, specific results n M. leidyi are wrth discussing as this cmb jelly species can pse a serius threat t the pelagic ecsystem and the anthrpgenic activities in the Belgian part f the Nrth Sea (Van Ginderdeuren et al, 2012). M. leidyi ften appeared in general media articles in Flanders in the past few years, but is still unknwn by the public because peple are unaware f any direct cntact. The species des nt sting, it is incnspicuus when washed ashre r caught in a net, and the chance f catching it in a fishing net is small due t its size and fragility. Hence, this species is nt likely t have a direct impact n beach turism r fisheries at sea, even when numbers wuld increase. Of curse, indirect effects n fisheries as a result f cmpetitin and predatin (Hamer et al, 2010), are still pssible. Additinally, unlike mst beach turists, divers d recgnize M. leidyi and they perceived an increase ver the last 5 years. Hence, the mnitring f the presence and abundance f this species, and f ther jellyfish (fig. 12), can be aided by gathering diver bservatins in a citizen science initiative (e.g. the Stichting Anemn initiative at w ww.anem n.rg). Figure 12. Diver with Chrysara hysscella (cpyright Peter H. van Bragt) 18

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