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1 TNO-rapport Meerjaren Speurwerkprogramma Voortgangsrapportage 2014 Thema High- Tech Systemen en Materialen Industry De Rondom AP Eindhoven Postbus HE Eindhoven T F Datum 6 maart 2015 Auteur(s) Autorisatie Dr. Roland van Vliet, Ir. Jaap Lombaers, Ir. Riné Pelders, Dr. Henri Werij, Dr. ir. Bert Don, Dr. ir. Erik Tielemans, Ir. Frank van den Bogaart, Dr. ir. Maarten Manders, Dr. ir. Jan de Vlieger A.J.A. Stokking Managing Director Industry Regievoerend Department Financierend Departement Aantal pagina's Aantal bijlagen Ministerie EZ Ministerie EZ 92 (incl. bijlagen) Alle rechten voorbehouden. Niets uit deze uitgave mag worden vermenigvuldigd en/of openbaar gemaakt door middel van druk, fotokopie, microfilm of op welke andere wijze dan ook, zonder voorafgaande toestemming van TNO. Indien dit rapport in opdracht werd uitgebracht, wordt voor de rechten en verplichtingen van opdrachtgever en opdrachtnemer verwezen naar de Algemene Voorwaarden voor opdrachten aan TNO, dan wel de betreffende terzake tussen de partijen gesloten overeenkomst. Het ter inzage geven van het TNO-rapport aan direct belanghebbenden is toegestaan TNO

2 TNO-rapport / 92 Inhoudsopgave 1 Introduction VP High-Tech Semicon Introduction Programs Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment and Yield Improvement Equipment Program Advanced Instrumentation VP Large Area Electronics Introduction Program Results and specifically in Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector VP High-Tech Instruments and Materials Program Solar Program Lighting Program Additive Manufacturing Program Healthcare VP Automotive Mobility Systems Inleiding Uitvoering Resultaten Resultaten Publiek Private Samenwerking (PPS) en aansluiting bij Topsectoren VP Space Introduction Program and results Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector VP Security Inleiding Uitvoering Resultaten Resultaten Publiek Private Samenwerking (PPS) en aansluiting bij Topsectoren VP Human Health RM Nano Inleiding Uitvoering Resultaten Resultaten Publiek Private Samenwerking (PPS) en aansluiting bij Topsectoren VP Defensie Gerelateerde Industrie Introduction Activities

3 TNO-rapport / Results Results Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector Ondertekening... 92

4 TNO-rapport / 92 1 Introduction This report describes the developments of TNO s VP s (VP= Vraaggestuurd Programma) over the year 2014 with respect to the Topsector HTSM and looks back to the last 4-year strategic period of TNO in the Theme HTSM. The 4-yearplan of TNO for was based on the governmental themes as used from One governmental theme (nr 12) was HTSM. Each year an adaptation to this plan was given because of latest developments and new insights towards the knowledge agenda of TNO, all in good tuning within knowledge arena s with all relevant stakeholders in the outside world. The presentation of this adaptation is prescribed in the TNO law and is part of the lawful obligation of TNO to account for the usage of SMO (SMO= Samenwerkings Middelen Onderzoek) by TNO. In 2012 the government introduced the Topsectors. The Topsector HTSM was established with 17 roadmaps whereby these roadmaps reflect industrial communities. The previous Theme HTSM and its VP s covered a subset of today s roadmaps within the Topsector HTSM. This report primarily represents the progress of the VP s in broad outline. The audience of this report are the Ministry of Economic Affairs as regievoerder and the Topsector HTSM while in due course this report will be published by TNO on its website. The persons responsible as VP manager for the respective VP s within TNO are listed below: VP High-Tech Semicon - Dr. Roland van Vliet VP Large Area Electronics Ir. Jaap Lombaers VP High-Tech Instruments and Materials Ir. Jaap Lombaers VP Automotive Mobility Systems Ir. Leo Kusters VP Space Dr. Henri Werij VP Security Drs. Henk Geveke VP Human Health RM Nano Dr. ir. Erik Tielemans VP Defensie Gerelateerde Industrie Dr. ir. Maarten Manders

5 TNO-rapport / 92 2 VP High-Tech Semicon 2.1 Introduction Through the period , the VP Semiconductor Equipment has been adapted under influence of market pull (vraagsturing). During 2011, it became clear that the several programs could not attract sufficient industrial support. Consequently, the program was reorganized. Two long running programs, Semicon Manufacturing Equipment and Yield Improvement Equipment have successfully attracted a series of PPS and TKI programs. Also, the technology developed in the programs that were stopped is being put to good use in several new and more successful programs: QuTech (TKI on quantum computing) and Instrumentation. After a number of reorganizations, the latter program has focused in 2012 on industrial instrumentation, transferring science instrumentation to VP Space and Science (separated end of 2012 and reunited in 2015) and medical instrumentation to VP FFP. These two are reported elsewhere. Here we summarize the most important results in the program Semiconductor and Yield improvement equipment ( ) and in the program Advanced Instrumentation. 2.2 Programs Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment and Yield Improvement Equipment Introduction Within the Topsector High-Tech Systems and Materials, The Netherlands holds a strong position in the semiconductor equipment industry. The semiconductor community is facing serious challenges with the continuation of Moore s Law. Structures on semiconductors are becoming smaller to achieve more functionality per surface area. These small structures need to be produced, and also measured and inspected. The most important development in the industry is the introduction of Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL), which is resulting in a fundamental change in the development of lithography and metrology equipment. It is the ambition of the Semiconductor Equipment Roadmap to strengthen the Dutch ecosystem in the area of High-Tech Equipment for Semiconductor Equipment with breakthrough technologies and by broadening the scope of existing strong technologies. This enables the industry to develop modules and tools that are significantly more efficient and cheaper to run and gain a higher productivity. The motivation of TNO s Semiconductor Equipment knowledge investment program is described in the Roadmap Semiconductor Equipment , which builds upon the roadmap and strategy developed in the strategic period However 2014 is the last year of the strategic period, the roadmap is dynamic and 2014 is also the time to prepare the next strategic period. The most recent roadmap has been described in Roadmap SE v0.99.docx. De graphic version of this roadmap is presented below.

6 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 1. Graphic roadmap Semiconductor Equipment The (VP) program Semiconductor Equipment is consists of two (sub) programs with a different marked focus in the Semiconductor Equipment domain. The two programs are: Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment Yield Improvement Equipment. Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment is focusing on the primary production process of semiconductors, such as lithography and other processing patterning methods. On the other hand Yield Improvement Equipment has its focus on the improvement of yield and productivity of the production process on critical parts with the help of e.g. metrology and ultra-clean handling Program 2014 In 2014 the Semiconductor Equipment knowledge investment program has been executed in a similar way as in previous years. A significant part of the knowledge development project portfolio in the Semiconductor Equipment program is not planned and executed as a one year project, but required more years in the strategic period Also part of the developments will proceed in 2015 and beyond. In general the program was running from idea to prototype. New ideas, coming from e.g. scientists or business development are challenged in kiemen (seed projects) on feasibility from technological and market perspective. When a kiem seems to have potential success, a new knowledge investment phase will be started up to dive deeper into the subject. Depending on the complexity and marketreadiness of the idea, it can land in mixed funding projects or directly into businessto-business projects. Zooming into knowledge development in 2014, Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment had its focus on the development of new production and sensor techniques for semiconductor lithography and mask-less lithography. Thereby Yield Improvement Equipment continued the strategy on yield improvement by contamination control, via the vision of Prevention, Diagnostics, and Remediation.

7 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 2. TNO s contamination control approach. The largest part of the Semiconductor Equipment program was executed in cooperation with leading industry partners in mixed funding projects. The strategy for the allocation of the knowledge development budget for a large part to mixedfunding projects is being done to gain knowledge close to the applicability of the research. Knowledge gaps in industry are being identified and direct feedback from industry is gained. The mixed funding projects were defined and executed in EU collaboration as ENIAC, national research as in STW and NanoNextNL, and with the help of the Topsector HTSM by TKI projects Results 2014 A selection of key results of the program are described per knowledge investment project. Most of the results are obtained by multi-annual developments in the Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment and Yield Improvement Equipment programs. This does not only holds for the 3 to 4 year European and national mixed funding projects, but also for the TNO internal knowledge investment projects. The projects are presented in the following categories: TNO knowledge investment projects Mixed funding European and National projects Topsector HTSM TKI projects TNO knowledge investments projects TNO internal knowledge development projects have the goal to prepare TNO for the definition of mixed funding or business-to-business project. Critical knowledge gaps were tackled or new technological ideas were investigated on feasibility. A selection of knowledge development project results are presented in this section. EUV Sensor In EUV Lithography short-, mid- and long-term control over in-band EUV power is needed for high-yield semiconductor production. In this project a new concept has been developed for an EUV sensor. The concept has been manufactured and tested in the EUV Beam Line, as shown in the Figure below. The results show that the new configuration yields a reproducible photo-electron signal.

8 TNO-rapport / 92 Public Private Partnership: the sensor was tested in collaboration with Carl Zeiss SMT. Not well enough understood phenomena will be investigated in a TKI project together with ASML and Carl Zeiss SMT in Figure 3. Photos of the realized EUV sensor Mark-II. Ultra-clean Reticle Handler In 2013 the start was made of the design and realization of a new ultra-clean reticle handler with the goal to learn from building a particle free robot system, which can be used for partners to test their equipment at TNO. Another major goal was to develop and understand particle contamination prevention strategies. In 2014 the system was realized and first particle cleanliness tests were done to get some first numbers of added particles per reticle pass. The first results are promising, however the robot is not as stable as specified. Therefore the system will be improved in Figure 4. Photos of the realized ultra-clean handler robot and the flip-unit. Public Private Partnership: the Ultra-clean handler has been realized in collaboration with Dutch companies. The Ultra-clean handler will be improved further in the EU project E450 LMDAP in collaboration with ASYS. Mimicking plasma with ion exposures TNO realized a proof-of-concept test setup to mimic different plasma-like ion energies with an ion-exposure setup. The setup can be used with hydrogen e.g. to test cleaning performance of different ion energies. The goal of the setup is to qualify materials, which are used in harsh plasma environments.

9 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 5. The realized setup which allows us to generate different ion energies. Public Private Partnership: the definition and validation of the proof-of-concept has been done with different partners of TNO for different applications. The system is currently in use for several projects for different customers. Rapid Nano 4 particle detection Rapid Nano is an optical particle detection system to detect nano-sized particles on reticle blanks. The system is developed by TNO, based on dark field microscopy and was used for different customers in several projects. In 2012 and 2013 the detection limit of Rapid Nano 3 particle detection system was improved with a new multi-azimuth illumination method. At the moment the system is still using 532 nm wavelength laser. With the multi-azimuth illumination method, the detection limit went down to 43 nm PSL particles on silicon. Also the multi-azimuth illumination (Rapid Nano 3) setup at TNO is currently used by different customers. Figure 6. Rapid Nano 3 with multi-azimuth illumination. In 2014 a new concept design was developed to improve the Rapid Nano system to a detection limit of 20 nm particles. This will be Rapid Nano 4. To achieve this detection limit a smaller wavelength is necessary, namely 193 nm. This concept will be realized in 2015 and is planned to be connected to the Ultra-clean Reticle Handling system at TNO to exclude any human interaction when scanning a reticle blank. Public Private Partnership: the Rapid Nano is a TNO development, using input from different (partner) companies in the Semiconductor Equipment domain. Rapid Nano 3 is being used for different customers, while Rapid Nano 4 is in concept phase.

10 TNO-rapport / 92 Mixed funding European and national projects In mixed funding projects TNO is developing knowledge in a more direct cooperation with partner companies and institutes. Some of the key results TNO achieved in the European and national mixed funding projects are described in this section. ENIAC EEM450PR Hydro carbon containment work package In the hydro carbon containment work package of EEM450PR project two proof-of concepts have been developed to monitor and clean hydro carbons. An improved Mass Filtered Ion Gauge (MFIG) demonstrator has been designed, realized and tested. Together with the design, modeling has been done to optimize the ion optics. The tests of the MFIG show a detection limit of mbar, which is a very good sensitivity. Second a new, improved miniaturized version of a Shielded Microwave Induced Remote Plasma (SMIRP) source was designed, realized and tested. The first tests performed show the ignition of a stable plasma with nitrogen and hydrogen. This activity was a follow up of an internal knowledge investment project, were a first version of a SMIRP was realized. Figure 7. The hydrogen plasma seen in the test setup of the SMIRP. Public Private Partnership: TNO is working together with the consortium members of the EEM450PR project. Additional required research on the dynamics of the plasma impedance of a SMIRP will be done in close cooperation with ASML and Carl Zeiss SMT in a TKI project on Fundamentals of Low-density Plasma. ENIAC E450EDL Subtask 5.4.1: Novel concepts and modules Development of high throughput AFM technology for 450mm wafers This project is part of a continuation of a kiem project in 2012, where TNO studied the feasibility of a novel High-Throughput Scanning Probe Microscopy concept. Currently TNO is aiming for a market introduction of the High-Throughput SPM concept by developing a demonstrator system. This work package started by determining the requirements for the system. This has been done together with project partners in the consortium. Thereafter the High Throughput SPM system was designed, and the design has been finalized. Most parts have been ordered and the parts of the arm and scan heads are fabricated and delivered.

11 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 8. Design impression of the High Throughput SPM system. Public Private Partnership: the partners of TNO in this project are the consortium members of the ENIAC E450EDL project and in particular Applied Materials. ENIAC Silver The goal of the ENIAC project Silver is a Green Fab. TNO is working on a method to reduce the use and waste of ultra-pure water for cleaning wafers. This has been done by the development of: A monitoring system to monitor the waste of water to be able to stop in-time. A test setup based on a droplet cleaning method with the goal to minimize the use of water. The setup has been realized and tested. It has been proven experimentally that the droplet cleaning method is able to clean a surface. Figure 9. (a) CAD impression of the realized system and (b) results of cleaning a wafer. Public Private Partnership: The partners of TNO in this project are the consortium members of the Silver project. TNO is currently looking for partners to bring this (proof-of concept) technology to the next level. STW Helium Ion Microscopy Despite some technical issues with the Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), a significant amount of scientific successes were achieved in Two major ideas resulted from internships of PhD students at TNO are implemented in the regular innovation projects. One of the PhD students has been replaced by a post-doc researcher, who is continuing the research. The main results are presented in the pictures in the Figure below. First it shows a HIM grown tip on an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) cantilever, which is a first step to make the HIM a possible setup to realize odd shape AFM tips. Second multiple pillars grown in a resist with the HIM, where the HIM is used to mimic EUV light.

12 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 10. (a) A grown pillar on an AFM cantilever with a T-shape and 13 nm diameter and (b) HIM written 16 nm pillars at 24 nm pitch in an EUV resist. Public Private Partnership: TNO is working in close cooperation with the TU Delft, and ASML, Carl Zeiss SMT and TU/e are represented in the steering group of this project. TKI projects TKI projects from the Topsector HTSM are a significant and growing part of the Semiconductor Equipment program. The projects are always defined with one or more partner companies to support the project and steer by on the direction of innovation. TKI Fundamentals of particle contamination control In this project three different work packages were executed on particle contamination related topics in prevention, diagnostics and remediation. An example work package is flying particle detection in vacuum. Flying nanometer sized particles can be problematic in equipment where EUV reticles are present, because a particle can land on the reticle and disturb the image. In this TKI project a study has been done on a concept of flying particle detection for relative high speed particles (~100 m/s). The detection concept is designed to not disturb the particle flow. Calculations and simulations were performed to determine the detection limit of the concept system. Figure 11. The investigated principle of a particle detection system. Public Private Partnership: the TKI project, where this work was part of, was initiated and executed in close cooperation with ASML. TKI Experimental research of the impact of radiation induced plasma on material surfaces and vacuum conditions

13 TNO-rapport / 92 The development of the next generation integrated circuits will be done by EUV lithography. To guarantee the lifetime of critical surfaces in EUV equipment, these surfaces need to be tested in a realistic environment. There it is necessary to investigate radiation material interaction with EUV induced plasma under the right vacuum conditions. In this project TNO investigated the feasibility of the realization of an experimental research setup to be able to reproduce and mimic realistic conditions. The result of the project is a concept (on paper), which is supposed to be the start of a new experimental setup. Figure 12. Concept design of an EUV experimental setup. Public Private Partnership: the TKI project has been initiated and executed together with Carl Zeiss SMT. Also ASML has been involved on the relevance of requirements for this feasibility. In 2015 the project will be continued with the realization of this concept to be able to perform projects and experimental studies together with commercial parties and institutes to TNO. TKI Addressable Light Source Array Over the last years several commercial projects have had the goal to design or realize a new generation of optical lithography. Usually the projects were stopped because of the fact that the light sources didn t allow a scalable concept. TNO has started in cooperation with ASML a project to investigate the possibilities of a light source which allows scaling. Within this project the first conductive lines have been written at 1 J/cm^2 CW using inhouse ink technology. A Disk Laser demonstrator has been realized. Figure 13. First results in writing a conductive line. Public Private Partnership: this project has been initiated and executed as a TKI project in close cooperation with ASML.

14 TNO-rapport / Results In 2011 the program Semiconductor Equipment and Devices started with the following three knowledge investment programs: Front-end Equipment Back-end Equipment Photonic Sensing With the start of the strategic period the programs were reconsidered and redefined. The reason was an optimization of TNO s market focus and new organizational insights. The following knowledge investment programs were started up in 2012: Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment Yield Improvement Equipment Semiconductor portfolio/incubators The first two programs were defined as the updated roadmaps of Front-end Equipment and Back-end Equipment, while Photonic Sensing was phased out and became part of the Semiconductor Equipment Portfolio program. Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment and Yield Improvement Equipment were close connected to each other and a did have a strong focus to the Semiconductor Equipment market. The resulting program roadmaps were continued and executed during the strategic period , and will be continued in the strategic period The Portfolio program, meant as an incubator program resulted in the knowledge investment program Industrial Instrumentation. This program is a roadmap itself nowadays and for the strategic period , so it is reported as a separate program. 2.3 Program Advanced Instrumentation Introduction In order to help solving the Grand Societal Challenges 1, advanced instrumentation is needed in at least three levels, as sketched in Figure A1, adapted from the roadmap advanced instrumentation 2. (1) The most direct need is that of societal instrumentation that delivers immediate information on personal health, food safety, road use and many other societal needs. (2) These instruments and many other products are produced on an industrial scale. In order to achieve this in Europe in a competitive and clean way, we need smart manufacturing processes that ultimately can be run by one person, have 100 percent yield (zero defects) and are highly flexible to cope with ever changing customer demands. In order to achieve these goals, industrial instrumentation is required, instrumentation that monitors production processes and enables placement of parts or products. (3) Moreover, breakthrough solutions are needed to solve the Grand Societal Challenges and for this science is performed. Breakthrough science is always based upon breakthrough science instrumentation, that enables scientist to see beyond what has been seen before. Scientific instruments are typically expensive and large; industrial instrumentation must be smaller and less expensive and is typically produced in 100 to fold. Societal instruments need to be cheap and are typically produced in huge numbers. Thus, breakthrough instrumentation developed for science can be developed via industrial instrumentation into societal instrumentation. In this way, market pull (starting from the grand societal challenges) can meet technology push (starting from science). In this regard, it is very helpful that many systems requirements are constant in the complete chain: real time data acquisition and translation to

15 TNO-rapport / 92 information; robustness and reliability, precision and accuracy, sensitivity without cross sensitivity and non-damaging, non-contact technology is required in all cases. To bring focus into the Advanced Instrumentation program, we have selected three areas where Dutch industry historically has a significant position and/or end users have shown their interest: big science instrumentation, industrial instrumentation for continuous processes and medical instrumentation. In 2015, the program will be focused even more on industrial instrumentation, in line with the focus of TNO of Smart Industry. Figure A1. Roadmap Advanced Instrumentation Program 2014 In 2014 the Advanced Instrumentation knowledge investment program has been executed in a similar way as in previous years. A significant part of the knowledge development project portfolio is planned and executed in long year programs, some of which have started as long ago as the year Also part of the developments will proceed in 2015 and beyond. In general the program was running from idea to prototype. New ideas, coming from e.g. scientists or business development are challenged in kiemen (seed projects) on feasibility from a market and IP perspective. If that is positive, technological validation can be executed, yielding a technology demonstrator. This can be used to find an industrial partner. Depending on the complexity and marketreadiness of the idea, it can land in mixed-funding projects or directly into businessto-business projects. Zooming into knowledge development in 2014, the Advanced Instrumentation knowledge investment program had its focus on the development of instrumentation for big science, industrial process monitoring and health monitoring, focusing on the three main elements of an instrument: new sensing technologies, fast control loops and local embedded data (real time) data processing (Figure A2).

16 TNO-rapport / 92 Big Science Instrumentation Sensor development Industrial Instrumentation Sensor development Fast control loops Local embedded processing Medical Instrumentation Sensor development Fast control loops Figure A2. TNO approach to instrument development. The Big Science program has been executed with scientific partners as the technology development is still at low TRL-levels. The Industrial Instrumentation line is partly done by TNO itself and partly in PPPs (Public Private Partnerships) with Dutch industry and sometimes with scientific partners. The medical instrumentation line has been performed almost solely in PPPs. The strategy for the allocation of the knowledge development budget for a large part to mixed-funding projects is being done to gain knowledge close to the applicability of the research. Knowledge gaps in industry are being identified and direct feedback from industry is gained. For this purpose, the program manager is member of the roadmap team for the HTSM Topsector Roadmap Advanced Instrumentation, as well as being member of Holland Instrumentation. Top scientists are involved heavily in the EU Manufacturing programs, gaining knowledge and finding partners on European projects for developing industrial instrumentation Results 2014 Big Science Instrumentation The TNO effort is focused on three Big Science Projects with a strong Dutch position and ample opportunities for cooperation with Dutch industries in future: ITER (nuclear fusion), CERN (particle physics) and KM3-net (neutrino detection). In nuclear fusion, one of the major challenges is to monitor and control the extremely hot plasma and the reactor which contains that plasma. In recent years, we have developed concepts and designs for sensing systems for wall temperature and plasma characteristics, among others. Although these have been shown to function according to specification, big concerns still exist on the life time, in particular that of the first mirror that is direct line to the plasma. These mirrors can be rapidly contaminated with Beryllium (Be) and Tungsten (W), causing unacceptable loss of functionality of the mirrors. In 2014, we have focused on contamination prevention and cleaning techniques for first mirrors in ITER. An overview of possible prevention techniques and a consequent trade-off has led to a patent application and designs for test equipment.

17 TNO-rapport / 92 An overview of possible cleaning techniques and a consequent trade-off has led to another patent application. We have designed safe equipment to work with Be, a highly volatile and toxic element (Figure A3). To sustain our theoretical conclusions and recommendations we have performed sputtering experiments on Carbon samples using both the microwave and the RF sources. We have also experimentally evaluated the Ion Energy Distribution Function of the RF and ion Be sources. Those parameters influence the effectiveness of the mirror cleaning process. Figure A3. Scheme of an experimental set-up to study effects of plasma and gas flux on the first mirror 3. PPP: in the ITER project, we cooperate with FOM-AMOLF, TU/e and NRG to become a significant scientific partner to the ITER project. Also, we work with industrial partners to realize test setups and demonstrators, enabling these partners to becoming suppliers for parts for ITER and subsequent projects. Our investments have led to an industrial partnership with General Atomics (USA) on the development of an optical system for wall temperature measurement and the contamination control thereof. For KM3-net, a new fiber laser hydrophone has been developed and tested. The unique features of this hydrophone are the large dynamical range in acoustical frequencies combined with the very high sensitivity. To our knowledge this sensor is the only sensor described in literature that exhibits these features. Moreover, the sensor is easily constructed and very affordable. This makes the TNO-technology the most suited (and in fact the only) technology that allows the acoustics detection of cosmic rays as needed in KM3-net. Figure A4. Hydrophonic sensor of world record sensitivity for neutrino detection; left hand: the optical

18 TNO-rapport / 92 transducer; right hand: encased in an oil hose to make up a sensor 4. Industrial Instrumentation Sensors Since 2010, TNO and partners have been developing fast & robust 3D measurement technology using Optical Coherence Technology. The current version allows the complete scan of five dimes per second - at micrometer resolution. This is a unique technique for assessing the geometry and roughness in industrial processes, in future allowing the real time control of such parameters. In 2014, we have developed a new system that is more robust for industrial environment; that can monitor surfaces at higher angles of incidence; and yields higher spatial resolution for any object positioning & clamping. In consequence, the system is more market ready. In addition, we now have a better understanding of the background of the needs of potential industrial customers; identified potential applications for existing TNO expertise (image recognition, actuator development) and an improved understanding of end-user needs in mass-production setting. Figure A5. The fully functional OCT-sensing systems that combines high resolution (< 1 µm) with high rates and works without a problem is an industrial environment. Right hand side; sensor integrated in a pilot line, with product in measurement position. PPP: this development has been supported by two EU FP7 projects, MegaFit and HiPR, with partners including Philips, S&T and Siemens. The Megafit set-up has been used for demonstrations at the Hannover Messe (Figure A6) and ZIE-2014, amongst others. Further development is envisaged in the Regions of Smart Factories initiative with Irmato as the partner that will develop a commercial product out of this system. Local embedded data processing In 2014, we have developed an ultrafast vision-in-the-loop system using new high speed camera infra structures and AMD s new GPGPU combination for low entry, for use is very fast pick and place and assembly systems

19 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure A6. Schematic and part of the test set-up demonstrating the functionality of local embedded data processing. Medical Instrumentation Sensors For medical instrumentation, non-invasive detection of health parameters is a holy grails. In 2014, we have worked on two projects that deliver important building blocks towards that objective. First, a photonic pressure sensor was developed and demonstrated that enables measurements on the skin independent of the pressure applied or changes in that pressure (Figure A7). This reduces one important cause of measurement instability. Further, a sensor head was designed that should allow easy detection of melanoma on the skin with Raman-spectroscopy, without the need to surgically remove skin samples. Figure A7. A small fiber optic-based sensor has been developed for force feedback in medical and remote handling application. PPP: both these projects are PPPs with several Dutch industrial partners, including Delft University of Technology, Erasmus MC, Avantes, AMC, Philips Lighting, Leiden University Medical Center. 5 Control Another option for non-invasive measurement of many blood parameters is the to use the human eye. Both eye diseases and many blood parameters can be easily detection through this optical loophole, that appears not only to be the mirror of the human soul, but also that of human health. However, natural rapid eye movements make it impossible to take sharp images. We have adopted OCT-technology to reduce the influence of the natural movements sufficiently to ensure much sharper images. A functional demonstrator has been build.

20 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure A8. Test setup that was used to demonstrate that we can correct images for rapid eye movement. Right hand side; test picture used. PPP: this project again is part of the IOP Photonic devices, and is a PPS with Focal, AMC, TU Delft. Supervisory board members are Demcon, Xiophotonics, Ioptics, Bcense Results As the advanced instrumentation was started only in 2013, we only list a number of examples of results in 2013, additional to the long running projects mentioned above. Big Science Instrumentation Overlaying images For a better understanding of images of different types, it is valuable to overlay or register those images digitally. This is extremely challenging, due to significant differences in magnification and angle of entry between the different techniques as well as within the images. Results: algorithms have been developed for the registration of images of the same sources and of different sources. Some of them are already applied by the industrial Result of registration of images; M=maginification. partner involved. PPP/Partners: third phase cofinanced project/dutch instrument supplier. Het Huygens Huys The Dutch government invests more than 100 M /year in Big Science projects such as CERN, SKA, ESO and ITER. The Dutch landscape of activities for Big Science is rather scattered, resulting in a low return on investment for several projects, including ITER, CERN and ESRF. We aim to build Het Huygens Huys, a platform for Dutch Industries and academics with the aim to double the return on investment and ensure spin-off of the technologies developed. Results: a round table discussion was held with ~30 partners, mostly from industry. The outlines for Het Het Huygenshuis: room(s) for all.

21 TNO-rapport / 92 Huygens Huys were drafted. PPP/Partners: more than 20 companies are involved, open for all high-tech parties. Industrial instrumentation Cheap production of high quality FBG s FBG s, Fiber Bragg Gratings in optical fibers, offer a generic solution for sensing almost any parameter to high precision and sensibility. The optical fibers is used both as power line and for data transport, making installation easy. Also, the fiber is insensitive to electromagnetic fields, A tool for fast, cheap production of FBG s. cannot cause explosions and withstands harsh conditions. The cost of the fibers with FBG, however, is limiting its application. Also, FBG quality varies too much and production times are unacceptable. We have designed and demonstrated a tool for semi-automated fast production of affordable, constant quality FBG s. PPP/Partners: laser producer Coherent (Ch) and phase mask producer Ibsen (Dk) are involved in the marketing of the production. 2014: we have found a Dutch SME and for production and sales of the tool. Medical instruments BLISS at the GP s practice A GP, General Practitioner, assesses a large number of patients on a daily base. Often, this diagnoses is supported by (lab) measurements. It would be advantageous to perform these measurements immediately during the consult. This would reduce patient anxiety as well as that of the GP. Also, it is expected to reduce the number of hospital visits considerable, Mock-up model of BLISS. thus cutting overall health care cost. Indeed, a large number of tests has been developed. However, the GP does not employ many tests, because of concerns on quality and also because of the complexity of the use of so many different tests, each with its own user unfriendliness and the consequent risk on mistakes. We have developed the concept of BLISS, a suitcase containing all relevant test, quality certification and one user interface with extremely simple operating software (compare the AEDdevice). BLISS has attracted a lot of interest of the stakeholders. PPP/Partners: cordaid and a number of Dutch SME s (realized in 2014). Enabling minimal surgery In surgery, a strong trend is towards minimal invasive surgery (MIS), allowing precise and even tele-operated procedures that inflict as little as possible tissue damage to the patient, thus improving his recovery time. We develop specific technology for a number of applications with industrial and academic partners. Results: we have realized several demonstrators for relevant technologies. These include a robot for inserting a MRI-compatible steerable needle PITON: needle insertion. (PITON, see figure), a parallax endoscope for 3D vision in MIS (BOEM) and an idea for a magnetic in-body sensor based on a fiber

22 TNO-rapport / 92 optic sensor. PPP/Partners: STW-PITON/ DEAM (coordinator), TNO, TUD, TU/e, UMC-U, Technobis and Hemolab. BOEM/ Pontes (coordinator), DEAM. References 1 2 Roadmap Advanced Instrumentation, to be published in Ad Verlaan, Richard Versluis, Anton Duisterwinkel, Norbert Koster, Andrey Ushakov, Methods to reduce contamination of the ITER VIS/IR diagnostic system First Mirror, SOFT, E.J Buis et al. Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection PoS(TIPP2014)85; E.J. Buis et al, Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection, TIPP 2014, 2-6 juni, Amsterdam; E.J. Buis et al, Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection, Arena2014, 9-12 juni, Annapolis 5 See Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector As addressed above, much of the work has been performed in PPP (several examples given above). The Roadmap for the VP Advanced Instrumentation is an integral part of the Advanced Instrumentation Roadmap of the HTSM Topsector. No TKI projects have been performed as yet.

23 TNO-rapport / 92 3 VP Large Area Electronics 3.1 Introduction Holst Centre executes two main program lines of which one is Large Area Electronics (also known as Systems-in-foil or SIF), managed by TNO, and the other is wireless sensor systems managed by imec. This report describes the progress made in Large Area Electronics. It must be noted that the efforts in Large Area Electronics are not TNO exclusive and include significant contributions from imec researchers. For a full overview of Holst Centre s progress. Large Area Electronics concerns large area electronic devices on flexible substrates. Research results contribute to solving major societal challenges such as improved effectiveness of health care (by smart sensing and diagnostics), reduction of energy consumption (by OLED lighting and by electronic devices with ultra-low power consumption) and green energy generation and storage (by low-cost, flexible solar cells and batteries). The Large Area Electronics program line reached major achievements in areas such as barrier technology, printing of metals and thin film transistor technology which all have been successfully transferred to industry. 3.2 Program 2014 Founders Holst Centre was founded by imec and TNO, which has resulted in an independent internationally oriented research centre with its facilities on the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven. Coming together under one roof has brought many opportunities for the organizations in terms of attracting, hiring and retaining the necessary talent. Research Staff The Holst Centre organization has seen a steady growth of its critical mass in people since the start in November Holst Centre currently employs approximately 200 team members on payroll of which about half are dedicated to Large Area Electronics. To become a centre of excellence, its employees are selected on both technical and non-technical competencies. In terms of education level, 54 % of the team members have a PhD-degree and 29 % have a Master s degree. Their backgrounds lie mostly in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering. Next to payroll employees (including some from other parts of imec and TNO), the Holst Centre teams consist of important other groups that add to the open innovation platform: Residents from the industry, that actively take part in our research roadmap. PhD students that do their research at Holst Centre, supervised by both the team and their university. Master students that do their thesis-project at Holst Centre. Contracted staff of other organizations such as Philips Innovation Services. Holst Centre staff currently includes over 25 nationalities. This reflects the international efforts that Holst Centre has undertaken, but also the multi-national character of students at the local universities with whom Holst Centre is in contact. Holst Centre intends to grow further based on the same mix of backgrounds and people that has currently been built, simply because it has proven to be successful. Also Holst Centre has an active policy to enable our researchers to make their next

24 TNO-rapport / 92 step in their career path to its partners. In 2014, 10 people moved to industrial partners of Holst Centre. Facilities Next to the research facilities already in place on the Campus, Holst Centre has expanded in the past few years with larger-scale systems, which in the future can become part of a pilot line fabrication: In 2012 a R2R metal printing line was installed with rotary screen print from SPG, inkjet printing from Xennia and photonic curing developed in house. In 2012, a R2R barrier line was installed by Roth & Rau. In 2013 a R2R spatial ALD tool was installed by VDL. In 2014 a R2R slot-die coating line was installed with 4 different in-situ monitoring techniques to optimise yield in R2R processing. In 2014 a gen.1 line was installed to enable TFT fabrication based on maskless lithography. In 2014 a R2R multilayer coatline was installed which was fabricated by Holst Centre partners VDL, Smit Ovens, and Bosch Rexroth. 3.3 Results and specifically in 2014 The scope of the research activities in the Large Area Electronics include the following topics: OLED Lighting Barrier Technology Organic Photovoltaics Thin Film Transistor (TFT) based applications Hybrid Electronics OLED Lighting The developments in the past 4 years have been focused on three interconnected goals for the development of OLED (Organic LED) technology into a serious competitor for LEDs: A low cost, high volume manufacturing process Robust, reliable and high efficiency devices Realizing the unique freedom of design of OLED s For enabling low cost production processes the focus has been to manufacture OLED lighting panels in a Roll-to-Roll manufacturing process. In the past period (see section on execution) several R2R systems have been realised with partners to show this feasibility. The evolution of number of steps which have been done in the past four years is shown graphically in figure 1. To enable robust, reliable and high efficient flexible OLEDs, several key technologies had to be developed including a reliable water barrier (see section on barrier technology) and a transparent electrode system, both of which have been on the roadmap for the past 4 years. The evolution is shown in demonstrators in figure 2. In the early phase of commercialisation, flexible OLEDs are expected to be sold at a cost premium as yield is low and full R2R production is not installed yet. Therefore it is critical for early adoption to create unique applications for OLEDs by leveraging the unique freedom of design and flexibility of OLEDs. Some examples of typical prototypes developed in the past 4 years are shown in figure 3.

25 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 1. Left: status Flexible OLED of which 2 layers were R2R coated. Right: status flexible OLED where 5 layers are R2R coated. Figure 2. Left: status Flexible OLED with inhomogeneous light emission of 50% and ~8 lm/w. Right: status flexible OLED of 47 lm/w and more than 90% homogeneous light emission. Figure 3. Left: status Flexible OLED seamless integrated in LeMans car. Right: status flexible OLED of 47 lm/w and more than 90% homogeneous light emission.

26 TNO-rapport / 92 Barrier Technology OLEDs are extremely sensitive to water. A barrier concept has been developed in the past 8 years protecting moisture ingress into water sensitive flexible devices such as OLEDs and OPV (Organic PV/Solar Cells). The technology is based on a combination of a special organic layer sandwiched between 2 SiN layers made with PECVD. The technology based on S2S production of OLED has been transferred to Philips in 2011, which employs it currently as top encapsulation barrier in its newest generation of Lumiblade OLED panels. In addition, in 2014, the pilot line for producing this barrier on PET via R2R processing made its first km s of barrier film. This barrier film in 2014 was a simpler version and consisted of PET/organic layer/sin. However, this barrier has good enough water barrier properties that is can be used for organic PV pilot production. These barrier films are currently being used by Heliatek for their R2R OPV pilot line. Also, one of partner companies in Holst Centre, Rolic, has founded in 2013 a Dutch affiliate, ROLIC BV, to commercialise these barrier films. Figure 4. Left: R2R barrier line capable of producing PET/SiN/organic layer/sin. Right: R2R produced barrier film. In 2014, 2.6 km was produced. Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) Up until fall 2014, the OPV program was focused on scaling up production of organic based solar cells towards Roll-to-Roll processing while ate the same time increasing its efficiency and lifetime. For increasing lifetime, the barrier as presented in the previous section for OLEDs was used to encapsulate OPV devices. As is shown in figure 5 (left) the efficiency of full flexible devices, did not significantly decrease for over 8000 hours at 85C/85% humidity conditions. It is estimated that this corresponds to 70 years at ambient conditions. For R2R processing in 2014, an all R2R processed modules were shown, based on standard P3HT/PCBM heterojunction, as shown in figure 5 (right). The efficiency of these devices were only 2-3%, on par what is to be expected for such heterojunction. Higher efficiencies of up to 9.6% were achieved using different polymers and triple junctions. However, these triple junctions involve 13 layers (including electrodes) and are therefore difficult to realise in R2R. This has led to the decision to use a different absorber material, being methylammonium lead halide which has a perovskite crystal structure. With this absorber efficiencies in excess of 15% have been realised on cell level in 2014, and will be the focus point of the coming years to scale these perovskite based solar cells to R2R.

27 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 5. Left: shelf lifetime test for fully encapsulated OPV cells. Right: R2R produced solar cell module where all 6 electro-active layers were made with R2R processing. Thin Film Transistor Applications Holst Centre has over the past 4 years been working on thin film transistors (TFT) on polymer films, initially for flexible OLED displays. Using advanced analysis and modeling techniques, a bond-debond process was developed in 2012 which allowed processing of full flexible displays on rigid carriers such as Si-wafers and glass substrates. Based on this technology, backplanes were developed using oxide based semiconductors, which met the requirements of OLED display industry and this process was transferred to a display factory in In 2014, the TFT process on polymer films was further optimized and scaled up to gen 1 substrate size (320x352mm substrate size). Through these advancements in TFT performance, new applications are under development in 2014, such as: Foldable OLED displays (Figure 6 left). X-ray detector on plastic substrate with medical grade performance (Figure 6 right). High speed oxide circuits that are NFC (Near Field Communication) compatible. Hybrid Electronics The use of thin plastic foils as a base substrate will ensure thinner and more flexible electronic devices as compared current PCB-based electronics. It furthermore enables new manufacturing methods, such as continuous Roll-to-Roll, instead of wafer and/or batch processes. To enable such devices on flexible films, Holst Centre developed both S2S and R2R metal printing processes (as opposed to Cu plating and etching in PCB industry), which was shown in 2013 feature size of 30 microns could be reached. Also photonic curing was developed in allowing ultrafast (~1 s) curing of printed metal and thus enabling R2R line with a low foot print. This technology is currently transferred to a consortium of local companies. Films with such printed and cured circuits are shown in figure 7. In 2014, the focus was on making multilayer circuits with at this moment 3 electrical planes can be made. Furthermore chip placement of thinned Si-based chips was developed allowing a variety of electronic products as in traditional PCB industry but now in a flexible form factor. A number of these applications based on multilayer printing is shown in figure 7.

28 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 6. Left: OLED film bend down to radius of 05mm allowing foldable displays. Right: TFT backplane on polymer film as readout for flexible X-ray imagers. Figure 7. Left: multipurpose sensor label with fully printed, multilayer circuit, embedded 25 µm thick silicon chips, and peripheral components integrated as Right: TFT backplane on polymer film as readout for flexible X-ray imagers. Right: Roll of PET film with multilayer of metal and insulator printed and photonic cured in R2R pilot line. 3.4 Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector Holst Centre including its Large Area Electronics research is fully set up as a Public Private Partnership in which the topics discussed in the previous sections are developed via Shared Research Programs. Each Shared Research Program has a roadmap determined by its participants. The partners pay a participation fee to get a non-exclusive licence to the results of the program they participate in. In addition to these cash contributions, industrial partners contribute by involving own researchers ( industrial residents ) in the programs. In total Holst Centre has over 55 partners, of which 29 are participating in Large Area Electronics related programs. The activities and roadmap of the topics in Holst Centre are positioned within the Roadmaps of HTSM: The OLED lighting research is part of the HTSM Roadmap Lighting. The coating and printing process research for Large Area Electronics is positioned in the HTSM Roadmap Printing. The Thin Film Transistor and Hybrid Electronics research is positioned in the HTSM Roadmap Components and Circuits.

29 TNO-rapport / 92 The Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) research, has been made part of the Solliance initiative, also a Public Private Partnership. Solliance has the ambition to be an international key research partner for the thin film PV industry by bridging the gap between new thin film PV technologies and their industrial application, thus enabling a world-class thin film PV industry in the ELAT (Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen) region. Current R&D partners for the Shared Research Program on organic photovoltaics include TNO, imec, ECN, TU/e and Forschungszentrum Jülich. The aims of the thin film PV research align with the priorities defined in The Dutch Technology Roadmao Solar, originally written in two formats for the Innovation Contract HTSM and Innovation Contract Energy, both co-authored by TNO. End of 2012 the implementation of the HTSM Innovation Contract was updated by all stakeholders to formulate a single Solar roadmap for both the Topsectors HTSM and Energy.

30 TNO-rapport / 92 4 VP High-Tech Instruments and Materials 4.1 Program Solar Introduction A reliable, affordable, clean and safe energy supply is a prerequisite for the future economic and social development. Amongst others, this requires a change to energy generation by renewable sources, like wind and solar. The Dutch High-Tech Industry is well place to exploit the opportunities arising from this need for renewable energy sources, in particular photovoltaics (PV). The volume of the solar PV market was 100 billion Euros in 2014, as the presently installed capacity of PV power generation expanded from 70 GWp in 2011 to 170 GWp in The 20% CAGR of the PV market over the last five years was enabled by an increase in product quality (solar energy conversion efficiency) with a simultaneous steep decrease in PV module production costs to 0.5 per Watt peak in Although the large reduction of PV module costs seems to be driven by several incidental factors (overcapacity, investment crises and a market consolidation), it is common opinion that there is still an enormous potential for further product improvement and cost reduction, with the potential for a two orders of magnitude market growth up to 2050, and a considerable contribution of PV to the worlds electricity production. The upstream part of the Dutch PV sector, mainly focused on manufacturing equipment and materials, is well positioned to contribute to the realization of this potential. The Dutch High Tech industry has a 5% share of world-wide market for PV production equipment and materials. A large part is traditional c-si PV modules, but the market volume and share of thin film PV devices and in particular CIGS will increase dramatically in the coming decade creating market opportunities for new processes and equipment. Thin film PV functionality with a conversion efficiency that is competitive with crystalline can be realized directly on construction materials like glass and steel with potential beneficial properties, such as free form factor, semi-transparency, resistance to breakage, light weight, very efficient and low cost at long operational lifetimes. TNO s ambition is to use its strengths in process- and equipment development to maintain and expand the market share of the upstream part of the Dutch PV sector, in particular for thin CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) solar cells. This ambition is being realized in the framework of the CIGS shared research program of the Solliance Initiative. Solliance is the public private partnership (PPS) between TNO, ECN, TU/e, Holst Centre, Imec and Forschungszentrum Jülich and industrial partners Smit Ovens and DSM on thin film photovoltaics. The overall technical ambition of the Solliance CIGS Shared Research Program is to: Close the 5% efficiency gap between lab and production using fast and reliable production methods and equipment. o > 20 % conversion efficiency modules by Move from current vacuum processes to atmospheric processes for large area R2R production. o < 5 c/kwh and > 99% high yield production by Allow green production and reduced use of scarce materials. o > 25 year PV module life time. Facilitate free form and easy PV integration. o Reduce balance-of-system-costs with 40% by 2018.

31 TNO-rapport / 92 Key challenge is to develop generic in-line production technology for cells and modules to spin-out at OEM level in collaboration with industrial partners and investors Activities 2014 Thin film CIGS is chosen as the carrier for the development of knowledge on various generic PV production technologies. The activities are divided into five work packages governing generic technologies along the various stage of the solar cell manufacturing chain. Solar module demonstration, life-time and integration Activities focus on the solar module level, i.e. the end of the solar cell production chain. The core of the activities is the pilot line for the production of 10x10 cm 2 thin film CIGS demonstrator cells on rigid and flexible foil substrates. The CIGS cell demonstrators also serve as testing material for the development of life-time testing methods and building integrated PV solutions. In 2014 the CIGS baseline was used to prepare 10x10 cm 2 co-evaporated demonstrators CIGS cell on rigid glass for various project and developments. A reference process for cells on flexible steel substrate was developed for the baseline. First modules from baseline CIGS cells were prepared for outdoor, accelerated lifetime and reliability testing. Atmospheric photo absorber processing The activities focus on the processing of thin film CIGS photo-active material. The core of the activities is the development of pilot scale atmospheric processes for CIGS and buffer layer deposition on 32.5x32.5 cm2 glass panels. Pilot-scale processes for CIGS cell production by atmospheric selenisation and electrodeposited CuInGa (CIG) precursors on 32.5x32.5 cm 2 glass panels were further developed in 2014 and optimized to efficiencies of 10-11%. As planned the CIGS reference line was moved to the new Solliance building, restarted and upgraded with a new sputter tool. Activities on s-ald process and equipment development for buffer layers and passivation films were continued in Light Management The activities focus on the improvement of light management in (thin film) PV cells. The core of the activities is the development of atmospheric processes for the deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) by a range CVD methods and s- ALD and generic methods and materials for surface nanostructuring and texturing to improve the light incoupling in solar cells. In 2014 AP (PE) CVD and s-ald process development for S2S deposition of crystalline and new amorphous TCOs was continued. Transparent thin CIGS cells with back contact transparent conductive electrodes and light management structure were produced in 2014 including first activities on development for nano-imprint lithography of light management structures.

32 TNO-rapport / 92 Cell interconnection The activities focus on the interconnection of individual solar cells to modules. The core of the activities is the development of alternative technologies for the monolithic interconnection in the film solar module manufacturing. Construction and demonstration of the S2S tool for post-scribing and interconnection of thin film PV cells was done in The tool was relocated to the Solliance building and upgraded for further back-end interconnection development. The simulated improvement in solar cell efficiency for micro- scale metal grids was demonstrated on CIGS cells. Technologies for R2R cleaning and repair of monolithic interconnection defects were demonstrated on a R2R lab-tool. New solar cell concepts The activities focus on the exploration, design and development of future thin film solar cells concepts. The core of the activities is the development of kesterite (Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 ) and multi-junction high efficiency concepts of different solar cell types. New activities were set up for the development of high-efficiency solar cells (>25%) combining thin film CIGS and kesterite cells with Si-wafer based cells Results 2014 Solar module demonstration, life-time and integration A process for CIGS layer co-evaporation on 10x10 cm flexible steel substrates was developed in the CIGS baseline. A maximum cell efficiency of 15% on 1x0.5 cm 2 was obtained. A sol-gel process for colouring PV modules demonstrated on small modules in 2014 was applied onto commercial PV modules. The coated panels were placed at the PV test site of Hogeschool Zuyd for outdoor life-time testing. New insights in the degradation behaviour of CIGS cells was obtained from in-situ accelerated life time testing. Atmospheric photo absorber processing Processes for the atmospheric pressure CIGS module production on 32.5x32.5 cm 2 glass substrates have been developed. Insights in the electrodeposition of Cu/In/Ga (CIG) precursor stacks and subsequent selenisation in elemental Se were gained and process parameters were optimized. Uniform CuInGa electrodeposition and a maximum efficiency of 9.8 % were achieved. The model to correlate selenisation process parameters to the resulting CIGS absorber layer properties was further developed and validated for Ga segregation to the Mo back-contact before selenisation. A spatial ALD process that enables accurate control of the composition Zn(O,S) buffer layers was successfully developed. Preliminary test of the Zn(O,S) buffer layer on CIGS cell showed comparable efficiency to a CIGS cell with a standard CdS buffer layer. Light Management A process for spatial ALD deposition of ZnO-based transparent conductive oxide films at temperatures below 200 o C was developed. Highly conductive TCO films, with a specific resistance in the order of cm were obtained. A process for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (APPPECVD) of highly conductive Al:ZnO transparent conductive oxide films was developed and a sheet resistance of < 25 / sq suitable for application in CIGS solar cells was obtained at a high speed of nm/s. Cell interconnection The back-end interconnection tool for interconnecting CIGS cells in a 323x325 module was moved to the new Solliance building and upgraded. The simulation

33 TNO-rapport / 92 models predicting the efficiency gain of metal grid application on transparent conductors were experimentally validated. New solar cell concepts The activities on the process development of kesterite cells were stopped in 2014, due to the limited improvement in efficiency of kesterite solar cells in general and the worsening of the business case for this technology Results TNO s track record in generic process development for individual stages in the manufacturing of different types of (thin film) solar cells and in equipment development for the high-end manufacturing industry led to TNO cofounding the Solliance solar research cooperation in In 2014 this culminated in the relocation of ECN, TNO and Holst Centre facilities and researcher to the new Solliance building at the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven financially supported by the Province of Noord Brabant. An unique asset of the Solliance facilities is the prepilot CIGS PV platform consisting of a CIGS cell reference line realized at TNO in 2012 and the CIGS module base-line completed in 2014.This platform, that is only one of three open CIGS platforms world-wide, and the results achieved in the TNO Solar Program since 2011 led to the establishment of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) on thin film CIGS PV in The Dutch companies DSM and Smit Ovens joined the CIGS Shared Research Program (SRP) of Solliance as full industrial partners, thereby engaging in a longer term relation for joint development and commercialisation of research results. The technologies developed from 2011 to 2014 in the various work packages of the TNO Solar Program are the core of the proposition for participation in the Solliance CIGS Program. Solar module demonstration, life-time and integration In 2012 the reference line for co-evaporation of 10x10 cm 2 thin film CIGS demonstrator cells on realized using the Solliance funding by the Province of Noord Brabant. In the PiD project CIGSelf ( ) the baseline was ramped-up from 14% in 2012 to 16 % efficient CIGS cells on glass in Using the industrial partner contributions to the Solliance CIGS SRP the efficiency was increased to 17% in 2014 and a process for CIGS layer co-evaporation on flexible steel substrates was developed with a cell efficiency of 15%. In 2014 modules were prepared from the CIGS cells for outdoor, accelerated lifetime and reliability testing. In the entire period from new insights in the degradation behaviour of CIGS cells were obtained from an ETP materials sponsored PhD project in cooperation with TU Delft. This resulted in various scientific publications, including two poster prizes and a nomination for the Dutch Solar Thesis Award in In 2013 commercialisation Back-end Interconnection tool. of an in-situ accelerated life time testing tool developed in the PhD project was awarded to Eternal Sun through the TNO SBIR program. From 2011 to 2014 a part-time lectorship at the Hogeschool Zuyd on Building integrated PV (BIPV) was funded by the Solar Program. Together with Hogeschool

34 TNO-rapport / 92 Zuyd in 2011 and 2012 in-line coating concepts for improved aesthetical embedding of solar panels with minimal performance losses and minimal costs in BIPV were developed in the PiD project Smartchain. In 2013 a sol-gel process for colouring PV modules resulting in highly aesthetic PV modules with a minimal loss in conversion efficiency was demonstrated. In 2014 the process was applied onto commercial PV modules that were placed at the PV test site of Hogeschool Zuyd for outdoor life-time testing in the TKI Zonnegevel project. In the near future industrial project partners could exploit this technology in innovative BIPV concepts. Atmospheric photo absorber processing From 2012 to 2014 equipment, funded by the Province of Noord Brabant, for a 30x30 cm 2 CIGS module base-line using Cu/In/Ga electrodeposition and selenisation in elemental selenium was ramped-up in various phases. In the PiD project CIGSelf ( ) a first selenisation process using elemental Se was developed for sputtered CuInGa precursors on a 10x10 cm 2 area with a cell efficiency of 10.5%. In parallel in the cofunded project in-situ XRD a unique tool for monitoring the selenisation process was designed and realized. In the cofinanced project and the TKI project TripleA CIGS cells with an efficiency of 8.4% from electrodeposited CuInGa precursors on 10x10 cm 2 area were realized. In 2014 this technology was up-scaled to the full 30x30 cm 2 size baseline with a maximum cell efficiency of 9.8% in the KIC EIT Effic project and the Solliance CIGS SRP. The baseline is only one of three open CIGS platforms world-wide and the only one using atmospheric absorber processing. In KAV and ETP projects TNO developed unique spatial ALD technology that was partially spun-off in the startup company Solaytec for Si-based PV. In 2011 and 2012 KAV budget of the Solar Program was used to design R2R equipment and processes for application of the s-ald technology in thin film PV. the in 2011 and 2012 a proof-of-principle R2R ALD tool was realized and Al 2 O 3 barrier layer, deposition was demonstrated. In 2013 and 2014 an industrial tool for spatial ALD Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition in R2R CIGS manufacturing was developed together with VDL and CIGS on foil manufacturer Flisom (CH) in the EU FP7 project R2R- CIGS. In parallel a Zn(O,S) buffer layer process allowing the full range of compositions from ZnS to Selective reflective coating installed on the district of tomorrow. ZnO was demonstrated in the TKI project Desire in A S2S spatial ALD tool for 30x30 cm 2 glass panels was designed and codeveloped in a HTSM TKI+ and a B2B project with OEM Smit Ovens in 2014 as a first step towards commercialisation of the spatial ALD technology in thin film PV. Light Management TNO had a long track record in the development of atmospheric CVD processes for the deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) before In the EU FP projects HipoCIGS ( ), Orama ( ) and R2R CIGS ( ) this expertise was used to develop various crystalline and amorphous ZnO

35 TNO-rapport / 92 based TCOs for application in CIGS PV manufacturing using CVD and spatial ALD. In 2012 highly conductive and transparent izno films deposited in an AP CVD process were demonstrated to yield 15.9% efficient CIGS cells. In 2013 and 2014 this was further developed to a high speed (15 nm/s) APPPECVD process for Al:ZnO TCO films with a sheet resistance of < 25/sq suitable for application in CIGS solar cells. In parallel a 0.5 m wide atmospheric plasma tool for R2R deposition of ZnO:Al was constructed and integrated in a pilot-scale CVD reactor. Generic light management technologies were developed in the ETP materials in 2012 to In parallel surface nanostructuring and texturing technologies from the ETP were adapted specifically to PV in the Solar Program. In 2011 structuring of the CIGS back-contact by nano-imprinting technology from the ETP materials, was demonstrated in the EU FP7 project HipoCIGS. KAV funding in 2012 and the TKI Limanil project in 2013 and 2014 were used to model light management structures for CIGS and thin ( nm) and transparent CIGS cells on ITO back-contacts were developed in the reference line to validate the modelled structures. In 2014 DSM joined to the Solliance CIGS program with a specific interest in further commercialisation of light management materials. Cell interconnection In the PiD project Produzo ( ) and the TKI project Fantastic (2014) an alternative back-end technology for the monolithic interconnection in thin film PV module manufacturing was developed resulting in the construction and demonstration of a 30x30 cm 2 S2S tool for post-scribing and interconnection in In 2014 a step towards commercialization of the tool was made with the start of the KIC EIT project EFFIC, where Solliance partners TNO, ECN cooperate with the local High-end Equipment industry, Smit Ovens, CCM, IBS PE and Roth & Rau, and CIGS manufacturer Nexcis (F) as launching customer. New solar cell concepts A Solar program KAV funded assessment in 2011 showed that kesterite (Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 ) thin film PV cells are a potentially cheaper and resource-efficient alternatives to CIGS cells, albeit with an unsure business case. In 2013 a baseline process for electrodeposition of CuZnSn precursors was developed and kesterite cells were produced in the TKI project Triple A. The activities on kesterite (Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 ) cells were stopped in 2014, because of the limited improvement in efficiencies of kesterite solar cells in general and the worsening of the business case for this technology Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector The aims of the Solar Program strongly align with the priorities defined in The Dutch Technology Roadmap Solar, originally written in two formats for the Innovation Contract HTSM and Innovation Contract Energy, both co-authored by TNO. The HTSM Roadmap Solar has the ambition to develop more Dutch PV business at OEM level, and to increase value creation by a higher level of collaboration and integration along the value chain. The Topsector Energy Innovation Contract on solar energy strives to facilitate and stimulate large scale deployment of PV in the Netherlands and abroad by developing cost-competitive solutions for physical integration into the built environment, the infrastructure and the landscape and

36 TNO-rapport / 92 electrical integration into the grid and maximize the economic benefits for the Netherlands of the growth of the PV sector. End of 2012 the implementation of the HTSM Innovation Contract was updated by all stakeholders to formulate only one Solar Roadmap for both the Topsectors HTSM and Energy. Under The Dutch Technology Roadmap Solar, the TNO program Solar is executed in the Solliance initiative that was established in Solliance has the ambition to be the central player for the thin film PV industry by bridging the gap between new thin film PV technologies and their industrial application, thus enabling a world-class thin film PV industry in the ELAT (Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen) region. Within Solliance strategic research collaborations with industry are developed by definition of Shared Research Programs with technology partners along the solar module manufacturing value chain. TNO is leading the thin film CIGS Shared Research Program in Solliance. In 2014 the SRP CIGS of Solliance evolved to a full Public Private Partnership (PPP) by the accession of Smit Ovens and DSM as industrial partners. Both companies signed a contract for at least 3 years for participation in the full CIGS Program. Close collaboration and synergy exists between the CIGS, Organic PV and, the newly established, high efficiency solar cells programs of Solliance. In 2014 the cooperation in Solliance was further strengthened by the opening of the Solliance building at the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven and the relocation of ECN, TNO and Holst Centre facilities and researcher to the new building. The CIGS SRP also leverages individual partner s participation fees through multiple partner contributions, matching funds (TKI and SMO) and EU projects. Participation in potential European Public Private Partnerships, like the Energy Materials Industrial Research Initiative (EMIRI), is actively pursued. EMIRI strives to create a contractual PPP in phase with Horizon 2020 start up in 2015 that provides an implementation mechanism for the EU SET Plan Materials Road Map. TNO is leading the PV work group of EMIRI to further align priorities of Solliance with European roadmaps on renewable energy and technology, specifically thin film PV. On national and regional level the cooperation with academic partners (TU Delft, University of Nantes, Radboud University Nijmegen, University of Hasselt, Hogeschool Zuyd and Avans Hogeschool) are also actively developed in various frameworks (M2I, STW, Solliance, TKI Solar Energy). 4.2 Program Lighting Introduction The lighting industry has been working on smart or intelligent lighting systems and solutions since the second oil crisis, during the 80s, mainly to achieve energy (and cost) savings. Nevertheless the market penetration for indoor lighting still is below 10% (outdoor <5%). Next to the business- and people aspect the most important technology reasons are: 1) the current smart solutions are very complex to get up and running, calibrated and commissioned, 2) the current smart solutions are relatively static (pre-programmed) in their design and cannot autonomously adapt to new lighting needs without considerable re-design effort, 3) the current smart lighting solutions are using a central command structure and propriety communication unable to interact with other applications like Mobility or Security.

37 TNO-rapport / 92 The program targets smart (intelligent) technology lighting solutions (HW/SW) which are: 1) easy to install (plug & play), 2) easy to use and 3) easy to maintain over lifetime enabling dynamic, personalized and integrated lighting solutions. This program researches how a common technology platform using a decentralized system approach can be established for indoor- and outdoor lighting applications open for multiple vendors and enabling seamlessly integration with Smart Buildings or Smart Cities overcoming the technology roadblocks encountered by earlier attempts to do so. In the second half of 2014 the Snellius Program was stopped due to lack of budget of one of the main partners and lack of new partners to compensate for this. Other options will be pursued to continue the activities in this field focussing on the demonstration of a smart lighting solution Activities 2014 Smart Lighting Solutions: development of a decentralized lighting control concept. This is a key step in making installation and management of the billions of light points in our world manageable. A decentralized approach is in our opinion a necessity for the realization of good, intelligent lighting, enabling concepts of smart cities and smart buildings. Human Centric Lighting Solutions: creating a new lighting concept that combines an equal or better user acceptance with substantially lower energy consumption. This concept is the corner stone of our approach towards sustainable lighting as it is good for People, Planet and Profit Results 2014 Results Smart Lighting Solutions State of the Art Networked Controlled Outdoor Lighting Systems In the context of the Smart Lighting Solutions Shared Research Program we have done a broad assessment in the field of networked controlled outdoor lighting systems. The outcomes are discussed on four different system levels: Objectives, Functionalities, Components and Communication. To conclude some considerations are given about R&D challenges for this market and the observed trends for Networked Controlled Outdoor Lighting are given. Tests on communication modules For the implementation of a smart wireless sensor network for smart lighting solutions, TNO investigated which hardware and protocols should be utilized for supporting the application of wireless nodes in a basement-like environment. In the application it is required that all nodes can communicate with each other and that there is no master node in the network that is controlling the nodes. The control of the nodes is distributed over the network. For communication it is only possible to use a broadcasting protocol since it is unknown how many and which nodes are connected to the network. It can be concluded that communication with the particular nodes (without using external antennas) is possible up to 30 meters. For a longer range, communication antennas and/or other protocol adaptations are required (for example hopping protocols). When all nodes attempt to communicate simultaneously, performance may drop if nodes are out of range of each other but try to address nodes within their overlapping range areas. A routing protocol especially designed for the basement environment needs to be developed and tested in order to ensure that all nodes are able to receive all communicated data. Considering the current

38 TNO-rapport / 92 communication performance and goal of this application with respect to communication this is expected to be feasible, however. System Design A first version of a Smart Lighting Solution (SLS) system, including a Central Control Unit and twelve SensorBoxes, has been developed and implemented in the optical corridor at the premises of TNO in Soesterberg, to be demonstrated to the stakeholders. A complete package of hardware/software system components was designed and integrated on system level in a structured way. This version serves as basis for further development of a system implementable in a real environment such as a parking garage. Smart Lighting Solutions tests in Soesterberg The system was tested in April Dynamic behaviour of the system could be tested according the test plan. There was still some incorrect system behaviour noticeable: the system still classifies a vehicle (simulated by running persons) as pedestrians. Further improvement is needed of the reasoner in the SensorBox (in which the classification of the detection is performed) to get a good functioning system. Results Human Centric Lighting Solutions Research plan to test innovative dynamic lighting concepts at multiple indoor and outdoor locations This activity focusses on the development of evidence-based dynamic lighting solutions in which a user can perform his or her activities (both visual as nonvisual) better, safer and more comfortably while using a minimum of light related energy and decreasing lighting related other costs. A dynamic lighting solution uses advanced communication networks that will optimize lighting of infrastructure (outdoor) and rooms (indoor) based on the presence of vehicles or persons, user needs and aspects like weather or glare. The validated lighting solutions have been converted into a common set of parameters, guidelines and codes of practice which were still lacking to date. In order to develop and validate dynamic lighting concepts different lead users have been selected each with their own application context and user needs. In a Masterplan document the research has been described that is conducted in each application context and how this research contributes to the overall aim to develop evidence based lighting concepts, and to prove concept validity and added value. Perceptual Lighting Quality Assessment Methods Lighting is not only essential for human functioning but it also creates specific impressions, generates desired patterns of behavior and contributes to visual comfort and feelings of safety. To develop and optimize evidence based lighting concepts, there is a need for validated and effective methods and techniques to assess to what extent lighting concepts meet their specific objectives, i.e. whether lighting indeed succeeds in manipulating the sensory aspects of the environment in such a way that people are supported and the intended effects are achieved (e.g. increased visual performance, feel comfortable in that environment, exhibit a desired behavior). An overview has been generated of evaluation measures, data collection and analysis methods that may serve to assess different aspects of perceptual lighting quality. Thereto, we identified appropriate methods and techniques to obtain data for several relevant parameters, statistically based data from participants and the external factors that have to be taken into account when studying a lighting concept (indoor or outdoor) in a field test. The perceptual lighting quality measures and evaluation procedures presented in this report may serve as an underlay for the design of experiments to test the effectiveness of new lighting concepts in practice.

39 TNO-rapport / 92 Human Centric Lighting Solutions/Assessment of light distributions in simulated indoor car park Laboratory experiments with static lighting conditions We investigated the possibility to improve the lighting of indoor car parks by designing and testing the concept of dynamically lighting the activity spot. A person in de car park is detected by sensors and the lighting nearby the person is set to a higher level than in the rest of the car park. The main goal of this lighting concept is reduction of lighting related energy use while improving or maintaining the level of perceived safety and comfort for the car park users. We conducted four perception experiments in the laboratory with static observers and measured the experience of comfort and safety for various photometric parameters for the activity spot. When the light spot in an activity spot is set at a lamp illuminance of 100 lx, a background with a lamp illuminance of 20 lx is the lowest light level with an acceptable experience of comfort and safety and the highest energy saving potential. The size and gradient of the light spot at the observer do not seem to determine the experience when this spot is the only activity spot in the room. When a second light spot is visible with another person in the activity spot, we found that the combination of a light spot size of 3 lamps (9 m) and a gradient of 30% resulted in an experience rating, that equaled the rating of the reference condition (100 lx for all lamps). To conclude, activity spots can be used to reduce lighting levels, and in potential reduce energy consumption, without compromising feelings of comfort and safety. Characteristics of valid activity spots applied in a windowless corridor were defined Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector The Snellius Program directly linked to the Lighting Roadmap of the Topsector High-Tech Systems and Materials (HTSM). As of 2015, the more system oriented activities have been transferred from TNO s theme Industry to the TNO theme Urbanisation, addressing the wider concept of Smart Buildings and Smart Cities rather than the underlying smart lighting technology components. Further developments will be positioned and reported in the TKI Energo Topsector. 4.3 Program Additive Manufacturing Introduction Additive manufacturing (AM) is an enabling technology with numerous advantages compared to the conventional subtractive manufacturing technologies. AM enables the manufacturing of complex, personalized and customized products at low cost. AM also offers the possibility to introduce multi-material products or parts with material gradients. AM integrates very well with design tools and CAD software and as a result, the AM approaches can significantly impact both time and cost savings, as well as inventory, supply chain management, assembly, weight, and maintenance. AM is seen as an enabling technology for many applications, such as embedded and smart integrated electronics (Internet of things, smart conformal and personalized electronics), complex high tech (sub-)modules made of ceramic or metal with multi-material or grading material properties, human centric products (like dentures, prostheses, implants). While new materials and manufacturing technologies are introduced in the market, we see that for many applications the technology is still immature: product quality is inferior to that obtained with conventional methods, the choice of available materials is limited, yield is low by process-induced defects, manufacturing costs are high, and productions speeds are typically low. The technological challenges are indicated in the strategic research

40 TNO-rapport / 92 agenda on Additive Manufacturing (SRA) of the AM platform 2014, and in several related roadmaps (like the consolidated roadmaps on metals, polymers, ceramics from the Brainport and High-Tech companies and the Dutch Topsector HTSM Printing Roadmap), which represents the future AM needs of the industry, see figure 1. Figure 1. Technology Roadmap, from the European Strategic Research Agenda. Additive manufacturing will play an important role in specific manufacturing chains, based on the benefits of customization and personalization, freedom of design and cost-effective small-scale and on-demand manufacturing. TNO focusses on the development of next generation additive manufacturing technology for manufacturing chains for the medical, high-tech equipment, integrated electronics and aerospace application domains. For this, TNO builds strategic alliances with complementary (inter-)national R&D partners and strongly engages its large (inter- )national network of material companies, equipment manufacturers and end users in shared and bilateral (B2B) innovation programs. These innovation programs are designed to develop world-class, next generation, additive manufacturing technology to enable or accelerate additive manufacturing innovations by companies along the additive manufacturing value chain. To address the identified needs, TNO has launched the Additive Manufacturing Shared Innovation Program ShIP AM with focus on: 1) process control and predictive modelling to improve product quality during powder bed fusion (the metal AM program), 2) improved material and process capabilities (engineering polymers, ceramics, printing concepts) for Vat photo-polymerization (vat photo-polymerization program) and 3) integration of Additive Manufacturing in production chains, making it an integral part of a next generation industry approach (the hybrid integration program), see figure 2.

41 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 2. Technology Roadmap of the Shared Innovation Program Additive Manufacturing. Metal AM Program The goal of the Metal Additive Manufacturing Program is to develop next generation Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) technology to improve part quality, production yield and dimensional stability, and dictate material properties. The major elements of this program are process modelling and simulation to enhance understanding and aide in process prediction, along with novel inspection and control technology to ensure the AM build maintains high quality. While TNO believes that PBF will play a major role in many markets, the current focus is with high-tech equipment and aerospace markets (freedom of design, lightweight, functionality). TNO brings more than a decade of PBF fusion experience to the table, with a strong track record in European projects, mechanical design optimization routines such as topology optimization, materials processing and modelling knowledge. TNO focuses in this program on: Processing window vs materials property determination. Multi-scale microstructural material modelling to predict mechanical behavior during build (towards virtual SLM). Material-Laser interaction and inspection technology for novel in-line inspection and process control (feed forward, closed loop control). Vat photo-polymerization Program The goal of the Vat photo-polymerization (VP) Program is to accelerate the adoption of Vat photo-polymerization additive manufacturing technology for highend production processes by bridging the gap between research and commercialization, by developing processes, materials and applications to manufacture fully functional, end-use parts using Vat photo-polymerization. The program has four focus areas: (1) new and improved materials, (2) improved resolution and surface quality, (3) Improved accuracy and repeatability, and (4) improved production cost efficiency. The initial focus of the program has been on the dental market (personalized, customized, on-demand manufacturing, and is currently extended to other sectors in the high tech market. A strong knowledge position in the field of biocompatible polymers has been developed. Dental materials certified for temporary use in the mouth (up to 1 month) have been introduced in the market. Materials for long term use are in the final

42 TNO-rapport / 92 stages of the certification process. A ceramic Al2O3/binder slurry for production of crack free ceramic parts with wall thicknesses of up to 10mm and sizes up to 50mm has been developed. Tool development is focusing on the patented force feedback (Lepus 1 development) and next generation laser diode array exposure systems which will be a breakthrough in resolution, build area and speed (Lepus Next Gen tool). For this system LEPUS Next Gen a patent application has been filed. Advanced recoating technology, to be able to handle high viscosity resins, is under development. This opens the way to develop resin systems with greatly improved material characteristics as well as composite and particulate filled materials. Hybrid manufacturing/integration Program The main challenges that drive the Hybrid Manufacturing Program are 1) the necessity to increase the efficiency of current AM processes to allow cost effective production and 2) transform the layout to allow integration of layer wise production in an industrial production sequence. The program brings additive manufacturing from prototyping towards industrialization with emphasis on price/speed while maintaining system flexibility, stability & reliability. Furthermore, the program targets for increasing production efficiency to allow creation of products a minute instead of products a day (factor 100). The program focusses on the orthotics market (insoles, braces, exoskeleton etc.) with spin-off to other markets that require personalized, customized, on-demand manufacturing and develops the next technology building blocks: High-speed/continuous AM, speed single pass deposition using inkjet implemented in a continuous production approach. In-line inspection technologies, high-speed, 2.5 D inspection. Integration/architecture (next generation AM platform) Results 2014 The dental application requires dedicated photopolymers (either fully organic or organic/inorganic composites), to satisfy the requirement of high impact strength, durability and bio-compatibility. Together with our partners, we have investigated the effect of different inorganic fillers on process-ability (e.g. viscosity, colloidal stability, light penetration) as well as mechanical properties (e.g. fractural strength and modulus, impact strength, abrasion resistance). Based on these formulations, our research partner developed bio-compatible materials to produce printed elements for dental prostheses. In addition, different routes to improve toughness of organic and composite materials were investigated. The technology was integrated in a newly developed vat photo-polymerization printer and introduced in the market in 2014 (see figure 3).

43 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 3. Left image: dental vat-photo-polymerization printer (D30, developed and commercialized by RapidShape). Middle image: close up with printed dentures from Vertex-NextDent. Right image: product launch at Dental Expo, Amsterdam Several applications, including dental, require large-size build platform, at high throughput, without sacrificing resolution. Currently, vat photo-polymerization systems are limited in at least one of: build size, resolution, and production speed. Because these limitations are mainly caused by limitations of the illumination system, we developed with a partner a novel light engine, that combines high speed, high-resolution and scalable for large area. This light engine was based on pixel grid scanning with arrays of multiple laser diodes. The pixel size of the projection is currently 20µm, which is an important improvement over existing state of the art systems. Within the program, we developed a new recoating system for fast, accurate and large area deposition of highly viscous materials. This re-coater technology was integrated with an exposure tool to evaluate the print capability of the technology. A picture of the developed tool is given in figure 4. Figure 4. Left image: LEPUS next Gen research platform (including novel light engines and re-coater). Right image: close up of light engine Results When TNO introduced its Hybrid Manufacturing Platform on the Euromold December 2011 the AM community was inspired, as described in the Economist (The Economist, Special report: manufacturing and innovation, Apr 21st 2012). The platform showed what the future of additive manufacturing could look like, when addition of processing steps does not immediately impose extra processing time, due to the parallel layout (see figure 5).

44 TNO-rapport / 92 In the past years, we have used this research platform to further develop singlepass additive manufacturing technology and the integration of this technology in small-scale flexible productions systems. Developed building blocks include 1) a novel system architecture for single-pass additive manufacturing (the PrintValley carousel), 2) high-speed single-pass additive manufacturing technologies based on jetting technology, 3) mechatronic concepts for 3D manufacturing (among other smart height-adjustment, 4) first version of pick-and-place robotics for product handling, 5) in-line metrology solution to for process and yield control, and 6) highspeed post-processing technology (selective ablation for surface polishing and support removal).7) software architecture for system control (communication protocols, ICT architecture, module control, 3D slicer for (multi-material) manufacturing). Figure 5. Single-pass AM research platform (tool and close-up). The Vat photo-polymerization technology is a very suitable route for ceramic and metallic part printing. The process flow typically involves the photo-polymerization of photo-sensitive resins to shape the 3D product (the resin typically has a high load of solid powder to obtain dense products), a de-binding step to remove the organic binder, and a sintering step to obtain dense ceramic products. Challenges include control of internal stresses during thermal processing and control of material properties (viscosity, powder size distribution, high solid loads (>40%vol). In the past period, ceramic formulations (based on Al2O3 powder) were developed, that combined the requirements of process-ability (viscosity, solids content, etc.) and high part quality after de-binding and sintering (zero internal stresses/voids). A proof-of-concept system was developed to experimentally validate high-viscous slurry concepts and formulations. Based on these slurries, a baseline process was developed which was used to investigate accuracy, crack-development and process repeatability of ceramic parts. Examples of printed ceramic parts are given in figure 6.

45 TNO-rapport / 92 Figure 6. Image of experimental setup and printed ceramic part Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector Within the Metal AM Program, we have started a Public Private Partnership with the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands (NLR) and The Materials Innovation Institute of The Netherlands (M2i). At the moment, 7 industrial partners subscribed to this program and collaborations with the Delft University of Technology and the University of Twente are an integral part of this PPP. Also, the PBF program has a strong position in European projects, in which the design, use cases and process aspects of metal additive manufacturing are addressed. Within the vat photo-polymerization program, a partnership with Chemelot was established comprising a program of 8 PhD students. In addition, a collaboration with ECN was established on multi-material additive manufacturing. Within this program, we will work among others on ceramic vat photo-polymerization. Academic collaborations within the program include Delft University of Technology (medical gripper), Fontys University of Applied Science and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In addition, multi-material vat photo-polymerization technology is part of the human-centric (dental) customization scope within the Smart Industry Fieldlab 3DMM. The Hybrid Integration Program has established research partnerships with Fraunhofer IPT, and the Danish Institute of technology DTI. In addition, we are setting up a strategic partnership with the High-Tech Systems Centre (HTSC) of the TU/e. Within this collaboration, we anticipate the development of next generation high-speed and multi-material Additive Manufacturing concepts, which will be part of the collaboration with the HTSC. At the moment, we have submitted plans for 3 PhD projects within this collaboration as well. 4.4 Program Healthcare Introduction The use of light as a core technology in medical instrumentation has become more and more common over the past years. However, taken the latest and foreseen developments in for instance (fluorescence) spectroscopy, nano-photonics and optical imaging into account, one can conclude that innovation in photonics based medical devices is by far not exploited to its full capacity and a lot of innovations that will improve the patients health outcome, expand and improve the functionality of medical devices and that will increase the sustainability of our healthcare system lie ahead. The Program Healthcare focusses on these innovations that within TNO are clustered in the so called van t Hoff Program. The van t Hoff Program is a collaborative research and innovation program combining the strong points of

46 TNO-rapport / 92 partners throughout the value chain in medical technology to accelerate technological innovation and their implementation in health care. The van t Hoff Program aims to improve medical diagnosis and therapy through the development of innovative medical devices based on photonics and biomedical technologies. By innovating together with industry we aim to ensure the actual application of the developments while creating economic impact. The various technologies will affect health outcomes in various ways. Better and faster diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in (a)symptomatic stages and personalized treatment will open up possibilities for better (drug related) treatment of patients leading to increased self-reported physical and mental health, prolonged participation to society, decrease in hospitalizations and visits to clinicians, and/or increased life time expectancy. Also, the non- or minimally invasive character of the technologies results in no or less burden to the patient. Minimally invasive surgical procedures are characterized by real time discrimination of tissue structures, leading to faster surgery, improved surgical quality (less multiple operations needed), preservation of function and a decrease of the use of (toxic) contrast agents. The van t Hoff Program was initiated by TNO in Within the van t Hoff Program, TNO collaborates with (Dutch) health foundations, industrial partners in the field of optical sensing and diagnostics as well as several leading (medical) research institutes and academic hospitals. The program has several long term goals that are embedded in 5 lines: In the selective ion measurement for dialysis line the goal is to develop a miniaturized selective ion sensor for sodium, potassium and calcium that can be integrated in a portable kidney and has sufficient accuracy to validate reuse of dialysate. In the detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases line the goal is to develop simple technology for safe, accurate and cost-effective diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer s disease, Parkinson s Disease). In the non- and minimally-invasive glucose measurement line the goal is to develop a commercially available non-invasive glucose sensor and a commercially available minimally-invasive glucose sensor. The modular fiber optic sensors for non- and minimally invasive diagnostics and surgery line goal is to develop simple screening technology for the risk assessment of (the development of) cancer. In the surgical imaging/image guide surgery line the goal is to develop spectroscopic devices that allow real-time imaging and identification of relevant tissue structures (nerves, vessels, tumour borders) during surgery and other medical procedures Activities 2014 Selective ion measurement for dialysis In 2014 proof of concept was demonstrated by means of a working model of the sensor for quantified Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement of sodium and potassium in spent dialysate that was realized within a laboratory setting. The setup was tested in the nephrology ward of Maastricht UMC (photo 1). Here we have measured the (change in) actual dialysate composition during dialysis session by sampling dialysate every 15 minutes and analysing the samples

47 TNO-rapport / 92 with both our system and the gold standard. With this experiments we ve demonstrated sufficient accuracy for potassium. We ve learned that we will have to improve accuracy of our sodium concentration measurement by a factor 10 in order to be able to deploy the sensor in various medical scenarios, and identified the reason why accuracy is what it is. Based on the on-site measurements, we ve learned that the robustness of the calibration procedure of the system will benefit from a redesign to compensate for thermal issues that are linked to the laser enclosure and offset of settings due to transportation of the system. Photo 1. Measuring in a relevant clinical environment at MUMC. Regarding the detection of calcium we have performed lab experiments to determine the number of photons that are emitted at 422 nm (characteristic wavelength for calcium). The lab tests and the measurements at Maastricht UMC provided functional and technical requirements for the improvement and extension of the functionality of the sensor. Based on these requirements and those that were derived from sessions with our partners and leading nephrologists we have set up a trade-off matrix of components that served as input for the design of a sensor that allows for accurate measurement of sodium concentrations during dialysis, expanding the functionality of the sensor with the calcium ion and eventually miniaturization of the sensor. Based on this matrix the concept was improved. The biggest adjustment in the concept is the implementation of an improved (more sensitive) spectrometer. The miniaturisation of the sensor has been worked out in a work plan. Detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases In 2014 the work focused on the development of a ring resonator biosensor for single-analyte measurements of neurodegenerative disease markers Amyloid Beta, tau and p-tau in cerebro spinal fluid (CSF). The research activities focussed on the one hand on the development of hardware and software of the readout unit and the sensor design. On the other hand the activities focussed on the development of the assay that is needed to detect specific biomarkers. Regarding the development of the readout unit and sensor design we improved the signal processing of the readout unit significantly, by a factor of 10. The higher resolution enables reliable measurements of lower concentrations of proteins. In order to improve the reproducibility of the system, the flowcel was redesigned to minimize the chance of creating air bubbles in the sample. This activity was performed in close corporation with the TU Delft. Furthermore, an on-chip temperature reference sensor was integrated in the system.

48 TNO-rapport / 92 Regarding assay development, we focused on the process of controlled application of antibodies on the chip. We have tested a new process to immobilise antibodies on the surface of the chip, which has to lead to a reproducible distribution of an antibody on the chip for an improved signal and reproducibility. Furthermore we ve demonstrated the binding of antibodies to the streptavidine. We performed experiments to test the affinity of 4 antibodies for Amyloid Beta. We experienced difficulties with the binding of Amyloid beta to the antibodies to the chip. We ve performed experiments to study the reason for this, but did not find a reasonable explanation yet. Therefore we did not achieve our 2014 goal to detect Amyloid Beta in a simple solution, with sensitivity at least as good as currently used ELISA-based methods. In 2014 we also focussed on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) on CSF of healthy persons and persons with PD. As also found in 2013, we identified significant differences in specific parts of the spectrum, but only when groups were considered and not on an individual basis. We analysed the data to see if making groups based on length of the disease and the severity of disease would improve the outcome on an individual level. We did not find a correlation between the length of the disease and the signal nor could we find a correlation between the severity of disease and the signal. Due to the inter-individual differences it was not possible to label the samples as healthy or sick. The Hersenstichting, Alzheimer Nederland and the Parkinson Vereniging initially participated in the van t Hoff Program with the goal to support R&D activities that will result in non-invasive technology for diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. In their first year (2013), activities were primarily focused on detection of single proteins with optical imaging methods, resulting in the development of a Ring Resonator based biosensor to detect biomarkers for neurodegenerative disease in biological fluids as the main research focus for However, the Ring Resonator biosensor and the optical signature still demand small samples of cerebro spinal fluids (CSF) or (eventually) blood. During the year, we have had several sessions with the Brain Foundations and key opinion leaders from our medical and technical advisory boards. We discussed (progress on) the research topics on our roadmap. In this sessions we have also discussed the possibility of developing an optical method to detect neurodegenerative diseases via the eye, performing retinal imaging resulting in a feasibility study in 2014 to determine if this topic could become a van t Hoff activity. Based on the feasibility study, we concluded that this trajectory would fit very well within the van t Hoff scope. As a second step we compiled a technical annex for this research trajectory, to be executed in Non- and minimally-invasive glucose measurement The technology that is under investigation for minimally-invasive measurement of glucose concentrations is based on mid-infrared evanescent field sensing. In this approach, mid-infrared (MIR) light (~10 µm) is guided through a fiber. Regarding the research on a minimally invasive sensor, the 2014 focus was on the effects of confounding biological factors in the mid infrared wavelength range. Our study shows a rich set of strong absorptions for glucose in the MIR region of cm-1, corresponding to C-O stretching vibrations. We have drafted a list of molecules to be considered for the MIR measurement of glucose in ISF and biological confounding factors in interstitial fiber-based measurements that will have to be taken into account. The results of the study will be incorporated in the sensor design of the study. We performed optical simulations that show that the mode distribution within a multimode fiber, and therefore the transmission at fixed glucose concentration, can

49 TNO-rapport / 92 change due to bending of the fiber, vibrations, etc. which impacts the detection limit: a 0.17% change in evanescent fraction corresponds to 1 mm detection resolution. Research activities for the non-invasive glucose sensor were initially focussed on the development of an OCT-based device that measures glucose under the finger nail. After consulting with our technical advisory board members, we concluded that the results did not show promising and, in close corporation with our stakeholders, we decided to terminate this trajectory. At the same time effort was made to incorporate activities on a Raman spectroscopy based non-invasive glucose sensor into van t Hoff. This was followed by alignment activities on the topic of dissemination with the Diabetesfonds (which resulted in an explanatory film on the technology by the Diabetesfonds ambassador Diederik Jeekel, a national press release and an item on the RTL evening news). Modular fiber optic sensors for non- and minimally invasive diagnostics and surgery In 2014 we have improved the design of our fiber optic system that is capable of measuring and quantifying the scattering, absorption and fluorescence of tissue, in vivo. We focussed on the reduction of the integration time of the device, bringing it down to 3 seconds to facilitate in vivo clinical measurement. Furthermore we ve improved the calibration procedure. Based on this work we have submitted a research proposal to the call Unieke Kansen from KWF/Alpe d HuZes. The proposal is entitled Patient-friendly screening for head and neck, lung and oesophageal cancer based on optical measurements of the buccal mucosa. The proposal was granted in December Within the project we will demonstrate the feasibility of measuring light-scattering related biomarkers of field carcinogenesis in the buccal mucosa of patients with H&N, lung and oesophageal cancer, in vivo. Surgical imaging/image guide surgery In 2014 the work focussed on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during surgery. Endogenous spectral fingerprints were successfully determined over an unprecedented wide spectral range for the following human tissues: Normal colon, tumorous colon, mesenteric adipose tissue, thyroid, parathyroid, nerves, arteries, veins and ureter. Especially the prevention of collateral damage to nerves is a universal challenge in all types of surgeries. Many of these signatures were found beyond the detection range of normal silicon-based cameras, thus forming a stimulus for new surgical camera types (e.g. InGaAs). The discovered contrast features can be applied by imaging systems during routine surgery as an adjunct to current imaging modalities and possibly become the new gold standard. Furthermore, we have developed a prototype NIR fluorescence imaging device to provide anatomical guidance during endocrine surgery. The parathyroid is the only tissue that fluoresces in the NIR wavelength region under 785 nm excitation and can therefore be easily visualized using this natural biological contrast. We solved the (general) problem of obtaining real-time pixel-to-pixel matched overlays of NIR auto fluorescence and white light imaging for improved image-guidance. A simple and cheap solution for filtering of VIS and NIR wavelengths was developed, allowing a display (in real time on a camera screen) of the perfect overlay of the normal white light image and NIR fluorescence image, with operating lights on. A patent application on this invention is currently being prepared Results 2014 Selective ion measurement for dialysis

50 TNO-rapport / 92 We have built a functional model of a sensor that uses optical technology and can actually measure ions specific during dialysis in-line, resulting in quantified ion levels where the competition can only measure quantified conductivity of dialysate. Detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases Ring resonator biosensor We have improved the signal processing of the readout unit significantly -by a factor of 10-, we redesigned components of the chip and an on-chip temperature reference sensor was integrated in the system. Furthermore we demonstrated the binding of streptavidine to the chip and antibodies to the streptavidine. Retinal imaging for diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease Within this new research trajectory we performed a feasibility study on both the business case and the biomedical technology opportunities. Non- and minimally-invasive glucose measurement We have demonstrated that a minimally invasive glucose sensor based on the evanescent wave principle requires an extremely stable mode distribution over the fiber. Furthermore we clarified the challenge (to be further addressed in 2015) to get a practical sensor since the body is such a dynamic entity. Modular fiber optic sensors for non- and minimally invasive diagnostics and surgery The optical design of the multi diameter single fiber reflectance and fluorescence technology is improved in order to decrease the integration time of a measurement and to enable miniaturisation of the system. We acquired a new project and partners in the van t Hoff program (KWF and ErasmusMC). Surgical imaging/image guide surgery We developed low-cost technology (patent pending) for anatomical guidance during endocrine surgery and demonstrated the distinction between parathyroid and thyroid during surgery. In 2014 our work on the sensor development for dialyses and surgical imaging was awarded by medical experts, we have had 3 demonstrator sessions at conferences, 3 papers published (2 in peer reviewed journals), 1 paper accepted in a peer reviewed journal and we have submitted a paper to a peer reviewed journal. Furthermore we have presented at 8 conferences. We ve sent out a national and international press release on the non-invasive glucose measurement activities and showed our work on this topic on national television (RTL evening news on 14 November 2014). Also we have launched an explanatory film on the technology for non-invasive glucose management, together with the Diabetesfonds. Finally, the PhD-trajectory in the surgical imaging line was successfully finalized in December Results Even though the program was officially launched in 2012, preparations started in Since then we acquired in depth expertise on optics, optomechatronics, intelligent imaging, pharmacokinetics, and systems biology applied in the field of medical technology. We use this knowledge to demonstrate our level of expertise to potential new partners, we presented at national and international congresses (as invited speaker), we published papers (preferably in peer reviewed journals) and we contributed to standardization activities (e.g. IEC TC 62/SC 62D/MT 20). In addition, by means of demonstrators at events, press releases and media (TV) performances we have disseminated on the one hand our program results and on the other hand our unique way of working (building an ecosystem consisting of

51 TNO-rapport / 92 health foundations, hospitals, key opinion leaders, industry partners that enables the acceleration of medical and technological innovation and their implementation in health care). All dissemination activities contribute to the creation of awareness on our activities and becoming attractive to potential new partners. At the start of the program, the van t Hoff Program endeavoured to employ models of light-tissue interaction, light propagation, optical component characteristics, sensor motion effects and other error sources to clarify and compensate the noise originating from biological variation. In the first quarter of 2014, we decided after sound boarding with our partners and stakeholders to emphasize the goal of the program (development of innovative medical devices) better by restructuring the program activities leading to the identification of 5 the focus areas and described above. Over the years we have connected 7 health foundations, 4 academic hospitals and 6 companies to the program. We demonstrated our technology at conferences. We were on national television and made an explanatory movie on one of our technologies. We have filed 4 patent applications and prepared 5 more (to be filed in 2015). We presented at more than 15 conferences, published in more than 6 journals (5 peer reviewed), submitted to 2 per reviewed journals and furthermore contributed to 2 hand books on medical innovation. We ve also contributed to a PhD trajectory within LUMC. Furthermore a van t Hoff PhD trajectory that was carried out within Maastricht UMC was successfully defended in December Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector We combine the needs identified by charity health foundations and leading academic hospitals with the technological skills and resources of industrial companies and research institutes. Importantly, key opinion leaders in medical research are involved in research activities and/or advisory boards. The van t Hoff Program thus forms an ecosystem which enables acceleration of medical and technological innovations and their implementation in health care (see figure 1). Figure 1. The innovative ecosystem facilitated within the van t Hoff Shared Innovation Program: a collaborative research and innovation program combining the strong points of all partners to accelerate medical technological innovation and their implementation in health care. The content of the program is defined in close cooperation with each partner, where TNO coordinates the program and guards the overall program goals. TNO consults

52 TNO-rapport / 92 each participant in the program lines on the course to be taken, taking into account progress made previously and relevant external developments. The content of the program is fully into line with the Roadmap Healthcare of the Topsector High-Tech Systems and Materials. The program manager of van t Hoff is also the secretary of the Roadmap HTSM Healthcare and therefore uniquely positioned to guard this process. Furthermore, the program is in line with topics of the Roadmaps of the Dutch Topsector Life Sciences and Health, in particular regarding self-management, home care and ICT and Imaging & image guided therapies. Based on all inputs TNO updates the program description annually by means of a technical annex in which the program goals, structure, work packages, deliverables, time tables and risk mitigation are described. TNO updates the partners on the progress via dedicated quarterly reports and meetings and the annual partner meeting. The program has a strong ambition to grow. We will do this by bringing in new partners. For the year to come we will focus on at least 1 additional company and 1 (international) health organization per program line as a paying partners in the program. Furthermore we foresee new collaborations with 2 universities.

53 TNO-rapport / 92 5 VP Automotive Mobility Systems 5.1 Inleiding Binnen TNO Thema Mobiliteit is het VP Automotive Mobility Systems (AMS) gericht op het versterken van de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse Automotive- en Mobiliteitsindustrie met het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) als regievoerder. Het VP AMS sluit daarmee rechtstreeks aan op de Roadmap van de TKI HTSM Automotive. Het VP AMS richt zich vooral op het ontwikkelen van innovatieve oplossingen voor het verbeteren van de voertuigveiligheid, zuiniger en schoner maken van voertuigen en verbeteren van de duurzaamheid, veiligheid en betrouwbaarheid van het verkeer. Hierbij wordt intensief samengewerkt met de Nederlandse automotive industrie en toenemend ook met Nederlandse verkeersindustrie en ander industrieën die zich in nieuwe segmenten van mobiliteit gaat bewegen. 5.2 Uitvoering 2014 Hoogtepunten in 2014 Truck Platooning Truck Platooning op basis van twee voertuigen bespaart brandstof, vergroot de veiligheid en zorgt ervoor dat effectiever gebruik kan worden gemaakt van de beschikbare wegcapaciteit. TNO richt zich op een 5-jarig implementatieprogramma met als einddoel dat er een wettelijk kader beschikbaar is aan het einde van deze periode dat het mogelijk maakt om met dit concept op de Nederlandse snelwegen te kunnen rijden: robuust, veilig en efficiënt. Naast de technologische ontwikkeling van het concept - het automatisch remmen, gas geven en sturen van het volgende voertuig en de communicatie tussen de voertuigen - is er ingezet op fail-safe technologieën om de robuustheid van het systeem te waarborgen. Dit is noodzakelijk voor het kunnen gaan testen op de openbare weg. Naast de technologische ontwikkeling is er samenwerking gezocht met relevante partijen die noodzakelijk zijn voor het behalen van de 5-jarige doelstelling. Dit betreft zowel partijen vanuit de industrie, de transportsectoren de overheid. Fietsersveiligheid Nederland is een van de verkeer veiligste landen van Europa. Dit geldt echter niet voor fietsers. Maatregelen zijn nodig om het aantal fietsverkeersslachtoffers terug te

54 TNO-rapport / 92 brengen. Er is een breed scala aan interventies mogelijk. TNO zet in op de volgende twee sporen. Ten eerste de aanpak van fietsverkeersdoden door maatregelen in de auto, aangezien 80% van de fietsdoden in Nederland motorfiets-fiets ongevallen zijn. Daarnaast richt TNO zich op het voorkomen van zwaargewonden fietsers. Voorbeelden van interventies vanuit de auto zijn automatisch remmen en/of een externe airbag. In opdracht van het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) heeft TNO in het SaveCAP-project (www.savecap.org) samen met partners (Autoliv, Fietsersbond, Centraal Beheer Achmea) prototypes ontwikkeld en het belang van fietsersveiligheid gepromoot. TNO leidt nu het CATS project (www.tno.nl/cats) om de marktintroductie van fietsveilige auto s te versnellen. Samen met vrijwel alle belangrijke spelers in de Europese automotive industrie (15 fabrikanten en toeleveranciers) en onderzoeks- en test instituten werkt TNO aan een protocol om auto s in de toekomst op fietsveiligheid te testen. Euro NCAP beoogt introductie van fietsveiligheidstesten begin In het project Veilig en Bewust op de Fiets heeft TNO samen met partners (Roessingh Research and Development en Fietsersbond) in opdracht van IenM enkelzijdige ongevallen alsook maatregelen om deze te voorkomen onderzocht. De gegenereerde ideeën zijn samengebracht in een prototype intelligente fiets. In 2015 zal het concept samen met marktpartijen doorontwikkeld worden. Fietsveiligheid leeft internationaal. Dat blijkt uit de populariteit van het internationale congres op fietsveiligheid (www.icsc2014.eu) waarvan TNO medeoprichter is. Naast de hierboven vermelden projecten is TNO betrokken bij andere fietsveiligheidsinitiatieven, zoals project VRU ITS (www.vruits.eu), COST action HOPE (www.bicycle-helmets.eu), veilige (fiets)kruispunt. Flex Fuel TNO s Flex Fuel Control team werkt aan geavanceerde verbrandingsconcepten die een hoog verbrandingsrendementen combineren met ultra lage emissies. Door nauwkeurige menging van een hoog en laag reactieve brandstof (diesel en aardgas) in de cilinder kan het gewenste verbrandingsgedrag gerealiseerd worden: Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI). Dit concept is gebaseerd op gecontroleerde zelfontsteking en is uiterst gevoelig voor bedrijfscondities zoals temperatuur en brandstofsamenstelling. TNO richt zicht op de combinatie van diesel en aardgas omdat dit grote CO2 en brandstofkosten reductie mogelijk maakt zonder de noodzaak van een roetfilter en SCR katalysator. Ultieme doelstelling is de combinatie van een zeer grote range aan (bio)brandstoffen. Uitvoering van het programma Het VP AMS is onderverdeeld in een aantal samenhangende deelprogramma s: Automated Driving: ontwikkeling van oplossingen voor voertuigautomatisering ten behoeve van veiliger, schoner en meer efficiënt verkeer.

55 TNO-rapport / 92 Cooperative Mobility: ontwikkeling van oplossingen voor verbeterde veiligheid en efficiëntie van het verkeer door middel van V2X communicatie. Low Carbon HD Transport: ontwikkeling van oplossingen voor reductie van CO2 uitstoot van commerciële voertuigen in het verkeerssysteem. Binnen deze deelprogramma s wordt gefocust op oplossingen voor specifieke klanten en markten in zogenaamde PMCs. Door expliciet een koppeling met een beoogde toepassing en markt te maken wordt meer focus verkregen in de kennis en technologie ontwikkeling. Bedrijven en andere stakeholder uit de markt worden zo vroeg mogelijk in de ontwikkeling van de oplossing betrokken. Vraagsturingsproces 2014 Het Vraagsturingsproces is vooral ingericht door actieve participatie in het roadmapteam van de TKI HTSM Roadmap Automotive. Dit roadmapteam, onder voorzitterschap van AutomotiveNL, is samengesteld uit vertegenwoordigers van de bedrijven en kennisinstellingen die samenwerken in het Automotive TKI Programma van HTSM. Het roadmapteam is verantwoordelijk voor opstelling en actualisatie van de TKI HTSM Automotive Roadmap en borgen dat deze gedragen wordt door haar stakeholders. Het roadmapteam initieert eventueel initiatieven voor TKI grondslag of toeslag projecten en beoordeelt of projectvoorstellen passen op de TKI Roadmap en adviseert daarover aan de roadmaptrekker. TNO heeft in 2014, met de TKI Automotive Roadmap als uitgangspunt, zijn deelprogramma s ingericht en samenwerkingen opgezet met bedrijven (die vaak een actieve rol spelen in de TKI Roadmap). Samenwerking nationaal en internationaal Samenwerking binnen de Topsectoren Het VP AMS focust zich volledig op een onderzoeksprogramma dat past binnen de ambitie van het TKI HTSM Automotive. De drie deelprogramma s sluiten op de volgende wijze aan op de Roadmap van het TKI: Automated Driving Dit deelprogramma sluit aan bij de trend in de automotive sector dat steeds meer voertuigfuncties geautomatiseerd worden en dat voertuigen tijdelijk of in de toekomst zelfs voor langere tijd geautomatiseerd kunnen rijden. TNO richt zich in dit programma vooral op technologie en randvoorwaarden die (coöperatief) automatisch rijden mogelijk maakt en op wat dit betekent voor de bestuurder en voor andere (kwetsbare) weggebruikers. In 2014 is gestart met de ontwikkeling van het mogelijk maken van truck platooning. De focus in het TNO programma ligt op (hoog)dynamisch maneuvreren, veiligheid van kwetsbare verkeersdeelnemers, effecten op de bestuurder van (automatisch) ingrijpen, robuuste controls met als doel het versnellen van de implementatie van automatisch rijden. Cooperative Mobility Coöperatieve Mobiliteit is al veel langer een speerpunt van TNO. Samen met 3TU is TNO verantwoordelijk voor de uitvoering van het DITCM Programma. TNO richt zich in het automotive programma vooral op toepassingen van communicatie die direct de voertuigveiligheid verbetert. Dit zijn vaak tijd kritische toepassingen die direct ingrijpen in veiligheidssystemen in het voertuig. In 2014 zijn acht projecten samen met DITCM gerealiseerd Thema s waren: Datafusie ten behoeve van verkeersmanagement innovatie, Architectuur en interoperabiliteit, (cyber)security en PKI s, opschalingsplatform (Spits), standaardisatie/dutch profile, Human factors en gedrag, innovatieve verkeerscentrale, en standaardisatie of indicatoren voor logging data.

56 TNO-rapport / 92 Low Carbon HD Transport Nederland heeft een sterke transport sector met belangrijke OEMs en toeleveranciers in trucks, bussen en speciale zware voertuigen en een sterke logistieke sector. Dit deelprogramma richt zicht op reductie van de CO2 uitstoot in het (integrale) transport systeem. In 2014 zijn verdere stappen gezet richting toepassing van low carbon fuels en verhoging van verbrandingsrendement (zie par flex fuel), verbetering van emissies en verbruik in werkelijke (Real World) inzet van voertuigen en in het toepassen van voorspellende informatie voor het optimaliseren van het energieverbruik van het voertuig. Samenwerking met Nederlandse universiteiten De bestaande samenwerkingsverbanden van TNO met diverse Nederlandse universiteiten is in 2014 voortgezet. Belangrijkste initiatieven zijn: DITCM: samenwerking TNO met 3TU op het gebied van coöperatieve mobiliteit. DAVI: samenwerking met TUD en ander partijen op het gebied van automatisch rijden. ASD PDeng opleiding: twee eindopdrachten van trainees en een in-house project. Afstudeerders en promovendi: TNO blijft ruimhartig opdrachten verzorgen. Dit jaar is medewerker Jeroen Ploeg gepromoveerd. UHD s en deeltijd hoogleraren: samenwerking wordt uitgebreid. Doel is om in elk deelprogramma een verankering bij een universiteit te borgen. Nationale samenwerkingsverbanden TKI HTSM Automotive: in 2014 is ruim 6,5 miljoen Euro grondslag gevormd TNO vooral in contractonderzoek vanuit de automotive industrie bij TNO. Tevens is in 2014 een nieuw TKI project gestart met partners VDL bus & coach en Heavac. Ook zijn er drie nieuwe TKI projecten in voorbereiding die begin 2015 zullen starten. AutomotiveNL is de sectororganisatie voor de Nederlandse automotive industrie met als doelstelling het bevorderen van een bloeiend en groeiend automotive netwerk in Nederland door realisatie van een internationale automotive hotspot voor Smart Mobility en Future Powertrain. AutomotiveNL heeft een innovatieprogramma dat de inhoud van de Roadmap TKI HTSM Automotive afdekt. AutomotiveNL is belangrijke partner voor TNO in de realisatie van projecten binnen de TKI. DITCM Innovations is een partnership van leidende Nederlandse bedrijven, overheden en instellingen op het gebied van coöperatieve mobiliteit. Binnen DITCM Innovations wordt gewerkt aan een gezamenlijk innovatieprogramma. Internationale samenwerkingsverbanden ERTRAC, the European Technology Platform for Road Transport. ERTRAC werkt aan een gemeenschappelijke Strategic Research Agenda, waaraan TNO ook haar bijdrage levert. Andere NL partners zijn DVS en SWOV. imobility (vroeger genaamd esafety) forum. Deze groep werkt aan een gemeenschappelijke Strategic Research Agenda op het gebied van mobiliteit. EARPA, Vereniging van Road Transport R&D Providers. Vanuit TNO wordt secretariaat ingevuld en heeft de themadirecteur Mobiliteit zitting in de board. Focus ligt op automotive R&D. TNO is trekker en heeft key posities in de meeste Task Forces. Verder heeft hier consortiumvorming voor EU projecten plaats.

57 TNO-rapport / 92 EGVIA, the European Green Vehicles Initiative Association is het samenwerkingsverband van Europese bedrijven en kennisinstellingen op het gebied van schone voertuigtechnologie. TNO participeert actief in EGVIA in het voorbereiden (en uitvoeren) van pre-competitief Europese onderzoek. ERTICO ITS Europe is een multi-sector, Public Private Partnership die zich richt op de ontwikkeling en implementatie van Intelligente Transport Systemen. TNO is lid van dit partnership. Met ERTICO worden regelmatig projectvoorstellen in het EU Kaderprogramma geschreven. In 2014 participeerde TNO binnen VP AMS in een 20-tal Europese projecten binnen het Europese programma s. In deze projecten wordt samengewerkt met een groot aantal internationale partners. 5.3 Resultaten 2014 Het onderzoek binnen het VP AMS is gefocust op de ontwikkeling van oplossingen ten behoeve van specifieke product markt combinaties (PMCs). Met deze focus sluit het VP onderzoek aan op de concrete behoefte van haar (industriële) stakeholders. De resultaten van het programma in 2014 worden hieronder samengevat per PMC Automated Driving Safety State Estimation Ontwikkeling van technologie om veiligheidstoestand van een voertuig real-time te schatten ten behoeve van voertuigdynamica. Realisatie van een collision avoidance demonstrator waarin een hoog dynamische manoeuvre wordt uitgevoerd de grens van voertuigstabiliteit. De TNO Tyre State Estimatior heeft significante stappen gemaakt richting een real-time toepasbaar schattingsalgorithme. Dit is een belangrijke input voor beheersing van hoog dynamische (automatische) voertuigmaneuvres. Het EU project EMC2 is gestart, het zal zich richten op veilige controls van complexe veiligheid kritische scenario s. Real Life Safety Methodology Ontwikkeling van methodologie voor de ontwikkeling en validatie van actieve veiligheidssystemen. Bijzonder focus op veiligheid van kwetsbare verkeersdeelnemers (fietsers). Start van door TNO geleide CATS consortium (Volvo, BMW, VW, Daimler, TMC, ) dat test methodologie voor fietsersveiligheid gaat ontwikkelen. In Veilig en Bewust 2 is een intelligente fiets die ouderen ondersteunt, ontwikkeld. (https://www.tno.nl/nl/over-tno/nieuws/2014/12/ouderen-veilig-op-weg-met-eersteintelligente-fiets/). Evaluatie methodiek voor Actieve veiligheid en Real Life Safety Methodiek is verder ontwikkeld in een aantal Europese projecten (o.a. ASSESS, AsPeCCS, InteractIV, AdaptIV, ). Intelligent Vehicle Situational Awareness Ontwikkeling van een platform en algoritmes voor integratie van sensoren en communicatie in het voertuigen ten behoeve van actieve veiligheidssystemen. In het project Collision avoidance for VRU is een AEB-systeem ontwikkeld dat auto s automatisch laat remmen voor fietsers.

58 TNO-rapport / 92 De C-ACC applicatie (automatisch volgen van een voertuig) is uitgebreid met automatisch sturen en invoegen. In een Kiem project is onderzocht hoe voertuigen meer zich meer zelf organiserend kunnen gedragen. Ten behoeve van het Truck Platooning project is de controller voor het automatisch volgen met een truck verder ontwikkeld tot een robuust product dat korte volgafstanden kan realiseren. Human Behaviour Predictive Modelling Ontwikkeling van mensmodellen (cognitief en biomechanisch) die het gedrag van bestuurders en kwetsbare weggebruikers kunnen voorspellen. VRU behaviour prediction heeft een algoritme opgeleverd waarmee de baan van een fietser kan worden voorspeld, op basis van waarneming (met camera s) vanuit een auto van beweging van de fietser. Transition of control heeft een concept gerealiseerd voor een agent die bestuurders van een platoonende truck begeleidt tijdens het omschakelen van manueel naar automatisch en vice versa (en sluit daarmee aan op Truck Platooning). Met de Driver-Cyclist Scenario Generatie is een goede eerste stap gemaakt die kan leiden tot het (automatisch) verzamelen en categoriseren van veiligheid kritische scenario s die kunnen dienen als input/validatie voor veiligheidssystemen Cooperative mobility Cooperative Development Tools & Methodology Ontwikkeling van tools en methodologie voor het ontwerpen en valideren van coöperatieve systeemoplossingen. Een gedetailleerd plan hoe de toolchain in de komende jaren verder opgebouwd moet worden vanuit de bestaande (losse) tools is nu al beschikbaar. Dit heeft geleid tot een beter beeld hoe de toolchain aansluit bij behoeften vanuit de roadmap. Secure, Robust and Scalable Cooperative Systems Technologie en kennis die de opschaling van coöperatieve systemen moet versnellen. Focus is op (Cyber)security, robuustheid en schaalbaarheid. Het project heeft zicht in 2014 sterk gefocusseerd op het security aspect en anticipeert daarmee op vragen vanuit DITCM, Connecting Mobility, Beter Benutten, Connect, ANL en RWS (ITS corridor). Security staat nu op de landelijke agenda en is vanuit de hiervoor genoemde partijen bij DITCM belegd. Er is een security demonstrator voor C-ACC gerealiseerd om daarbij aansluiting te vinden bij het Truck Platooning project. Het realiseren van een integrale oplossing met PKI system bleek (nog) een stap te ver vanwege onvoldoende consensus in de markt en beschikbaarheid van bestaande oplossingen en tools om dit te realiseren. Platform for Cooperative Systems Platform technologie voor de integratie van coöperatieve systemen. Integratie van in-car, road-side en back-office systemen in één platform om complexe services te realiseren. In een brede portefeuille van projecten is de ontwikkeling van integratie van coöperatieve systemen naar een breed inzetbaar en gedragen platform dichterbij gekomen.

59 TNO-rapport / 92 Stappen zijn gemaakt op het gebied van integratie, midleware en het ondersteunen van eerste applicaties als hazzard warning, speed advice, etc Low Carbon HD Transport Real World Performance Oplossingen en tools voor het verbeteren van real-world brandstofverbruik en emissies van heavy duty voertuigen. In TKI project Next Generation Aftertreatment is verder modelkennis opgebouwd rondom interactie motor/aftertreatment/voertuig inzet. In een simulatie studie zijn concepten voor thermal management onderzocht. In model based OBD is de potentie van virtual sensing (roet) onderzocht. Dit kan leiden tot control strategieën die fijnstof uitstoot actief kunnen beïnvloeden. Er is een start gemaakt met de ontwikkeling van een multi-level energy optimization toolchain. Met deze toolchain zal de CO2 optimalisatie potentieel in het hele transportsysteem worden beschouwd. Dit zal in 2015 als een nieuwe PMC worden voortgezet. De SIMCAT toolchain is verder geactualiseerd voor dual layer technologie en beter beschrijving van effecten als thermische veroudering en vergiftiging. Flex Fuel Controls Controls oplossingen voor reductie van brandstofverbruik (door verhoging van het verbrandingsrendement) en voor verlaging van CO2 uitstoot (door toepassing van low-carbon fuels). Verbetering van de prestatie van het dual fuel RCCI concept bij hoge lasten geborgd (50% BTE) op robuuste wijze. Er is een demonstrator gerealiseerd (samen met partner). Ontwikkeling op het gebied van modelvorming, controls ontwikkeling en validatie op demonstrator platform lopen simultaan. Onderzoek loopt door in Real-time implementatie van een van een control concept op basis van closed loop combustion control. De real-time performance wordt nog verder verbeterd. Een verkennende studie naar waterstof plasma als middel om metaanslip in een RCCI concept te reduceren. Predictive Powertrain Controls Controls oplossingen voor optimaliseren van energiemanagement in het voertuig door toepassing van voorspellende informatie over route, verkeer, bestuurder, etc. Op het gebied van adaptieve strategieën voor energy management zijn modellen (verder) ontwikkeld ten behoeve van identificeren van de rijcylcus, status van de batterij (state of health en state of charge) en toepassing in verschillende voertuigconfiguraties. Een significante stap richting predictive energy management is gezet in een TKI project met VDL en Heavac op het gebied van energy managment van bussen waarin met name klimaatregeling in de bus als factor wordt meegenomen. 5.4 Resultaten Plan (Samengevat uit Meerjarenprogramma VPs Mobiliteit )

60 TNO-rapport / 92 Het Vraaggestuurde Programma Automotive Mobility Systems (VP AMS) richt zich op het ontwikkelen van systemen voor automotive mobiliteit en op het ontwikkelen van (nieuwe) bedrijvigheid in vooral de automotive sector en de verkeersindustrie. In het plan werd de volgende impact beoogd: Focus op drie belangrijke factoren die het totale verkeerssysteem beïnvloeden; de mens (gedrag), middelen (voertuigen en infrastructuur) en beleid. Concentreren op het ontwikkelen van oplossingen in het verkeerssysteem die commercieel vermarktbaar zijn. De belangrijkste focus in dit VP ligt op het ontwikkelen van (technologische) oplossingen. Deze zijn gericht op een nieuwe generatie van een verkeerssysteem waar bij de grenzen tussen voertuig, omgeving, infrastructuur en verkeersmanagement vervagen. Optimalisatie van het gedrag en de effecten van het verkeerssysteem zullen met integrale oplossingen over dit gehele systeem heen worden bereikt. De link met beleid wordt gemaakt door vooral te concentreren op het demonstreren van integrale oplossingen in demonstraties en pilots om daarmee de specifieke voordelen van de oplossing en eventuele beleidsconsequenties aan te geven. In het VP AMS wordt aandacht besteedt aan: Technologie: het effect van technische (deel)oplossingen op het gehele systeem. Systeem: aandacht voor (de technische aspecten van) integrale systeemoplossingen. Implementatie: het uitrollen van systeemoplossingen naar toepassing in de praktijk. Het programma concentreert zich op drie programmalijnen waarin de belangrijkste doelstellingen op het gebied van Betrouwbaar, Economisch, Veilig en Duurzaam terugkomen: Intelligente veiligheid: het toepassen van intelligente sensorsystemen, communicatie (C2C en C2I) en modelgebaseerde toestandschatting voor het ontwikkelen van advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) ter voorkomen van ongelukken. Betrouwbaar verkeer: het toepassen van ICT en integratie van voertuig gebonden technologie met verkeersmanagement voor het optimaliseren van doorstroming van het verkeer en het voorkomen van incidenten. Duurzame voertuigaandrijving: verbetering van het brandstofverbruik en emissies van de voertuigaandrijving (mn CO2), verdere elektrificering van de voertuigaandrijving en integratie van het voertuig in integrale verkeerssystemen die milieuzonering mogelijk maken.

61 TNO-rapport / 92 Vraaggestuurde Programma Automotive Mobility Systems Intelligente veiligheid Betrouwbaar verkeer Duurzame aandrijving Technologie Systemen implementatie Resultaten Intelligente veiligheid Belangrijke stappen in verbetering van de verkeersveiligheid zijn gerealiseerd doordat de veiligheidssystemen in voertuigen steeds verder opschuiven van injury mitigation naar collision avoidance. Dit wordt bereikt door gebruik te maken van: Verbetering van de situational awareness van het voertuig. Automatisch ingrijpen in het voertuig op een adaptieve wijze. De bestuurder op een adequate wijze ondersteunen bij het vermijden van een ongeluk en tijdens/na het ingrijpen van het veiligheidssysteem. Steeds meer gebruik makend van data en communicatie (ICT). Terwijl voertuigen (auto s) steeds veiliger worden wordt de relatieve veiligheid van kwetsbare verkeersdeelnemers verzwakt. Daarom wordt extra aandacht besteed aan deze groep verkeersdeelnemers. In de afgelopen vier jaar heeft TNO significant bijgedragen in het versnellen van deze ontwikkelingen. Voorbeelden van resultaten die hierin zijn bereikt: De Situational awareness is verbeterd door de ontwikkeling van het IVSP (Intelligent Vehicle Safety Platform) dat sensordata (GPS, vision, radar,...) en V2X communicatie mogelijk maakt en dit uitbreid met een collision & injury riskassessment. Dit platform wordt o.a. gebruikt in projecten als de intelligente kruising die op dit moment in Helmond wordt gerealiseerd. Een belangrijke trend is dat steeds meer voertuigfuncties worden geautomatiseerd en dat in veiligheid kritische omstandigheden de controle van het voertuig wordt overgenomen. TNO heeft in de afgelopen periode veel demonstratieprojecten gerealiseerd (bijvoorbeeld collision avoidance voor fietsers waarbij de auto automatisch remt als een botsing met een fietser onafwendbaar is en de fietser gelijktijdig wordt gewaarschuwd. Samen met de industrie zijn methodieken en (test)protocollen ontwikkeld om de effectiviteit van deze systemen aan te tonen ten behoeve van certificatie (Real Life Safety Methodiek). Met de toenemende automatisering van het voertuig is goede ondersteuning en begeleiding van de bestuurder essentieel voor acceptatie van deze oplossingen. In diverse (Europese) projecten is met de industrie gewerkt aan

62 TNO-rapport / 92 concepten voor ondersteuning van bestuurders (o.a. InteractIVe en AdaptiIVe). Ook op het gebied van fietsersveiligheid is in het project Veilig en Bewust op de fiets (zie par ) gewerkt aan ondersteuning van kwetsbare groepen fietsers. De effectiviteit van (automatische) veiligheidssystemen kan significant worden verbeterd als deze systemen met de wegebruikers en met elkaar informatie kunnen delen. Coöperatieve veiligheid is een belangrijk speerpunt van TNO om intelligentie aan de veiligheid toe te voegen. Het eerde genoemde IVSP platform ondersteunt dit. In de afgelopen periode zijn diverse oplossingen hiervoor ontwikkeld en gedemonstreerd (bijvoorbeeld op intertraffic demonstraties). Betrouwbaar verkeer Voor de verbetering van de doorstroming en efficiëntie van het verkeer is binnen het VP AMS in de afgelopen periode vooral gewerkt aan coöperatieve technologie en verbetering van de betrouwbaarheid en veiligheid van deze oplossingen. Door voertuigen met elkaar en met de infrastructuur te laten communiceren is het mogelijke om te anticiperen op onverwachte verkeerssituaties en om het ingrijpen in het gedrag van de weggebruikers op een wijze waarbij (beter) afgestemd wordt op lokale omstandigheden en het gedrag van andere weggebruikers. Hierdoor wordt het gedrag van een collectief van weggebruikers geoptimaliseerd in plaats van elke individuele weggebruiker voor zichzelf. Het onderzoek bij TNO concentreert zich op de volgende onderwerpen: Verbetering van betrouwbaarheid, veiligheid en opschaalbaarheid van draadloze (V2X) communicatie. Ontwikkeling van strategieën om voertuigen effectiever aan het verkeer deel te laten nemen, met name Coöperative-Adaptive Cruise Control (C-ACC) als oplossing. Ontwikkeling van interactie tussen de verschillende stakeholders die samen moeten werken om tot integrale oplossingen te komen. Demonstratie van de effectiviteit van coöperatieve technologie ten behoeve van verbetering van betrouwbaarheid van het verkeer. In de afgelopen vier jaar heeft TNO significant bijgedragen in het versnellen van deze ontwikkelingen. Voorbeelden van resultaten die hierin zijn bereikt: Samen met het Enabling Technology Programma AMSN (Adaptive Multi Sensor Networks) is onderzoek gedaan naar verbetering van de betrouwbaarheid van de draadloze communicatie (package loss), effectiviteit van communicatie tussen voertuig en infrastructuur en strategieën voor verbetering van de robuustheid van de communicatie. Dit heeft geresulteerd in een aantal demonstraties en publicaties van TNO. Daarnaast zijn eerste stappen gemaakt richting oplossingen voor het verbeteren van de (cyber) security van draadloze V2X communicatie. Deze kennis wordt nu toegepast in o.a. A58 project en Europese ITS corridor. Automatische voertuiggeleiding als middel om voertuigen effectiever gebruikt te laten maken van de weg (en tegelijkertijd verkeersveiligheid en brandstofverbruik te verbeteren) is een effectief middel om de betrouwbaarheid van het verkeer te verbeteren. TNO heeft een eigen control concept voor automatisch volgen van voertuigen ontwikkeld en regelmatig gedemonstreerd (o.a. aan Minister van IenM tijdens Innovatie-Estafette 2012). Op dit moment is deze technologie de basis voor het 2-truck platooning dat TNO ontwikkelt met een consortium (zie par ).

63 TNO-rapport / 92 Coöperatieve technologie vereist ook samenwerking (coöperatie) tussen verschillende belanghebbenden (overheid, industrie, weggebruikers, belangengroeperingen). TNO is de founding father van DITCM. In DITCM werken diverse bedrijven, instellingen en overheden samen aan het versnellen van de introductie van coöperatieve oplossingen. Ook is TNO sturend geweest in de 5 November Groep, wat geleid heeft tot de nationale routekaart beter geïnformeerd op weg en de oprichting van Connecting Mobility vanuit de Mobiliteitshoek. Dit heeft geleid tot beter op elkaar afgestemd beleid vanuit zowel de economische als de maatschappelijke mobiliteitskant. Het innovatieprogramma van DITCM appelleert aan beide is daardoor een aantrekkelijk innovatieprogramma voor zowel bedrijven als overheden. Om de maatschappelijke voordelen van coöperatieve technologie te onderbouwen zijn in de afgelopen jaren vele demonstraties georganiseerd (bijvoorbeeld het in het CONTRAST project (Brabant in Car II) samen met DITCM en met andere stakeholders. Dit heeft er onder andere toe bijgedragen dat coöperatieve technologie en automatisering als een middel om de effectiviteit van het verkeer te verbeteren op dit moment een speerpunt is van de Nederlandse overheid. Duurzame aandrijving Op het gebied van duurzame voertuigaandrijving hebben we in de afgelopen periode een verschuiving meegemaakt van aandacht voor luchtkwaliteit richting voertuig efficiency en reductie van broeikasgas emissies. Het TNO programma heeft geanticipeerd op deze verschuiving. Het programma focuste zich in de afgelopen periode op de volgende onderwerpen: Real-World emissies en performance. (Predictive) Energy management van geavanceerde powertrains. Optimalisatie van verkeers- en voertuiggedrag voor gereduceerde emissies en verbruik. Transitie naar toekomstige brandstoffen en energiedragers. Concrete resultaten die zijn bereikt in de voorbije periode zijn: Met de ontwikkeling van een modelgebaseerde integrale control strategie voor motor en uitlaatgasnabehandeling is TNO in staat om voortdurend dit systeem te optimaliseren naar minimaal brandstofverbruik binnen de grenzen van toegestane emissies. Deze optimalisatie kan ook tijdens de inzet (in Real World) worden bereikt. Deze control strategie wordt ondersteund met een softwarematige optimalisatietool (SIMCAT) en een laboratorium waar de Real World performance van de voertuigen kan worden gemeten en geoptimaliseerd (hoogte klimaatkamer). In de afgelopen jaren is deze methodiek, samen met industriële klanten verder ontwikkelt. Dit heeft onder andere ertoe geleid dat de introductie van EuroVI bij vrachtauto s niet ten koste van brandstofverbruik is gegaan. Met de trend van toenemende elektrificeren van de aandrijving en hybride aandrijving die gebruik maakt van batterij opslag, is er een groot potentieel ontstaan voor het optimaliseren van het energieverbruik over een cyclus (rit) door intelligent energiemanagement in het voertuig. Hiervoor kan met gedetailleerde modellen van de componenten in de aandrijving en opslag de vermogensstroom worden geoptimaliseerd naar wat de cyclus vraag. Door te anticiperen op komende energiebehoefte kan dit potentieel nog verder worden benut. In diverse Europese projecten is in de afgelopen periode modelkennis opgebouwd van het gedrag van elektrische componenten en batterijen (state-

64 TNO-rapport / 92 of-health en state-of-charge). Strategieën voor energie management zijn ontwikkeld en toegepast. Uitbreiding naar toepassing van voorspellende informatie wordt nu toegepast in het recent gestarte TKI project. Het verkeersgedrag en de werkelijke cyclus van een voertuig hebben een groot effect op de voertuigemissies en op verbruik. Hierop kan worden geanticipeerd met het energiemanagement in het voertuig, maar het is ook mogelijk om de rit (cyclus) te beïnvloeden met bijvoorbeeld verkeersmanagement en fleetmanagement. In diverse projecten zijn deze mogelijkheden in de voorbije jaren getoetst. Concreet resultaat is onder andere een project met gemeente den Haag waarin het verkeersmanagement in de stad is geoptimaliseerd voor het reduceren van lokale emissies om daarmee de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren. In de toekomst zal de beschikbaarheid van fossiele brandstoffen meer onder druk komen en zullen prijzen door schaarste oplopen. Ook wordt verwacht dat, vanwege (nieuwe) regelgeving voor het reduceren van broeikasgassen, de druk om CO2 uitstoot zal toenemen. Vanwege beide redenen is er behoefte aan reductie van de inzet van fossiele brandstoffen en vervanging door duurzame alternatieve met lage/geen CO2 uitstoot. In de voorbije periode heeft TNO verkenningen uitgevoerd naar nieuwe energiedragers voor transport en wat de gevolgen van toepassing daarvan zijn voor het transport en het milieu. Op basis van deze kennis heeft TNO een bijdrage kunnen leveren aan het SER energieakkoord en de daarbij behorende brandstofvisie. 5.5 Publiek Private Samenwerking (PPS) en aansluiting bij Topsectoren Topsector HTSM Roadmaps Automotive Het VP AMS is nauw aangesloten bij de Automotive Roadmap binnen HTSM. In 2014 is ruim 6,5 miljoen Euro grondslag gevormd door TNO, vooral in contractonderzoek vanuit de automotive industrie. Tevens is in 2014 een nieuw TKI project gestart met partners VDL bus & coach en Heavac. Ook zijn er drie nieuwe TKI projecten in voorbereiding die beging 2015 zullen starten.

65 TNO-rapport / 92 6 VP Space 6.1 Introduction Space technology and applications plays a crucial and irreplaceable role in the daily life on planet Earth. Navigation, Telecommunication and Earth Observation form the backbone of many integrated applications and services. Scientific satellites offer unparalleled value for astronomy and planetary exploration. The objectives of the VP Space Program were to improve the TNO knowledge base and projected return on investment in the following domains, relevant for Space: Earth Observation Instrumentation Space Science Instrumentation Mission Critical Subsystems Space Data Utilization The purpose of the VP Space is to address topics that are either relevant for current space projects or for future missions. These space projects are often based on new technologies, applied in a challenging environment, resulting in (unique, one-off) instruments with extreme performance requirements. In particular, 1) we want to address risk items before committing to a new project or 2) generate technological breakthroughs that could enable new business. Since our space activities are typically carried out for or together with industry this all is beneficial to the competitive position of the industry. Risk mitigation leads to lower prices, more competitive offers and less budget overrun, while innovative designs might lead to completely new business for the Dutch Space ecosystem. 6.2 Program and results Space Earth Observation Instrumentation Research activities carried out during the past four years were focussed on solving potential show stoppers for the Earth-Observation class of Instruments, where the Netherlands hold a very strong international position, and on generating new instrument concepts, aimed at generating new business for Dutch Space industry. Our activities have been discussed with external Dutch stakeholders including NSO, knowledge institutes like SRON and KNMI, and industry (e.g. Airbus Defence and Space NL, f.k.a. Dutch Space). Furthermore, we aligned our activities with the Earth Observation Roadmap of ESA in order to prepare in an optimum way for future missions. A significant part of the research carried out during the past four years was related to crucial technology required to qualify for the EU/ESA Sentinel-5 mission, where the Netherlands are in a strong position to acquire a significant part of the instrument development, based upon our track record with instruments like SCIAMACHY, OMI and TROPOMI, the latter being the Sentinel-5 precursor. Topics addressed include the development of a new type of diffraction gratings, a new polarisation scrambler and slit homogenizer, the development of an alternative UV1 spectrometer concept, the investigation of novel calibration technology (faster and cheaper, while keeping the quality at the same level), more detailed understanding of diffusers, improved optics manufacturing technology (coatings, dichroics, surface shape and roughness, including freeform optics). These activities were synchronised with the Program for Mission Critical Components. The research carried out in the present VP Program has contributed to an outstanding position for

66 TNO-rapport / 92 Dutch players with respect to the development of Sentinel-5 modules for the prime Airbus Defence and Space (D), where the tender process has just started. Sentinel-5 Polarisation Scrambler. The on-ground calibration of earth observation is a time consuming process; in the VP Program the design, analysis and breadboarding of specific stimuli, such as a Winston cone and a Slit Function Stimulus, has been performed, with the goal to reduce the time of the calibration measurement significantly, without degrading the accuracy of the calibration. For the in-orbit calibration the calibration hardware should be as simple as possible, especially for small (microsat) instruments; the measurements of the earlier earth observation instruments have provided insight in the degradation of the instruments in space, and the minimal set of on-board calibration subsystems to monitor this degradation with sufficient accuracy. In preparation for the BIOMASS mission TNO has designed and tested (e.g., multipaction analysis and test) several critical high-power RF components. Together with the fact that TNO RF modules now have in-space flight heritage, these activities contributed largely to a strong position of the Netherlands in one of the BIOMASS consortia, led by a major prime in the space industry. RF subsystem ready for testing for BIOMASS. Apart from research addressing the issues of the upcoming EU/ESA missions, we have invested in the design and (breadboard) realization of novel earth observation instrument concepts compatible with nano- and microsatellites. In order to assess the scientific feasibility of the small-instrument concepts being developed we have collaborated with e.g. KNMI and SRON. After assessing several concepts, a selection was made of the most promising designs, which are being realised in hardware. Recently using a breadboard TNO has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new concept for detection of atmospheric trace gases and possibly aerosols, compatible with cubesat geometries. This we think might lead to new

67 TNO-rapport / 92 business and business models for (Dutch) industry in the commercial space market. Another small instrument design was even brought to flight configuration, where the mechanical hardware has been produced using additive manufacturing techniques; optical components will be added shortly.thermal stability still might be a critical issue, to be investigated in the near future. As we have the ambition to develop complete space missions (including payload, platform, operation, and ground segment), a broad analysis of the main mission aspects has been started, together with partners. Monolythic structure for microsat instrument, produced using Additive Manufacturing. Space Science Instrumentation The two main themes for the Space Science lnstruments Program were: Technology for Ground-based astronomy, with focal points in technology development Adaptive Optics and Segmented Mirrors. Technology for ESA s science mission, e.g., SPEX, EUCLID, SPICA-SAFARI with a main focus on the LISA mission. TNO has a good relation and track record with ESO, the leading European groundbased astronomy organization. Existing telescope systems (e.g. ESOs VLT) will be equipped with advanced adaptive optical system for further optimization of the image quality. For ESO s future telescope, named European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), a segmented primary mirror (M1) will be used. Currently the M1 is expected to have a diameter of 39.2 m, composed of 798 hexagonal segments, each having a diameter of 1.4 m. All segments of the M1 mirror must be accurately co-phased to within a few nanometer. This is particularly challenging because of the required performance for different orientations w.r.t. to gravity, under wind loading and mechanical vibration, but also because the actuators must be low cost and suitable for mass production. Several European consortia have been competing, and are still competing, to become the supplier for this M1. During the reporting period TNO has continued to develop improved hardware for the M1 support structures and the related Position Actuators (PACT). State-of-the-art adaptive control algorithms have been developed for PACT and for Deformable Mirrors (adaptive optics). These research endeavours have contributed largely to the fact that at the end of 2014 a consortium of VDL, TNO and NOVA got awarded an ESO contract for the design and production of qualification models for mirror segment support and related auxiliary equipment for the primary mirror of E-ELT. It is our common ambition that this will lead to a follow-up contract to VDL for the production

68 TNO-rapport / 92 of 931 support structures. The same strategy will be used in case of PACT and other E-ELT related topics. Prototype mirror segment, with support structure and actuators for E-ELT. Adaptive optic systems are the key enabling component for modern telescopes: correction of the atmospheric turbulence paves the way for observations with unprecedented resolution. Adaptive mirrors, driven by high speed control systems, deform their reflecting surface with many actuators to correct the deformed wavefront of the star light. TNO has focused on the mirror development and the design and optimisation of control strategies; recently adaptive optics is planned to be applied in space instruments, as well as for medical and industrial applications. For ESA instrumentation for the LISA and EUCLID mission were investigated. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA ESA project to develop and operate a space-based gravitational-wave detector sensitive between 3x10-5 and 0.1 Hz. For LISA we worked on the In Field Pointing mechanism (IFP) to replace the initial Optical Assembly Tracking Mechanism (OATM). A significant performance improvement has been achieved, meeting the performance requirements. The IFP has been shipped to Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) for integration in the overall IFP breadboard. The thermal stability of the LISA telescope assembly has been measured with extreme accuracy. This has led to fine-tuning and improvement (by Airbus) of the mechanical configuration and a follow on project for the CHEOPS project. As for many VP Space topics, the LISA project results have been published, with co-authors from our partners, and presented at a Space conference. For Euclid we worked on the fine guidance sensor (FGS). Space Mission Critical Components In the period this program has been focused on three application fields: Components for Earth Observation, both optical and radar based. A typical example is the design of a new type of profile and manufacturing technology for diffraction gratings; the resulting gratings provide the optimum efficiency and extremely low level of straylight. These are the main performance parameters of gratings for high-end applications. The unique characteristics have been

69 TNO-rapport / 92 patented. Similar developments have been performed for optical coatings and diffusers. The requirements on the scattering characteristics and residual spectral effects of diffusers get more strict for every new earth observation instrument. Detailed modelling, analysis and supporting measurements on different types of diffusers have been performed to increase the level of knowledge for future diffuser application; furthermore the accuracy of manufacturing of the diffusers has to be improved continuously. For radar missions, components required for SAR (synthetic aperture radar) have been developed. This is for instance relevant for the SSBV project on PanelSAR. Igniter components and technology: development and test of new (green) igniter materials; a patent is pending. Structures: high stability structures for satellite communication systems, and additive manufacturing of structures. allowing lighter structures with improved functionality and mechanical properties like stiffness This has implications for the manufacturing of nano- and microsatellites and has direct relevance for the manufacturing industry. Space Data Utilization Satellites enable us to remotely collect a large variety of spatial information on a global scale, with high resolution and repeatability. Thus, Earth Observation offers unique possibilities to monitor changes in many different dynamic processes, for instance the weather, deforestation, emissions at sea, the decline of dams and dykes, or the size of floods. In addition, satellites play an important role in monitoring climate change and air quality. TNO Space mainly uses satellite data in combination with computer models and ground based measurements to develop customized end user applications. To support this expertise our SMO program focused on the following areas: 1) Air quality monitoring, 2) Dust impact assessment, 3) Enabling optimal instrument design, 4) Subsidence monitoring and 5) Safety & Security. Air quality monitoring In the field of Air Quality we have been able to acquire a relevant position in the MACC program of the EU (MACC = Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate). TNO provides the emission database for MACC and TNO s chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS is one of the main regional models that is used for air quality forecasting. In 2015 MACC will turn into the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) and TNO is well positioned to play a relevant role here. We have the ambition to apply our expertise in monitoring and forecasting air pollution to markets outside Europe as well. Via the SMO program LOTOS-EUROS can now be used in several other areas across the globe. For instance, the model is currently used in the ambitious EU project Marco Polo to improve air quality monitoring in China using satellite data. And during the recent 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil we used LOTOS-EUROS to provide a 4-day forecast for the Rio de Janeiro and Sao-Paolo area of the surface concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter.

70 TNO-rapport / 92 Website display of the forecasts of today and upcoming surface concentrations at 15:00 (BRT) over South East Brazil. Dust impact assessment Dust and sand storms effect safety, human health, local economy and the environment in many ways. Dust storms are important phenomena over large tracts of the arid and semi-arid regions, e.g. Sahara, the Middle East and Asian deserts. As the processes involved are complex and strongly dependent on wind speeds, the modelling of dust is a challenge. Together with SRON we have used remote sensing data to investigate dust phenomena and improve the LOTOS-EUROS model. Better information on the formation and intensity of dust and sand storms is will allow us to better predict or mitigate the negative effects of these storms, e.g. in the oil & gas industry. Enabling optimal instrument design A special product to be mentioned here is the so-called Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE), where we collaborate with KNMI. An OSSE is a powerful tool to quantify the actual impact of future satellite observations and to ensure that the performance of these satellites is optimally tuned to the intended user community, before the satellite is actually built. Thus, OSSE s provide a powerful link between TNO s upstream and downstream activities. In the SMO program we have shown the potential of an OSSE by investigating the added value of different small satellite instruments designs (measuring NO 2 concentration) in comparison to the much larger Sentinel 5 precursor (TROPOMI). Subsidence monitoring Reliable information on actual and future subsidence is of prime importance in many different areas, e.g. the management of infrastructure, the assessment of flood risk, the production of oil & gas, water management, urban planning etc. TNO has coordinated the EU project SubCoast, which aimed at developing the Copernicus downstream service - based on satellite data, in-situ measurements and geoscientific models - for assessing and monitoring subsidence hazards in coastal lowland areas around Europe. Coastal lowland areas are widely recognized as highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and

71 TNO-rapport / 92 changes in run-off, as well as being subject to stresses imposed by human modification of catchment and delta plain land use. The results of SubCoast have facilitated the birth of the Netherlands Subsidence Information Service, initiated by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment, the kick-off of which will take place on 25 February Safety & Security The main goal of this part of the SMO program was to improve the capabilities of European Coast Guards regarding Maritime Situation Awareness. TNO participated in two EU projects, DOLPHIN and NEREIDS, in which we developed software tools to a) recognize vessels using satellite images, b) predict their tracks based on navigational charts and environmental elements (persistent surveillance) and c) detect dangerous and/or deviating behaviour. These software tools have been successfully demonstrated with regard to traffic safety scenario s in the North Sea and the English Channel, and with regard to border control in West Africa and the Mediterranean. 6.3 Public Private Partnership (PPP) and connection with Topsector TKI Innovatieve Stuwstof Productie Technieken TKI project This TKI project is funded within the Topsector High-Tech Systems and Materials (HTSM) and is defined with a partner company to support the project and steer by on the direction of innovation. Project summary In this project three different work packages are defined on new production technologies for energetic materials, in particular propellants for space application. These three work packages WP1: Propellant mixing by means of acoustic waves, WP2: Propellant production by means of extrusion and WP3: Propellant production by means of Additive Manufacturing (AM). As an example, a result from WP3 is shown in which the AM technology Stereo Lithography (SL) was used to produce RDX based propellant.

72 TNO-rapport / 92 The solid load of the example is 50% by weight. The next step is to replace part of the RDX by Ammonium Nitrate as oxidizer to generate a propellant. Public Private Partnership The TKI project was initiated and executed in close cooperation with Safran Aerospace Propulsion Products (Consortium Agreement TNO-060-EH ). TKI project TKI UV1 ( nm) channel optics improvement For the Sentinel-5 mission a detailed (preliminary) requirements analysis was performed resulting in the identification of the following items for which more stringent requirements are expected compared to what has been realized before: telescope mirrors, polarization scrambler geometry, AR coatings for the polarization scrambler, UV2VIS graded coating, slit homogenizer coatings (UV1 & UV2VIS/NIR), dichroics, alternative UV1 channel design. For these items a plan is established to mitigate the risk for upcoming joint proposal activities, with Airbus D&S Netherlands, so that a competitive offer can be prepared with acceptable risk. Pre-development proposals to Airbus D&S Germany have been prepared for polarization scrambler manufacturing, UV2VIS graded coating and AR coatings for the polarization scrambler; these project have recently been awarded. For the UV1 spectrometer an alternative design has been prepared/analyzed with less optical components compared to the design prepared in the frame of the Sentinel-5 phase A/B1 study. Due to fewer optical components, the straylight performance is expected to be better. The results of the TKI project lead to pre-development projects, while significantly strengthening the position of Airbus D&S NL and TNO to prepare winning proposals for the best practice procurement items for the instrument, specifically the UV1 spectrometer and the telescope assembly including the polarization scrambler.

73 TNO-rapport / 92 7 VP Security 7.1 Inleiding De Roadmap Security voor de Topsector High-Tech Systems and Materials wordt gedragen door een breed consortium van bedrijven, overheden, TNO, NLR en STW/NWO (zie Onder regie van het roadmapteam Security is het plan 2014 voor TNO Vraaggestuurd Onderzoeksprogramma Security opgesteld en in uitvoering genomen. Daarbij gaat het tegelijkertijd om het realiseren van impact op de toekomstige veiligheidssituatie in Nederland, het versterken van het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven en het uitbouwen van de kennisbasis bij TNO: de Gouden driehoek. Dit rapport biedt voor het TNO management, het roadmapteam Security van de Topsector HTSM en het voor de Topsectoren regievoerend departement Economische Zaken inzicht in de voortgang in Uitvoering 2014 Het VP Security zet in op de technologische uitdagingen die te maken hebben met bedreiging van de veiligheid van onze samenleving. We kijken zowel naar oplossingen die bijdragen aan het voorkomen dan wel beheersen van geweld door opzettelijk handelen, als ook naar oplossingen die de schadelijke effecten van incidenten (crises, rampen) beperken, binnen de domeinen van de volgende vier deelroadmaps (zie 1. System of systems: voor een geïntegreerde aanpak van de uitdagingen op het gebied van openbare orde, veiligheid en beveiliging is ontwikkeling van concepten voor een systeem van systemen essentieel. Hierbij zijn alle stakeholders betrokken. 2. Cyber security: de steeds grotere invloed van ICT op de samenleving vergroot ook het belang van cyberresilience en de bestrijding van cybercrime. De groeiende ketenafhankelijkheid van onderlinge verbonden ICT-systemen vereist nieuwe concepten. 3. Sensoren: voor effectieve beveiliging zijn waarnemingen en informatie cruciaal. Er zijn twee invalshoeken: a. Actieve sensoren (radars) verder verfijnen en daarmee intelligentere systemen vormen. Nederland heeft hier een excellente positie op het gebied van R&D, en een leidende marktpositie op de toegankelijke wereldmarkt. b. Passieve sensoren leveren steeds meer data. Dat vereist nieuwe concepten voor data processing en het filteren van irrelevante data. Er zijn veelbelovende ontwikkelingen op het gebied van intelligente sensoren en zelflerende systemen. 7.3 Resultaten 2014 De belangrijkste resultaten in 2014 voor de vier deelroadmaps binnen het programma zijn: Deelroadmap Systems-of-systems In 2014 is de kennisontwikkeling voor de deelroadmap Systems-of-systems verder geconcretiseerd in een drietal consortia waarin de driehoek Overheid-Bedrijfsleven- Kennisinstellingen van operationele veiligheidsorganisaties, minstens één

74 TNO-rapport / 92 toeleverend bedrijf en TNO. In al deze initiatieven is versterking van de Real Time Intelligence de rode draad. Dit was mede aanleiding tot de ontwikkeling van een basisstructuur voor optimaal real time intelligence met een lange en een korte loop (zie figuur 1). Figuur 1. Het ontsluiten voor de operationele OOV-processen van intelligence opgedaan in de lange intelligence-loop is een belangrijke uitdaging voor Real-Time-Intelligence. Figuur 2. Artist impression van het Real Time Intelligence-lab waar geëxperimenteerd kan worden met nieuwe concepten, producten of werkwijzen met het oog op Real Time Intelligence. In discussie met de meerdere vertegenwoordigers van de politie en met marktpartijen is onderzocht hoe Real Time Intelligence verder versterkt zou kunnen worden. Daarbij bleek er een substantieel draagvlak voor het opzetten van een thematisch samenwerkingsverband en een experimenteeromgeving voor Real Time Intelligence. Samen met de politie, The Hague Security Delta en de Landelijke Meldkamer Organisatie (LMO) is een coalition of the willing gevormd en een visie ontwikkeld op de beste verschijningsvorm van zo n Real Time Intelligence Lab. Deelroadmap Cybersecurity Voor de deelroadmap Security is de ontwikkeling van tools voor cyber risk management van individuele bedrijven doorgezet. Mede door de samenwerking met universitaire groepen is een kennisbasis gerealiseerd, die nu verder doorontwikkeld wordt in een samenwerking met een leverancier voor risicomanagement tooling en een dienstverleners op dit gebied. Ook de Taskforce Bestuur en Informatieveiligheid Dienstverlening was hierbij betrokken, terwijl de

75 TNO-rapport / 92 ontwikkeling naar toepassing nu wordt doorgezet in het Centrum voor Informatiebeveiliging en Privacybescherming (www.cip-overheid.nl/). Figuur 3. Model Van Aanvaller tot Business Impact, dat doorontwikkeld is naar een cyber risk management tool voor individuele bedrijven. Na de opening van het CyberSecurityLab bij TNO en het HSD Cyberlab heeft het bedrijfsleven veel aandacht aan deze strategie gegeven, maar het animo om gezamenlijk innovatief onderzoek te verrichten is nog gering. De belangrijkste oorzaak is het uitblijven van voldoende marktkansen voor dit onderwerp, behoudens hele specifieke onderwerpen. De tijdshorizon waarbinnen SOC's met elkaar informatie uit zullen gaan wisselen blijkt te lang voor commerciële partijen om een investering in innovatie te doen. Bovendien is er slechts beperkte voortgang met de implementatie van de visie van de Rijksoverheid (sectorale SOC's die uiteindelijk intersectoraal informatie uitwisselen). In dit kader is het onderzoek echter gezien het lange-termijn belang wel voortgezet. De resultaten zijn gedeeld met de Rijks Beveiligingsautoriteit (Rijks-BVA) en verscheidene marktpartijen: IBM, HP, Dell, DataExpert, FireEye, Cyber Spear en vele andere kleinere spelers. Inmiddels hebben enkele van deze partijen een investering gedaan in de vorm van een bijdrage aan het CyberSecurityLab, is specifieke samenwerking ontstaan met een drietal bedrijven en is een concreet project gestart op basis van de stimuleringsregeling van The Hague Security Delta (Threadstone). Klaarblijkelijk zijn marktpartijen dus wel bereid om te investeren indien de visie concreter wordt geformuleerd en de behoefte aan (nieuwe) sensoren en de marktkansen concreter worden. Deelroadmap Passieve Sensoren In 2014 is het gelukt om door de vertaling van gedragsanalyse in de software van cameratoezicht automatisch zakkenrollerij te midden van normaal winkelend publiek te detecteren (Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall., 2014). Dit is een grote mijlpaal voor het project Passieve Sensoren, en heeft bewondering geoogst bij de betreffende wetenschappelijke community, in de media, bij eindgebruikers en bij de industrie. Daarnaast zijn de mogelijkheden verkend van het toepassen van video content analyse op beelden van een bodycam. Het detecteren van mensen met sensoren op een bewegend platform blijkt goed te werken, waardoor er direct al perspectief is op concrete toepassingen. Wel is een veel nauwkeuriger continue bepaling van locatie en oriëntatie van de bodycam nodig. Mede naar aanleiding van een challenge met de nationale politie zal in 2015 een door de praktijk gestaafde toekomstvisie op het gebruik van zogenaamde wearables worden ontwikkeld.

76 TNO-rapport / 92 Figuur 4. Beeld van een bodycam waar in automatisch gezocht kan worden naar vooraf gedefinieerde objecten of gedragingen. De markt waarop de technologie van Passieve Sensoren gevaloriseerd wordt, is Europees. Daarom is onderzocht hoe de nationale behoeften op dit gebied kunnen worden afgestemd met het Europese aanbod (belang NL overheid) en hoe kunnen we het Nederlandse aanbod op gepaste wijze onder de aandacht helpen brengen in het buitenland? In het verlengde van TNO s rol in de ERNCIP thematic group on video analytics & surveillance (https://erncip-project.jrc.ec.europa.eu/networks/tgs/video) wordt in 2015 initiatief genomen voor een demonstratieproject met een testbed voor validatie en harmonisatie van surveillance concepten en technologie daarvoor. De huidige portefeuille aan EU projecten en de stijgende omvang van de R&Dactiviteiten op dit gebied rechtvaardigen een vergelijkbaar initiatief als er voor crisismanagement is ontwikkeld.

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