3 Vision and roadmap urban lighting Eindhoven 2030 Research Results July 2012 Produced by LightHouse for and in partnership with the city of Eindhoven as part of the Interreg IVC PLUS project prof.dr.ir. Elke den Ouden & dr.ir. Rianne Valkenburg TU/e LightHouse Intelligent Lighting Institute
4 Future-proof 2 Eindhoven Ambition Policy Visionary Pg 3 Pg 4-5 Design Realisation Maintenance 2030 Embedded Now Dream: smart lighting grid for liveable city 2030 Depth Aware Future vision Now Ad hoc Drivers for change Concrete steps Pg 20 Plan at city level Ambition & priorities Pg 6-9 the influence of information Learning & scaling-up the perception of value l ica eth ration ib l a rec ic nom on eco ibrati l a rec the potential of people ial soc ration ib l a rec Pilots in urban areas Scenario Eindhoven 2030 Innovation plan Pg 19 Innovation in specific urban areas Defining the ambition Identifying the for the area present status Specifying the innovation need Preparing for the task The route Preconditions Guarding public interest The plan Pg 18 System architecture Innovation in the quadruple helix Roadmap Milestones Services Lighting a ess n en Op t els lev all Data Devices Infrastructure ti ova Inn on at els lev all Smart city Organisation 2012 Pg Pg 10-11
5 3 Principles Vision and roadmap 2030 The question The City of Eindhoven is currently faced simultaneously with a number of questions about public lighting, which in themselves are difficult to answer but as well as that are interrelated: There is a concrete question about the replacement of 21,000 street lights in the city: is it best to replace these all at once with led lamps? If this investment were to be made now, the replacement budget would no longer be enough for further renewals. The City of Eindhoven is working together with 10 other European cities in a European Interreg IVC PLUS project to define public lighting strategies for sustainable cities. The city needs to put forward a strategy and action plan as part of this project, and wants to submit a well-founded strategy with a scope that extends further than simply short-term energy savings. Projects are also currently running in other public domains as well as public lighting, for example e-care, e-learning and e-traffic. These are investigating whether a city-wide infrastructure is necessary, and what would then be viable business models to recover the associated investment. Up to now, no simple and convincing financial answer has been found within the sphere of the current operations. The conclusion that the city draws from the developments outlined above is that more detailed consideration needs to be given to the question of led lighting than has been the case up to now. Broad acceptance also among the citizens of Eindhoven demands a clear proposition on the basis of which well-founded decisions can be taken. The question from the City of Eindhoven s public lighting department to LightHouse is to formulate a vision extending beyond public lighting alone, together with a roadmap to allow decisions to be taken for short-term measures that will not prove to be barriers to longer-term developments. The approach To formulate a vision and roadmap for urban lighting in Eindhoven, extending to 2030, the project is divided into a number of phases: Now Analysis of the current situation, the underlying principles and the ambition level of the city in relation to urban lighting for The future By means of the Future Telling research method, the most important drivers of change for a future city with a high quality of life are identified. Together with the ambition, the findings are used to create the desired scenario for Eindhoven as a city with a high quality of life in The route The next step is to consider through a roadmap which technological developments and organisational changes are possible and necessary to realise the desired future vision. The plan The understanding of the social, technical and organisational changes leads to an innovation plan. This lays down concrete steps that can be taken within the Triple Helix framework on the way to Eindhoven as a city with a high quality of life a liveable city in The underlying principles The figure below shows the underlying principles for the vision and roadmap, defined by the City of Eindhoven in the kick-off workshop of the project. These principles are specifically: The city takes the role of lead user, through which the city is made available for innovations developed by others (commercial parties and creative businesses). A policy of focusing on technology, light and design for the City of Eindhoven is adopted. There is a wish to engage with citizens in different ways, surpassing the standard idea of citizen involvement. There is an awareness that new business models will be needed to make the planned investments viable despite the constraints of today s economic situation. The best for citizens in the city Knowing the effect of lighting concepts (trying) Also: exploitation of the city as a living lab Social system, public = ownership citizens, not just use, also influence in decisions Open system THE system for public space Flexible system (connect to new possibilities) No uniformity Creating atmosphere (more than functionality) Financing = also business model (operation, repair, maintenance) Interactive Freedom of choice in system Multiple grids = more opportunities and risk sharing My city = own identity Modern city = evening fair What should Eindhoven want as city of light? Always on, or three crazy days? Masterplan From functional to art as integral part Aim: Urban lighting 2030 Lighting (functional, sustainable, energy neutral) is basis Energy saving Sustainable light Learning system & organisation Sustainable system Lamppost-less solution (bicycles) Experiments with limited risk (batch of500) Innovating and evolving system Lighting and lighting grid as enabler for various means with societal impact Dream: Liveable city 2030 Technology to make it happen Achieving ambition step by step Info around public space Info = also traffic control, dynamic control, diversions (e.g. on the base of measured air quality) New information How to use information, routing etc. Natural light in the evening always summer in Eindhoven Personal light (your own avatar) Starting with people and their needs Community and control by social factors Meaningful for people (use and experience)
6 4 Principles ILI Reference Model for Sustainable Urban Lighting Self-assessment 2012 / solution partner of the Intelligent Lighting Institute level 5 Selfassessment score 2012 Visionary - World class level - Innovating from a vision - Stretching boundaries - Operating in quadruple helix process Policy development Design process Realization process Maintenance process elements Defining ambition Sustainability scope Lighting innovation Decision process Design aspects Stakeholder involvement Contract management Project management Stakeholder management Configuration management Quality management Driving policy development through thought leadership - Yearly vision and roadmap - Involvement of quadruple helix in the creation of a shared vision - Thought leader Quality of life in public space as a Exploring new opportunities whole through experiential projects - Improving quality of life of - Experimentation projects citizens (innovator) -Public space as a whole (incl. - Publication and presentation of lighting) results to others (sharing) - Objective reviews show 'best in class' Alignment with policy & roadmap Exploration and integrated decision making - Policy and roadmap drives - Integrated decision making decisions - Reflection from multiple views - Autonomous, knowledgeable - Iterative approaches of and experienced teams across experimenting and testing of new quadruple helix opportunities - Scientific validation of new - Setting new norms solutions Learning process -Learning process across organisations in the quadruple helix - Respecting each other's contribution as thought leaders Joint roadmaps in a stakeholder network - Roadmaps involving quadruple helix: stakeholders seen as partners - Distinguishing between repetitive and innovative projects Quadruple based management of Involvement targets and risks - Project management on targets across quadruple helix -Targets monitored and adjusted to evolving insights - Risks identification from full quadruple helix - Involvement of stakeholders in planning of realisation project - Best timing for the project based on minimising burden Quadruple level integrated configuration management - Integrated configuration management system maintained by several stakeholders -Dynamic assessment of changes Progress monitoring Continuous improvement based on emerging pattern recognition Continuous improvement in quadruple helix - The installed base is part of an - Continuous collection of on-going innovation process feedback from the quadruple helix - Emerging pattern recognition - Pro-active attitude of quadruple - Integrated maintenance helix towards the shared vision management through intelligent - Joint improvement plans systems involving the quadruple helix 4 Embedded Program management to meet future needs of end-users Social & ecological sustainability of light in public spaces Fast adoption of new functionalities Alignment with master plan Applying proven insights Monitoring effectiveness Specifying opportunities for suppliers Qualitative management of Timely & relevant information targets and risks on network level Chain level integrated configuration management Improvement based on monitoring installations Structural improvement in the total chain - End-user driven (outside in) - Proactive to achieve goals - Operating in total chain - Master plan with ambition - Input of total chain on future needs - Program management - Sustainability incl. social factors - Urban lighting as a whole - Fast application of new functions - Keeping track of new developments - Master plan drives decisions - Incorporating new insights or solutions in the design - Involvement of end-users and relevant stakeholders in decisions - New and proven insights are integrated into design decisions in the projects - Applying new solutions in specific projects - Monitoring effectiveness of participation of various stakeholders - Stakeholders suggest involvement - Suppliers involved in codevelopment across the total chain disturbances for stakeholders - Projects management on targets - Planning to minimise - Supplier performance evaluation - Risk identification in separate - Prior notice to stakeholders on goals in the total chain organisations and impact on total chain - Configuration management system for design changes - Impact assessment of design changes - Continuous monitoring of individual installations - Improvement based on insights from data - Preventive and reactive maintenance based on real time information from the system - Structural process in place to monitor if targets of the master plan are met - Monitoring if adaptation of plans or actions is needed to achieve the targets Depth - Objectives on organisational level (inside out) - Monitoring if targets are met - Collaboration within the organisation Aware - Objectives set on project level - Reuse of practices and ways of working - Responsibilities in separate departments Ad-hoc - Individual objectives ('heroes') - Implicit expertise, ad hoc activities - Informal networks Program of coherent projects to meet organisational ambitions - Ambition defined on organisational level - Coherent program of projects - Support from all relevant departments Ecological effectiveness of public and private lighting systems - Sustainability incl. ecological effectiveness - Relation between projects - Urban lighting incl. private systems Project level targets and activities Material use & energy consumption in public lighting systems - Targets defined on project level - A department is responsible and is aware of past performance - Track record of successful projects - Sustainability incl. 'zero emission' total product life cycle - Scarce resources and energy consumption - Lamps and luminaires managed by the municipality Applying new lighting products for multifunctional purposes Alignment with program management -Multifunctional lighting: safety, - Program targets drive decisions experience, navigation and traffic - Avoiding sub optimisation regulation - Issues resolved on program level - Applying newly available products in the program of projects (reactive follower) Applying standard products for functions and experience - Considering experience of citizens and visitors - Applying standard products from catalogues, incl. impact on experience Meeting integral and extended targets - Targets defined beyond common rules and regulations - Targets considered integrally Process management -Inviting specific stakeholders for specific decisions - Stakeholders are aware and prepared Specifying generic targets for suppliers Alignment with project targets Meeting extended targets Active involvement Specifying standard products / systems for suppliers - Project targets drive decisions - Issues resolved through escalation - Proactively following general rules and regulations and upcoming trends - Staying within budget targets - Applying new technologies to meet extended targets - Staying up to date with new rules and regulations Qualitative management of targets and risks on organisation level - Tendering for proven concepts - Project and program and technologies management on organisational - Supplier performance evaluation targets on project targets - Quantitative targets on project - Supplier management process in level place - Risk identification in separate projects and impact on program targets - Some important stakeholders are - Requirements specification for always involved in design projects commercially available products - Supplier performance evaluation on product specification - Supplier agreements Qualitative management of targets and risks on project level - Project management on product targets - Reactive risk identification based on incidents/threats Relevant information - Planning based on important external factors - Relevant information to most important stakeholders get relevant information - Additional info through standard channels (e.g. website) Minor information - Planning based on internal planning and capacity - Information through standard channels on the execution of the works - no detailed information available Ad hoc and informal activities Regulation driven Applying standard products for functional lighting Ad hoc Solving issues None Purchasing standard products No structured project and risk management - Individual ambitions (on - Adherence to regulations and - Functional focus on safety in the - Ad hoc decisions by people - Complaints of citizens - Ad hoc stakeholder involvement - Standard products for standard - No performance indicators are - Execution based on internal managerial or operational level) rules city involved - Reactive approach to new rules applications defined for the realization project planning and capacity - Informal networks - Scope is dependent on individual - Products are purchased from - Issues may lead to not meeting and regulations - Supplier performance evaluation - No risk management procedure - No information provision - No structured processes, and/or view catalogues, with focus on function ambitions on individual deliveries in place skill levels defined - Under influence of elections and & costs - Ad hoc selection of suppliers - No consequences when targets governmental terms are not met Organizational level configuration management - Tracking and controlling of documentation on changes - Configuration baselines and configuration checks/audits Project level configuration management - Documentation on project/installation level Preventive actions on organisational level - Complaint analysis and comparison across installations and projects in the city - Sharing solutions across projects and installations - Preventive and reactive maintenance based on plans Reactive actions for structural improvement - Structural resolution of complaints within projects - Reactive maintenance with fast response based on pareto analysis of failures & stock of spare-parts - Curative maintenance through periodic replacements of parts No stakeholder management No configuration management Handling of individual complaints None - No configuration management procedure in place. - Individual complaints are analysed and resolved - Reactive maintenance based on incidents - No stock of parts Structural improvement on organisational level - Structural data collection on project performance and on organisational level - Monitoring if targets on organisational level are met Structural data collection - Data on project performance in relation to the targets is collected - No structural collection of feedback on projects - No structural monitoring of progress to meet targets Version Spellingcorrections for Roadmap report 23 juli 2012, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Self-assessment 2012 More info: prof.dr.ir. Elke den Ouden (mail: Using the ILI Reference Model for Sustainable Urban Lighting, a selfassessment was performed to find out where Eindhoven stands in terms of the processes relating to policy development, the design and realisation of lighting projects in the city, the maintenance, and monitoring of whether the ambitions expressed in the policy are achieved. A number of sessions were held together with the municipal staff members involved to consider the present working approaches in the city. Based on this process of self-reflection, the city s present position on the scale of the reference model was identified. The figure above shows the score on the self-assessment ( ). For an explanation on the ILI Reference Model, please refer to YouTube: Examples of best practices from the PLUS Deep Dive report As well as the self-assessment the PLUS project also included a DeepDive, in which the representatives of the participating cities in a peer review identified the best practices employed in Eindhoven. A number of quotes from the DeepDive report by PLUS (March 2012) show where the strengths of Eindhoven currently lie: Innovation is a key word when it comes to the economical development of Eindhoven. Research activities (Triple Helix, Brainport, Smartest Region etc.) are actively promoted and stimulated. Eindhoven has many different activities in the field of lighting and has many innovations to show. Innovations which are important for the general development of public lighting. Eindhoven does not only involve the main stakeholders, but depending on the project, seeks actively contact with groups that might have a (smaller) interest too. Conclusion Intelligent Lighting Institute The City of Eindhoven has most of its processes well organised (scoring level 3 Depth, which shows that sufficient awareness and knowledge exist). The high ambition level of the municipal staff to take a leadership role in a Triple Helix structure with (lighting) technology and design has not (yet) been translated into a concrete programme with coherent projects to ensure that the goals are actually achieved in practice. As the DeepDive shows, Eindhoven is leading in stakeholder involvement but the municipal staff themselves are not making their views felt to a sufficient extent in the discussions. That means the city runs the risk that the interests of citizens do not carry enough weight in innovative projects. To reach a higher score the city needs to profile itself not as a lead user but as a fully involved partner in the Triple Helix discussions.
7 5 Principles ILI Reference Model for Sustainable Urban Lighting Defining the ambition level level 5 Selfassessment 2012 Ambition 2015 Ambition 2030 Visionary - World class level - Innovating from a vision - Stretching boundaries - Operating in quadruple helix process Policy development Design process Realization process Maintenance process elements Defining ambition Sustainability scope Lighting innovation Decision process Design aspects Stakeholder involvement Contract management Project management Stakeholder management Configuration management Quality management Driving policy development through thought leadership - Yearly vision and roadmap - Involvement of quadruple helix in the creation of a shared vision - Thought leader Quality of life in public space as a Exploring new opportunities whole through experiential projects - Improving quality of life of - Experimentation projects citizens (innovator) -Public space as a whole (incl. - Publication and presentation of lighting) results to others (sharing) - Objective reviews show 'best in class' Alignment with policy & roadmap Exploration and integrated decision making - Policy and roadmap drives - Integrated decision making decisions - Reflection from multiple views - Autonomous, knowledgeable - Iterative approaches of and experienced teams across experimenting and testing of new quadruple helix opportunities - Scientific validation of new - Setting new norms solutions Learning process -Learning process across organisations in the quadruple helix - Respecting each other's contribution as thought leaders Joint roadmaps in a stakeholder network - Roadmaps involving quadruple helix: stakeholders seen as partners - Distinguishing between repetitive and innovative projects Quadruple based management of Involvement targets and risks - Project management on targets across quadruple helix -Targets monitored and adjusted to evolving insights - Risks identification from full quadruple helix - Involvement of stakeholders in planning of realisation project - Best timing for the project based on minimising burden Quadruple level integrated configuration management - Integrated configuration management system maintained by several stakeholders -Dynamic assessment of changes / solution partner of the Intelligent Lighting Institute Progress monitoring Continuous improvement based on emerging pattern recognition Continuous improvement in quadruple helix - The installed base is part of an - Continuous collection of on-going innovation process feedback from the quadruple helix - Emerging pattern recognition - Pro-active attitude of quadruple - Integrated maintenance helix towards the shared vision management through intelligent - Joint improvement plans systems involving the quadruple helix 4 Embedded Program management to meet future needs of end-users Social & ecological sustainability of light in public spaces Fast adoption of new functionalities Alignment with master plan Applying proven insights Monitoring effectiveness Specifying opportunities for suppliers Qualitative management of Timely & relevant information targets and risks on network level Chain level integrated configuration management Improvement based on monitoring installations Structural improvement in the total chain - End-user driven (outside in) - Proactive to achieve goals - Operating in total chain - Master plan with ambition - Input of total chain on future needs - Program management - Sustainability incl. social factors - Urban lighting as a whole - Fast application of new functions - Keeping track of new developments - Master plan drives decisions - Incorporating new insights or solutions in the design - Involvement of end-users and relevant stakeholders in decisions - New and proven insights are integrated into design decisions in the projects - Applying new solutions in specific projects - Monitoring effectiveness of participation of various stakeholders - Stakeholders suggest involvement - Suppliers involved in codevelopment across the total chain disturbances for stakeholders - Projects management on targets - Planning to minimise - Supplier performance evaluation - Risk identification in separate - Prior notice to stakeholders on goals in the total chain organisations and impact on total chain - Configuration management system for design changes - Impact assessment of design changes - Continuous monitoring of individual installations - Improvement based on insights from data - Preventive and reactive maintenance based on real time information from the system - Structural process in place to monitor if targets of the master plan are met - Monitoring if adaptation of plans or actions is needed to achieve the targets Depth - Objectives on organisational level (inside out) - Monitoring if targets are met - Collaboration within the organisation Aware - Objectives set on project level - Reuse of practices and ways of working - Responsibilities in separate departments Ad-hoc - Individual objectives ('heroes') - Implicit expertise, ad hoc activities - Informal networks Program of coherent projects to meet organisational ambitions - Ambition defined on organisational level - Coherent program of projects - Support from all relevant departments Ecological effectiveness of public and private lighting systems - Sustainability incl. ecological effectiveness - Relation between projects - Urban lighting incl. private systems Project level targets and activities Material use & energy consumption in public lighting systems - Targets defined on project level - A department is responsible and is aware of past performance - Track record of successful projects - Sustainability incl. 'zero emission' total product life cycle - Scarce resources and energy consumption - Lamps and luminaires managed by the municipality Applying new lighting products for multifunctional purposes Alignment with program management -Multifunctional lighting: safety, - Program targets drive decisions experience, navigation and traffic - Avoiding sub optimisation regulation - Issues resolved on program level - Applying newly available products in the program of projects (reactive follower) Applying standard products for functions and experience - Considering experience of citizens and visitors - Applying standard products from catalogues, incl. impact on experience Meeting integral and extended targets - Targets defined beyond common rules and regulations - Targets considered integrally Process management -Inviting specific stakeholders for specific decisions - Stakeholders are aware and prepared Specifying generic targets for suppliers Alignment with project targets Meeting extended targets Active involvement Specifying standard products / systems for suppliers - Project targets drive decisions - Issues resolved through escalation - Proactively following general rules and regulations and upcoming trends - Staying within budget targets - Applying new technologies to meet extended targets - Staying up to date with new rules and regulations Qualitative management of targets and risks on organisation level - Tendering for proven concepts - Project and program and technologies management on organisational - Supplier performance evaluation targets on project targets - Quantitative targets on project - Supplier management process in level place - Risk identification in separate projects and impact on program targets - Some important stakeholders are - Requirements specification for always involved in design projects commercially available products - Supplier performance evaluation on product specification - Supplier agreements Qualitative management of targets and risks on project level - Project management on product targets - Reactive risk identification based on incidents/threats Relevant information - Planning based on important external factors - Relevant information to most important stakeholders get relevant information - Additional info through standard channels (e.g. website) Minor information - Planning based on internal planning and capacity - Information through standard channels on the execution of the works - no detailed information available Ad hoc and informal activities Regulation driven Applying standard products for functional lighting Ad hoc Solving issues None Purchasing standard products No structured project and risk management - Individual ambitions (on - Adherence to regulations and - Functional focus on safety in the - Ad hoc decisions by people - Complaints of citizens - Ad hoc stakeholder involvement - Standard products for standard - No performance indicators are - Execution based on internal managerial or operational level) rules city involved - Reactive approach to new rules applications defined for the realization project planning and capacity - Informal networks - Scope is dependent on individual - Products are purchased from - Issues may lead to not meeting and regulations - Supplier performance evaluation - No risk management procedure - No information provision - No structured processes, and/or view catalogues, with focus on function ambitions on individual deliveries in place skill levels defined - Under influence of elections and & costs - Ad hoc selection of suppliers - No consequences when targets governmental terms are not met Organizational level configuration management - Tracking and controlling of documentation on changes - Configuration baselines and configuration checks/audits Project level configuration management - Documentation on project/installation level Preventive actions on organisational level - Complaint analysis and comparison across installations and projects in the city - Sharing solutions across projects and installations - Preventive and reactive maintenance based on plans Reactive actions for structural improvement - Structural resolution of complaints within projects - Reactive maintenance with fast response based on pareto analysis of failures & stock of spare-parts - Curative maintenance through periodic replacements of parts No stakeholder management No configuration management Handling of individual complaints None - No configuration management procedure in place. - Individual complaints are analysed and resolved - Reactive maintenance based on incidents - No stock of parts Structural improvement on organisational level - Structural data collection on project performance and on organisational level - Monitoring if targets on organisational level are met Structural data collection - Data on project performance in relation to the targets is collected - No structural collection of feedback on projects - No structural monitoring of progress to meet targets Approach Version Spellingcorrections for Roadmap report 23 juli 2012, Eindhoven, The Netherlands More info: prof.dr.ir. Elke den Ouden (mail: The ambition level for the future was defined together with the municipality in a workshop, using the ILI Reference Model for Sustainable Urban Lighting. This initially had a longer-term focus (2030). Then the processes needing attention in the shorter term (2015) were identified, to allow the first steps to be taken in the right direction and to lay the foundations for the longer-term challenges. The table above shows the current score (2012: ), the shorter-term ambition (2015: ) and the longer-term ambition(2030: ). Ambition 2030 The workshop revealed that the ambition of the City of Eindhoven is at visionary level. Eindhoven wants to apply innovative technologies to address socially relevant issues in partnership with the Triple Helix and with clear citizen involvement (Quadruple Helix). The city recognises the importance of innovation for the economic development of the Brainport region, is prepared to accept risks that are inherent in innovation, and regards its own primary task as safeguarding its citizens interests. It is aware of the steps that need to be taken to fulfil this role properly. Explicit attention will also need to be given to communication relating to the design and explorations with new technologies in living labs to help understand the associated learning process. Ambition 2015 To realise the longer-term ambitions, the first step will be to make a clear innovation plan defining a coherent set of (lighting) projects to be executed in partnership with the Quadruple Helix. These projects are needed to create the basic infrastructure for the city s smart lighting grid. This basic infrastructure is also needed to support the design explorations in the living labs with new technologies and intelligent control systems. With the basic infrastructure, the foundations will be laid for the innovation processes which can then focus on improving the quality of life and socially relevant issues. Lead user Intelligent Lighting Institute (putting the city forward as a testbed for suppliers) Provider of infrastructure (the infrastructure as an enabler for innovation) Full partner (safeguarding public interests through collaboration in the Quadruple Helix)
8 Approach 6 Future Telling Results raw data Findings Future Telling The Future Telling research method uses a set of cards with 64 future trends. Relevant trends are identified in interviews with experts for the liveable city context. These trends are then further detailed and supported by examples. Interview structure: What is not relevant in this context, now already relevant, or will be relevant in the future (and with what probability))? Which 10 trends will have most impact in the future? Rich stories about possible futures, supported by examples. A range of experts from different domains were interviewed for the future vision of a liveable city in Experts Aarnout Brombacher, TU/e Industrial Design Emile Aarts, TU/e Intelligent Lighting Institute Pauline van Hezik, Greenheart Company Rombout Frieling, TU/e OpenLight Marco Bevolo, Marco Bevolo BV Ellen de Vries, Het LUX LAB Toine Schoutens, Stichting Licht en Gezondheid Marleen Stikker, Waag Society Rogier van der Heide, Philips Design Lighting Robert Elbrink, Gemeente Eindhoven Rinie van Est, Rathenau Instituut Henno Theisens, De Haagse Hogeschool FT1 FT2 FT3 FT4 FT5 FT6 FT7 FT8 FT9 FT10 FT11 FT Classification by relevance: At first glance there appears to be little relationship between the 10 most relevant trends chosen by the experts. However the explanations which they subsequently gave to explain their choices and the examples that were then discussed show a number of clear directions. Three drivers for change were identified: 1 The influence of information 2 The perception of value not now later 3 The potential of people The full results are shown in the appendixes. plaatjes aanpassen The three drivers are described in more detail on the following pages. Choices to make the final scenario specific for Eindhoven have been made using the recalibration issues.
9 7 Future Telling The influence of information The following trends will have the greatest impact on the changing influence of information in the liveable city in the future: Even%be'er%ways%to%deal%with%and% use%large%amounts%of%informa(on% will%be%found% Intelligent(systems!will! increasingly!take!over!human! tasks!such!as!business! management!and!government.! Unregulated+alterna,ve+ economies+with+their+own+forms+ of+exchange++and+currencies+will+ increasingly+become+morepopular+ and+more+powerful % 052! 019+ Driver for change 1 The influence of information Our behaviour is driven by ubiquitously available information Sensors gather data (semi-)automatically, Users add information using social media, Social relationships will again be instrumental in finding your way through the excess of information. Systems will increasingly take over complex tasks Intelligent systems help people to reach their goals, Biological and sociological factors are included in the process of digitalisation, Technology becomes more human, and influences social processes. Empowered people through good technology applications Redefining our true selves in the makeable world, Business models will change drastically, The value of the intangible: searching for new opportunities. Interview quotes A number of quotes taken from the rich stories of the interviewees are shown below to provide some extra background information about the expected changes in the influence of information. Transparency and social media will force companies to change their ways. In the future you ll have notices on your virtual door showing what you want and what you don t you ll be in control of that yourself, with choices like you re now looking for a house meeting your specific requirements on a homes for sale site; you ll regain control of the locks on your own digital gateway. We know people don t choose on the basis of our website, but on the basis of review sites. And that community isn t owned by a big company, but is itself a big community with a huge impact on the decisions people take. The virtual and real worlds used to be far apart, but now digital technology and media have become an integrated part of our everyday lives (check in, check out). In fact there s a new, interactive layer on top of our world: the cybernetic loop. We re the Indians of the future; free and empowered people. Things used to be more limited ( village life ), but we were also very free free from external influences, stress, TV etc. Today people are influenced by signals, but exactly which they are and what motives are behind them isn t clear. We re under external pressure all the time. Where does that leave your identity? I think we ll see all kinds of business models around us based on social media and apps. I also expect a big future for intangible goods. Services that deliver added value in our lives, but which we still experience as products. In some cases that s already happening. Prerequisite To allow the influence of information to develop in the direction of a positive society, attention needs to be given to an ethical recalibration Is it enough, and is it fair, for the city just to keep the task of social safety, when efforts are being made all around us to create an open grid? Who will decide who s allowed to do what? Who is the owner of a network and information (and are they trustworthy)? Technology is a social design process, it s an ethical design issue, in which a code of conduct also needs to be designed by involving all stakeholders. More information is available and people become more influential through social media Life becomes easier with further technological support There will be a redefinition of being, of value and revenue models
10 8 Future Telling The perception of value The following trends will have the greatest impact on the changing influence of information in the liveable city in the future: The$means$of$influencing$your$ health$will$increasingly$fall$into$the$ hands$of$people.$medical$ professionals$will$lose$their$control$ of$the$means$and$change$into$ microbiological$engineers/ consultants.$ Alterna(ves!to!resource!scarcity! will!not!only!be!found!in!different! resources,!but!also!in!how!we!use! energy!(other!forms!of!mobility!in! stead!of!different!fuels,!different! distribu8on,!different!business! models!etc.).! The$largest$changes$will$lie$in$and$ be$a$result$of$our$ways$of$thinking.$ Social'innova*on$will$be$the$ fundament$of$technological$ innova9on$and$drive$the$way$we$ deal$with$our$opportuni9es$and$ problems.$$ $ 010$ 018! 027$ Driver for change 2 The perception of value A liveable environment The Netherlands has an excellent liveable environment, we have nothing to complain about, But the awareness of scarcity is beginning to take hold, There needs to be some kind of stimulus to make alternatives more attractive. Self-management People will start to use information to deliver on their individual needs, Using self-management and taking responsibility for your own situation in all kinds of areas: care, social safety, energy. Interview quotes A number of quotes taken from the rich stories of the interviewees are shown below to provide some extra background information about the expected changes in the influence of information. The Netherlands has an excellent liveable environment, we have nothing to complain about. If you ve ever been to São Paulo, you d realise that. Taking things for granted will change; just filling your tank because you can afford it. We re moving towards a recycling society; thinking carefully about what you buy. People are increasing searching on internet for information about care, illnesses and treatments, and that means their expectations will change. That s simply because they re better informed. Their perception will be more from an individual point of view. Prerequisite To allow the perception of value to develop in the direction of a positive society, attention needs to be given to an economic recalibration Is it enough for the city just to put itself forward as a living lab, without having its own point of view about how to deal with innovation and change? Who s in control? Which prerequisites have to be facilitated? What is the new economic system? Growing awareness of scarcity drives more awareness People take responsibility, the government steps back more and more The social balance There will be an increasing awareness that we all have duties and responsibilities, Innovations with a social perspective: entrepreneurship, Awareness that scarcity isn t just a question of money (it also means attention, love). Not expecting government to provide everything, but being in charge of your own destiny (including physically). For healthcare that means a shift from The doctor says... to Me and my own body.... That also applies to social safety: all of us taking responsibility together. We re all our own civil servants. A lot of people aren t so involved, think things are alright the way they are. People who have a lot to do with the city council are often those who are less well-off. That requires a personal approach. There ll be a shift from I m allowed to do whatever I like to We all have shared duties and responsibilities. Not because of idealism, but for pragmatic reasons. There will be a revaluation of value: new value models (not just business expressed in euros) that strive for reciprocity, for forms of value beyond money. There will be a redefinition of entrepreneurship and coinnovation by people and government
11 9 Future Telling The potential of people The following trends will have the greatest impact on the changing influence of information in the liveable city in the future: Further'development'of'social' media'will'give'businesses'much' more'informa7on'about'their' markets.'this'will'enable'them'to' refine'their'distribu7on'and' product'offerings.'this'will'help' them'be'of'be=er'service'to'their' users.' An#$globalists-will-get-what-theywant,-there-will-be-a-large$scalere#localiza*on-anddecentraliza#on.-At-the-same-#mepeople-will-par#cipate-in-theglobal-infrastructure-of-the-webwith-all-kinds-of-global-services.-- Next%genera*ons%will%be%a% different(kind%of%humans.%not%only% psychologically,%other%lifestyles% will%also%enact%physical%changes% (growing%up%with%digital% technology%changes%the%way%the% brain%works).% 013' % Driver for change 3 The potential of people Independence The rise of independence, Independence in work (partly as the result of circumstances, partly through choice), Independence in education (financing of talent instead of institutions). Interview quotes A number of quotes taken from the rich stories of the interviewees are shown below to provide some extra background information about the expected changes in the influence of information. Work will increasingly be organised in individual small companies. This will result in a polarisation. On the one hand people with a higher education, who are positive, in charge of their own destinies, have the freedom of individual expression and lifelong learning. And on the other hand a less well educated labour force at the lower social levels, in which increasing flexibility isn t always a choice for example cleaners, care workers etc. Prerequisite To allow the potential of people to develop in the direction of a positive society, attention needs to be given to a social recalibration Is it enough, and is it fair, to use a smart grid to provide openness but without defining the framework? People are by their own choice or as a result of circumstances independent and self-reliant New social connections New networks based on individuals own, deliberate choices, People decide for themselves with whom they want to do things, New (ad hoc) networks arise across boundaries. Cities (regions) as hot spots Cities have an important role in bringing creative and ambitious people together, Working together on development, based on a vision, towards a higher goal, New developments arise in attractive cities. In higher education people will receive a grant, depending on their talent, which enables them to have personal freedom of choice. The sense of belonging as something that s taken for granted will disappear. It s partly based on hypes: an almost theatrical kind of democracy. But new networks will arise, based on individual choices. There s a lot of freedom of choice, and you have to keep reinventing yourself all the time. The peaks will be most of all in the big cities. That s where the creative, ambitious people will come together to develop new things. That s always been the role of cities, and it s becoming even more important. As government you have to be clear: admitting that you re also not exactly sure of the way forward, but developing a vision and accepting choices. What role does the city take in relation to: Creating a framework, legislation, opportunities? Developing a vision and making choices? Bringing parties together (the Triple Helix) works for people who can express themselves, but how can you safeguard the interests of the weaker members of society in the Triple Helix? People make conscious choices for new, suitable social connections There will be a redefinition of the city as a creative hot spot
12 10 Future Telling Scenario Eindhoven in 2030 Basic values in the scenario 2030 We will see the introduction of a multipurpose, smart lighting grid, combining ICT (IP), energy and lighting functions. This will create new possibilities (and with them new design opportunities) in the ways the social and urban space can be used. De city council: Provides the basic facilities (utilities) of the smart lighting grid, including: light in the broadest sense (from functional lighting to multimedia [art] projection); together with safety in the broadest sense (including social safety, traffic systems and air quality), Is responsible as provider, with the task of safeguarding public interests, Carries out step-by-step, sustainable development, Strives for a changing perception of the urban environment; as a living space instead of just as a transit space. For citizens the city council ensures: That they always have the right to decide what happens in their own public space, That they are always involved in the roll-out in their own districts, and also act as co designers of their own space, That the basic facilities are freely available to all, with a charge made for any extras. The city council sets up processes to: Safeguard public interests: organising roles, responsibilities, public involvement, alerting in case of unforeseen effects etc., Making the grid accessible for all kinds of initiatives (citizens, commercial): safeguarding continuous development in/through the Quadruple Helix, Creating space for experiments by providing (temporary) living labs to (co-)create and test together with partners. Visualisation of Eindhoven 2030 The visualisation of the scenario shows a number of examples to provide inspiration for the roadmap sessions reviewing the technological opportunities to realise the Scenario Creativity (e.g. using light graffiti ) Personalised light (e.g. made-to-measure light that travels with you) Multimedia lighting applications (e.g. functional & art) Playing with light (e.g. interactive games) Interactivity (e.g. meeting places) Invisible infrastructure (e.g. self-supporting systems) Personalised light (e.g. navigation projection) Safety features (e.g. braking distance projection) Creating ambiance (e.g. stores & restaurants) Shifting boundaries (e.g. GLOW experiments) Citizen participation (e.g. implementation in districts)
13 11 Future Telling Scenario Eindhoven in 2030 Eindhoven was the first city in the Netherlands with a working smart lighting grid back in There was a lot of criticism when it was first introduced, but now almost 20 years later it s time to see what it has delivered. The city offers a highly liveable environment, people have plenty of work and plenty to eat, and the basic services such as waste processing and logistics are well organised. But Eindhoven has more to offer. Eindhoven is an international hotspot where a lot of things are going on; it s a place where creative, independent people get together to innovate and to do business. The city is bubbling with energy, people have the freedom the develop, to work and to live in the way they choose. People s lives are based not just in their homes, but in the entire city. In fact we started on a very small scale, says the project leader at the time: Using the existing lighting masts we created points where internet and mains power are brought together. That provided intelligence in a smart lighting grid, making possible an unlimited range of unique services and processes. Now you can see what that has all led to, both for the city and for all those who are involved with it. It enabled us to make progress gradually, which is also an attractive option in financial terms. Our vision is to offer openness and transparency, but not necessarily to provide all the details or even the basic framework ourselves, says a Municipal Executive Board member at the time. Through the smart lighting grid we ourselves only offer the basic needs for lighting and safety. You can now see how everyone can start up all kinds of initiatives using the grid in many cases initiatives that we could never have thought of at the time. As Municipal Executive Board our task is only to safeguard social safety. The openness towards citizens, and their involvement, were important success factors. Nothing was, or is, ever rolled-out without citizens being involved in how it would work in their area or street. Defining the processes and responsibilities to achieve this was a big job; we provided help where something was too big to be handled by individuals on their own. Now, our own responsibilities and our role in safeguarding public interests are clearly defined. The role we play in that process is changing all the time, according to a Municipal Executive Board member at the time: Sometimes we act as initiator, and sometimes as facilitator, organiser or controller. We are constantly acting in a network of partners, the Quadruple Helix. As value producer the municipality is actively involved in all phases of the value-creation process, from the development of ideas right through to their implementation, in which it can play changing roles. But it s clear that in each development, realisation or implementation, citizens themselves are involved at every stage. That means the design process follows a multidisciplinary approach, and the commercial actions of designers and producers are always monitored by human/ethical watchdogs. How has it been possible for this simple idea to take off so powerfully? There has been a big increase in the formation of networks in all kinds of areas, in which people consciously seek contact with each other and start up activities together. The smart lighting grid provides further positive support for that process; people contact each other and share information. At the same time the grid gives them tools to be even more creative. This effect has been incredibly powerful. People have regained control of all kinds of activities in their own environments and local areas. From information about their area right through to setting up local care activities. From local energy generation to international entrepreneurship. By making all these things possible a shared public living space has been created, in which people get together and for which they feel a shared sense of responsibility. And because people have control in their own hands and are actively involved, it s been adopted very quickly and across a very broad front. Technology may make just about everything possible nowadays, but at the end of the day it s the people themselves who decide what happens. Through the discussions in the Quadruple Helix a lot of ideas have arisen about alternative business models and the value of money. For example innovation has automatically become more socially-based; companies and organisations take responsibility because they can, and because there is support for it. Making the new opportunities visible is also vital, says a project leader at the time: Through living labs, which is what you could call the annual Glow festival, and the Strijp-S area, we can carry out a whole series of experiments in which the people themselves are involved. That means you can go that bit further than in an everyday situation. And you can then apply the insights you ve gained in that everyday situation. So we re in a continuous development loop. Fortunately Eindhoven was already innovative in 2012, and that gave it a tremendous lead just look at the other big cities. What people say about Eindhoven in 2030 Yuen (2010), TU/e International Business Development student and entrepreneur Yuen recently moved to Eindhoven from Chengdu. That was a deliberate decision, because of the study opportunities and because of the good facilities available here for the kind of work she wants to do. Together with her brother (who s staying in China) she intends to start a company here in 3D printing of medicines. That s something she can easily do from home, and can combine it with her studies at TU/e. In the next 5 years I want to grow into the Western European distribution channel for our family business. And I can see big opportunities to do that with the facilities that the City of Eindhoven offers. Sem (1990), director of ZorgMaat Sem is director of a large SME company. ZorgMaat offers care products, and arose out of the former GGD (municipal healthcare service). The company develops new products itself: Of course a lot of knowledge is available nowadays on internet, and we re part of a network with the right partners, such as knowledge institutes and local care providers, so we can operate flexibly. During the yearly international Glow festival we have the opportunity to show the people of the city everything that s possible, and to get feedback on our ideas. That s how it works we re there for the city, and the city is there for us. Rajid (2000), social entrepreneur Rajid was born and bred in Eindhoven, and won Entrepreneur of the Year 2030 award. Because he has for many years, together with people in the local areas, been developing services that add real value to their lives, according to the jury report. Just one example is Socialeye, introduced last year, which allows people to monitor each other and to control lighting at potentially unsafe locations and times. He still recalls the introduction of the smart lighting grid in Eindhoven in 2012: I was 10, and I was already making apps for smartphones, which were just becoming popular, in my room after school. I could immediately see the unlimited opportunities that were going to arise, and I knew that I wanted to make it my job to realise them. Lucas (1980), active citizen Lucas is unfit for work after an accident on the refuse-collection vehicle which he drove around the city for 20 years. But as he himself says there s nothing wrong with his head, and he s actively involved in his own local area in Eindhoven. We want to benefit as much as possible from all the facilities the grid offers us. I m in discussion about that with Municipal Executive Board members and business people. We re talking about what s possible and what we want to achieve. That openness is important for achieving a liveable, safe city. But we also have to keep an eye on people in the area who are socially disadvantaged and whose voice isn t always heard. I see that as my task. Femke (1960), active older citizen Femke may be a bit older but she still has a lot of energy, as she says herself, and she still feels strongly involved in her local community. She regularly takes part in the Designing Together evenings, especially to keep up-to-date with all the developments that are taking place. But she also feels she s taken seriously when she has a contribution to make. We recently talked to a hospital director who wanted to administer medicines through our implanted heartrate sensors. But we can t just let him have access to all that personal data about people? Who knows what will happen to it then. Fortunately all the others who were there agreed with that, and an Ethical Design team was set up to carefully monitor further developments. I m happy that we can bring things like that up for discussion here. The Socialeye has also been set up in the area where Femke lives: Many people of my age no longer dared to go outside at night, but now that s been solved by just helping each other a bit. It s as easy as that. The Versteegh family from Paris, visitors to Glow We heard from friends who have visited us here for many years that it was well worth seeing, so we re now visiting Glow for the first time. And it s fantastic: you can see things here that are unique, and that you would never have thought possible! Eindhoven is more than delivering on its reputation as the most innovative city. It s also great fun and very interesting for the kids to get a preview of the future. We re sure to be back again next year!
14 12 Approach Roadmap Technological options The Eindhoven 2030 scenario served as an inspiration to explore the technology opportunities and to actually put them into practice. Experts from industry and knowledge institutes have indicated the possibilities they see in the areas of lighting and smart technology and placed them on a timeline. They have also highlighted the preconditions for the organisation. This topic was also discussed in a session with personnel from the municipality. Participants in the roadmap workshops (in separate sessions): Elements of the roadmap The technological opportunities were divided into two main categories, each with three aspects: What are the developments in the field of lighting: lighting technologies (light sources and related facilities), control systems (sensors, system controls and light source controls) and applications (functions and services using and/or for lighting? What are the developments in the field of smart cities: applications (functions and services using and/or for the smart city), ICT infrastructure (network and system facilities) and supporting systems (data processing and energy). The organisational preconditions are divided into processes, business models and living labs. milestones : smart lighting grid and societal transformations Eindhoven in 2030 technological options in lighting: lighting technologies, control technologies and applications technological options in smart cities: applications, ICT infrastructure and enabling systems preconditions in the organisation: processes, business models and living labs Examples of the result of a workshop session: Result raw data Lighting lichttechnologie lamps multimedia controltechnologie switches IP interfaces sociale veiligheid Smart City energie tracking sensoren & tracing klimaat smart grid mobiliteit veiligheid augmented reality e-learning e-care e-cure e-navigate e-energy e-... internet sociale media internet of things internet of... Organisation rollen & verantwoordelijkheden burgerparticipatie wetgeving Living Lab beleidsontwikkeling design proces processenonderhoudsrealisatieprocess process Cloud-based lighting management platform Intelligente infrastructuur Manage the crowd by navigation fine dust nose Groen als thermische massa Urban operating platform (UOS) algorithms Navigate crowd management Smart homes Energiebesparing Convergentie van Multiple action: systemen Industrieel ontworpen outdoor cleaning also checks lighting datacenter (groen) Dynamic Programeerbare verlichting Camera data integratie (meer data dan sensoren) Licht als oppervlakte Privacy protecting consensus (secure multiparty computation) Adaptieve, autonome licht systemen Meer communicatiefaciliteiten: andere sensoren, meer bandbreedte Meten: -verkeer, -luchtkwaliteit (fijnstof, CO2, CO), -geluidsnivo, - temp (goedkope sensoren) City sensor network on lighting pole System of systems Integratie van driver & intelligentie drijft prijs omlaat Urban interaction use lighting to stimulate social space Microcellen netwerk Meting & communiceren: Machine-2-machine - luchtkwaliteit - verbruik - maatschappelijke onderwerpen Multifunctional lighting pole: ev-charging, wifi hotspot, etc. Klimaat stabilisatie Open data Processing power 2015 Self sustaining of lighting / microgrid Zelfvoorzienende systemen (ook vanwege paalloze oplossingen) Automatisch actueren van licht (dynamisch) Natuurlijk effect van licht (3D ervaring) Daglichtverlenging Natuurlijk effect van licht multisensorisch Smart local energy management Resultaat: - duurzaam efficient - comfort etc. Zelfvoorzienende systemen op armatuurnivo Safety hotspot for police increase of light (mobile!) Interactie vraagstukken met real time info Centraal systeem - profielen uitsturen - over rulen in emergency Asset management integrating multiple modalities Glasvezel backbone Standardisatie binnen LED s en lenzen Pijngrens opgeschoven zodat er geen beperking meer is (energie, etc) xxx Personalise the public space Intelligent traffic car to car coordination and navigation toll system (change of tax system) Electricity + communication fully connected grid with high bandwith Bottom up innovation Nieuwe bedrijven die infrastructuur blijven ontwikkelen Self-healing system Everything connected Augmented reality Building blocks of poles standard modules, mass standardisation Slimmed down government DNA robotics Multi-functional interfaces Loadbalancing op stadsnivo: integraal incl. stadsverlichting Open business modellen voor infrastructuur Citizen interaction feedback ideas using IT platform Verlichting is geen doel, maar een middel Nieuwe business modellen Kennis nivo op peil houden Onzekerheden: - betrouwbaarheid van systemen - open standaarden - added value naar langere termijn - business modellen - commissioning & maintenance TU/e LightHouse & Gemeente Eindhoven 2020 Because the smart lighting grid is aimed at facilitating the desired social transformations which emerged from the Future Telling sessions, the steps in the roadmap are also linked to milestones in these transformations. Surface lighting of buildings create need for regulation Veranderende verantwoordelijkheden Kennis over hoe je dynamisch omgaat met licht The raw data from the roadmap workshops has been clustered onto a number of important elements placed on a timeline. This provided insight in the steps for the development of a smart lighting grid. Nieuwe spelers op de wereldmarkt (bv. Toshiba, Samsung) Real time info (via glasvezel netwerk) Stadsdashboard (integraal over beheersdiensten) Digitising on street furniture and signage Accesspoints voor care als verlengde van domotica (elderly care outside home) City sensor networks Technologie verloopt volgens evolutie (stapsgewijs) OLED Google street view in real time Data mining Smart grid: toekomstgericht & flexbiliteit Smart buildings (building mgt systems) Mast materialen en coatings (reflecterend, zonnecollecten etc) Licht als display Multiple user scenarios police, retail, restaurants, bars = government checking boundaries Local energy storage & generator People flow mgt linking lighting application Invisible Social Andere vormfactoren en bevestigingen Scenario sturing (bijv. emergency response) Demand response on street lighting Logica & algoritmes Guidance of traffic, using lighting infrastructure Sensoren in elk lichtpunt Emergy management services incl. lighting Interactive Event based communicatie Proximity + omgeving sensing: (communicatie tussen palen) System of systems integratie City apps on (samenwerking volgens eigen policy) public platform Open glasvezel IP netwerk Light on demand (service georienteerde oplossingen) Open data Ontwikkeling & realisatie van IPv6 niieuwe producten & diensten Fijnmazig netwerk van Open platform IP enabled Infrastructuur bij verglazing : low data rate sensoren grid grid Lokale duurzame - wat nodig? efficiente opwekking fijnmazigheid, dikte van de goot Open energie netwerk Cable (DOCSIS) Using savings in efficiency ADSL/VDSL Bedrade backbone in innovation Broadband Fibre met veel access points Open data infrastructure Nieuwe producten & Start policy of microservices ontwikkelen Parel -ontwikkeling grid on top of grid (door bedrijven en burgers) Investment -> parelketting models Program management cross departments/functions Energy roadmap for connected public space Maintenance adviser what/when Budget guide line Openstelling van Regelgeving met Hoe omgaan met de infrastructuur stimulus voor huidige richtlijnen (rijk, provincie, gemeente) nieuwe initiatieven Change from owning Comfort Organisatorische to consuming lighting Prioriteit voor inrichting ivm Partijen betrekken maatschappelijke issues Tijd van gratis proefveranderende rol Dienstontwikkeling in masterplan/roadmap in masterplan monsters is voorbij (bijv. thuiswonende ouderen) Nieuwe waardeketens (in verlichtingsmarkt) Samenwerking Innovatief Aanbesteding: PPS constructie aanbesteden brengen & halen in samenwerking over beleidsvelden Branding Brainport: Veiligheid (perceptie) Communicatietrajecten (geld, kennis, uren,...) Opstellen voorwaarden City of Tomorrow Ecosysteem voor bij nieuwe business modellen & succesfactoren Privacy issue Aanbesteding : Innovation Pilot 1 (alfa) infrastructuur en eigenaren voor uitbesteding a tot z center When you dig: put in fiber (business model) - uitgaansgebied Doel -> spec - industrieel gebied (= policy to get everything Pilot 2 (alfa 2) - woonwijken connected within x years) User profiles -> public policy Pilot 3 (beta) Buffers (e.g. AIM) naar inkoop Eisen/regels voor publiek belang Begrip tav. burger wensen Regelgeving openbreken Asset bundling (normen voor adaptieve systemen) (vnl gereguleerde deel) (less siloed) Data beheer &beschikbaarinzicht in wat de Efficient & veilig van A naar B stellen (geanonimiseerd) burger nodig heeft -> rol vd overheid Gebiedsgewijze ontwikkeling Communicatie naar burgers: Voorinvesteringen (rol gemeente) Energy light point needs Objectieve modellen voor -> maste plan Andere nationaal + internationaal voor innovatie tobe connected de perceptie van veiligheid afrekenmodellen (overdragen voor exploitatie =>change policy (bijv. klachten) ICT policies for Platform for experience Welke rol speelt de gemeente Regulation & policy public infrastructure design in living labs in system of systems integratie? Performance: changes Economic modelling - werk Beveiliging tegen Less complex (TCO / NPV / IIRR) RFI / RFP s / RFQ s - leren cybercrime ecosystem -... Splitsing kritische City as a living lab Zicht op welke waardeketens Less techo push Open innovatie + Acceptatie van techniek & luxe systemen (structure & scalability) je wilt hebben innovatiestimulering 2012 Light balancing Performance feedback ideas, communication, smartphone internet lighting Asset management links configuration mgt and quality mgt Milestones Taking poles away: surface lighting optics that direct the light Fiber optics Internet-based interfaces, open -> change over to better Ease of use: Modular multifunctional performance Fool-proof technology SSL region addressing design (scalable) must be possible f.e. controlled + non-controlled quality of light: type of street -> remotely Continue prijsdaling IP enabled Driver ontwikkeling people, planet, profit Over the air intelligent grouping LED s - BIN s wroden beter upgradable systemen loopt voor op LED s IP based systemen Lichtschakeling Web/remote control Actueren van licht Lokale stuursignalen Inter-operable controls (bundels en richting) op tijd/sensor: dimmen op groepsnivo SW/HW (proximity sensor) uit / aan / dim Verbetering gelijkscenario based upgradable systeem Uitwisselbare & matigheid irt lichtnivo scheidbare systemen Licht als lijn Verbetering lichtmengen Lensontwikkeling maakt Retrofit, affordable control via optica langere paalafstand mogelijk (e.g. cabinet based) Lighting apps on Aansturen verlichting public platform Flexibility when Interconnected vanuit smart grid Eco -measurement installed (internet of things) Event-based control + i.r.t. goals Closed loop street level sensors Meer mogelijkheden via life cyclemanagement reflectie oppervlakken Variable kleuren second life Licht als punt Lensontwikkeling maakt (bijv. kleurtemp. verloop) Gevelverlichting minder verblinding mogelijk Multi-functional Software based aanschijnen van boven network (infrastructure) flexibility Zelfvoorzienende systemen (minder lichtvervuiling) op straatnivo Constant lumen-output Context classificatie Dashboard: : Behaviour upgradable sensor in armatuur Branding & (geluid, beeld) - labour, - parts, changing over time Combine light marketing - alternative products, and surveillance - CO2 targets Weather, traffic, accidents: sensor takes over Zelfmonitorende systemen Asset management (bijv. intrusie detectie) Interactive people platform connected & non-connected Camera s luchtkwaliteit verkeersregeling (serious) gaming Separate licht on demand for busses Continuous change of energy performance in relation to lighting performance (purchase of performance instead of product specs) The roadmap will be explained in more detail on the following pages. The complete roadmap is included in the appendixes.
15 Lighting technologies 13 Roadmap Lighting lighting technology control technology applications Lighting technology Shorter term (up to 2015) Continuous developments are taking place to improve the performance of leds: in terms of energy consumption, light output and quality. Prices are falling thanks to improvements in the production processes. And improved optics allow light to be mixed more evenly. Variable colours will also be possible (e.g. gradually changing the colour temperature). Lens developments enable greater distances between lighting masts. As well as point light sources, linear sources (lighting lines) also become possible. Medium to long term ( ) Improvements and price reductions in leds are expected to continue for some time until the economically achievable maximum is reached. OLEDs also become available, and these allow flat light sources (surfaces) to be created, bringing display-like light sources within reach. Longer term (2020 and beyond) Standardisation takes place within leds and lenses, which thereby become exchangeable modules. Control technology Shorter term (up to 2015) IP-based systems are rapidly becoming the dominant technology. Open interfaces allow systems from different suppliers to be interconnected with common controls. Affordable retrofit controls allow existing systems to be upgraded to remote-controlled systems. This means that light points can be controlled and dimmed in groups or remotely. Applications are developed using these remote-controlled facilities. These systems in many cases use predefined scenarios triggered by the sensors. Medium to long term ( ) Continuing development of sensors leads to further price reductions. This allows more sensors to be used in the systems, leading to systems that are more dynamic and autonomous. Light on demand increasingly becomes possible. The integration of drivers and intelligence drives the price of controls down. The control algorithms are further extended to scenarios meeting multiple specific needs (police, shopping centres, restaurants, emergency services etc.). Realtime information becomes available through a widely distributed, high-bandwidth infrastructure. Longer term (2020 and beyond) Standard modules become available as building blocks, enabling flexible configuration of lighting and control systems. Applications Shorter term (up to 2015) IP-based systems already enable asset and energy management systems to be built. Dashboards allow lighting schemes and replacement schedules to be made to allow cost and environmental targets to be met. Sensors with low data requirements (temperature, rainfall, air quality, proximity detection etc.) can be integrated in networks that do not require high bandwidths. This allows a first iteration to be made of systems controlled through web interfaces. As a result it becomes possible to develop a range of applications, but also to link lighting to the smart grid. The local context, which is available through the sensors, can be used for event-based controls. Medium to long term ( ) The open infrastructure enables joint influencing of settings by multiple parties. To allow this to be done safely, systems become available that allow consensus to be reached with protection of privacy-sensitive data. Advanced applications using sensors with high data rates enable interactive lighting scenarios. Longer term (2020 and beyond) Interaction with real-time information makes adaptive systems possible. Lower energy requirements of the light sources and controls make small, self-sufficient lighting systems achievable. This represents a first step towards invisible systems that disappear in the context of their environments. Performance improvement (energy performance of the hardware) Dynamic systems (energy performance including software options) Interactive systems (light on demand) Social systems (more responsive to the needs of citizens, with the citizens Invisible systems (integration in the area, intuitive controls)
16 14 Technologies for smart Roadmap cities Smart City applications ICT infrastructure enabling systems Applications Shorter term (up to 2015) At present growing numbers of smart solutions are available for the home, especially for energy (smart meters) and care (domotics). Developments in applications at city level allow traffic flows to be managed (e.g. on the basis of air quality monitoring). Developments like this continue in the direction of urban operating systems. But the availability of relevant open data from different sources is needed to allow relevant applications to be created. Medium to long term ( ) ICT infrastructure Shorter term (up to 2015) Hard work is currently being done on extending the ICT infrastructure to broadband with numerous access points. IP version 6 allows all kinds of equipment to be connected by internet. Opening-up the broadband IP network is necessary to enable convergence of systems and cooperation between systems with their own policies. Systems will be able to monitor themselves, and thereby to recognise attacks by hackers. Medium to long term ( ) Enabling systems Shorter term (up to 2015) Sustainable energy is the most important aspect in the shorter term. Smaller initiatives for local energy generation are linked to an open energy grid. To allow a big step forward in sustainability to be made, a green, industrial-design data centre is an option (the energy and communication requirements of this kind of centre are so great that it means sustainable energy and broadband communication also become available for other applications in the city). Medium to long term ( ) Infrastructure (broadband backbone with numerous access points) Open data (availability of data from different sources) Following the smart homes, smart buildings are now created with building management systems, such as offices, apartment complexes etc. Machine to machine communication develops into a mature technology, with communication between systems that does not require human intervention. Systems increasingly use real-time information from the large numbers of sensors and cameras connected to the broadband network. That means data rates are no longer a problem. This also makes the development of city dashboards possible, covering multiple services and modalities. Longer term (2020 and beyond) Following the smart buildings, smart cities now come within reach through the integration of solutions for the various urban services (energy, waste, mobility, care, lighting etc.). There are also intelligent transportation systems that communicate and coordinate their behaviour jointly. There is unlikely to be a single, all-encompassing system; instead there is expected to be a system of systems in which a range of modular systems cooperate while retaining their own policies (e.g. traffic management systems, air quality systems, navigation systems, emergency systems etc.). More sensors are gradually being installed in the city to monitor all kinds of signals such as air quality, energy or social aspects. Broadband has probably now been rolled-out for internet use by citizens. Public services also start to operate over the existing network using microcells. Longer term (2020 and beyond) The most important developments in the ICT infrastructure have already taken place in the shorter term; no further major leaps forward are expected in the longer term. The need to balance energy consumption is expected to reach a peak in the medium to long term. It will then be necessary to control and balance the overall energy consumption of private and public parties, including the urban lighting across the city, and systems become available to support this process. Longer term (2020 and beyond) Restrictions in energy consumption are expected to disappear in the longer term. This is on the one hand because systems are becoming increasingly energy-efficient (so their consumption decreases), and on the other hand because of constant improvements in the generation of sustainable energy (which means more sustainable energy becomes available). System of systems (cooperation between systems with their own policy) Real-time systems (using high-bandwidth sensors) Smart city systems (integration of different municipal services)
17 15 Organisational preconditions Roadmap Organisation processes business models living labs Processes Shorter term (up to 2015) Plans are developed for the various areas in the city, with priority for socially important themes. In parallel, a platform is developed in which co-creation and involvement of citizens are further extended. This requires policy that defines the roles of citizens and the municipality. The municipality will have to take a role in the availability of the infrastructure in the city (managed by national and provincial government authorities, commercial parties and the municipality itself). Medium to long term ( ) Urban lighting policy is developed, building on the knowledge gained in the living labs and various investigations and experiments. In this process the municipality has to take on the role of translating the interests of citizens into appropriate user profiles. The new business models with the open data and open infrastructure mean that roles and responsibilities need to be updated. The municipality also has to ensure that the knowledge gained about the needs of citizens is kept updated in line with new technology developments. Only then can the municipality continue to play a full role in the Quadruple Helix. Longer term (2020 and beyond) There is a continuous need to update laws and regulations in line with increasing knowledge and new (technological) facilities. The municipality can play an active role in this process (especially if the visionary role in lighting innovations is handled well). Business models Shorter term (up to 2015) In the shorter term space needs to be created for innovative tendering processes that enable new business models in public private partnerships. In fact new ecosystems need to be created, in which innovation also plays a role in the longer term. It may be necessary for the municipality to invest in innovations to ensure rapid roll-out, with the transfer to an outside party to handle the operational phase not taking place until later. New business models become possible as soon as the basic infrastructure (smart lighting grid) is available, and initiatives by citizens and commercial parties then lead to new products and services. The results of experiments in living labs help to allow the real needs of citizens to be identified. Medium to long term ( ) Continuous innovations in the infrastructure continue to be necessary in the medium to long term. New, open business models for the infrastructure itself are then needed to ensure that (new) companies invest in sustainable infrastructural developments. Longer term (2020 and beyond) The infrastructure and the business models continue to develop if the system is well designed, and the municipality has to keep checking that this is actually the case. Living labs Shorter term (up to 2015) In the shorter term a start can be made on pilot projects in living labs to allow the needs of citizens, users and stakeholders in the respective areas of the city to be identified. It s a good idea to start experimenting with smaller-scale ecosystems in the different areas to see if a well matched business model can also be developed (e.g. nightlife areas, shopping centres, industrial areas, residential areas). Further investigation may then lead to a better understanding of the needs in aspects that are not yet well defined such as comfort and social safety, and how these are related to the performance and energy-efficiency of (lighting) systems. The relationships that are identified can then be verified in further tests and developed into relevant user profiles for intelligent lighting. Medium to long term ( ) In the medium term the results of the investigations lead to objective models for the perception of safety and comfort. In addition, the investigations go further to allow the specific needs and wishes in relation to dynamic systems to be defined. Longer term (2020 and beyond) In the longer term there is in fact a continuous process in which new technologies and possibilities are investigated in living labs and translated into needs and wishes for further roll-out. Plans for urban areas (differentiation of solutions for different needs) Innovative procurement (new revenue models and ecosystems for innovation) Living labs (co-creation on liveability and social interests) New products and services (including new business models and new laws and regulations) Open infrastructure (further development of infrastructure through open business models)
18 Towards a smart lighting grid Roadmap16 Milestones societal transformation smart lighting grid Lighting Improvement in function & energy consumption of urban lighting Intelligent and adaptive systems for increased comfort, social safety and atmosphere Integration of lighting and smart city systems Smart city Broadband infrastructure Convergence of systems (system of systems) Organisation Enforcing open data and access for innovative public services Stimulating development of new products and services for public interest Full role in quadruple helix structure Smart lighting grid milestones In the shorter term the technologies for lighting and the smart city will be developed in parallel. It will be possible to interconnect everything through IP networks. The lighting infrastructure can already be made intelligent by using systems that only need low data rates (i.e. not requiring broadband). This will allow a first iteration of relevant applications to be made with dynamic lighting based on the smart lighting grid. Experiments with different dynamic scenarios will allow an understanding to be gained of the needs and wishes of citizens and the community, and of what higher levels of comfort, ambiance and social safety mean for people. The knowledge gained about needs and wishes will be used to develop intelligent and adaptive lighting systems that contribute to increased comfort, social safety and ambience in the city. The further roll-out of the broadband infrastructure will enable new applications. This also brings with it the ability to use high-data-rate signals for dynamic lighting systems. These will initially follow preprogrammed scenarios, but will gradually evolve into adaptive systems interacting with realtime information. The need for integrated energy management will lead to cooperation between systems. In the longer term the smart lighting and urban systems will be integrated, leading to systems that manage energy, waste, mobility, care, lighting etc. at overall city level based on an integrated, holistic approach. Further developments in lighting and energy technologies will lead to a high degree of design freedom, and (small) modular, selfsufficient and easily reconfigurable systems will arise. Societal transformation If the findings of Future Telling and the roadmap are combined, the result is an impression of how the technological developments can contribute to achieving the societal transformation to the Eindhoven 2030 scenario. Transition in the perception of people People s awareness of scarcity means they make better-considered choices. There is a shift to more social responsibility for themselves. others and the environment (not just me but more we ). This results in broader support for sustainability, with citizens who also expect the government to make better-considered, more responsible choices. Transition in social connections Responsible people make good use of technology to create new and significant links with other people who have comparable ambitions. If government is withdrawing, self-management becomes increasingly important. The new social networks can also play a role in the living labs, with input about the desired activities, system behaviour and dynamic lighting scenarios. Transition in social innoation Enterprising people and cities will co-innovate on valuable solutions that contribute to higher ambitions. A smart city can only function if all parties in the Quadruple Helix act in a way that is carefully considered and that contributes to a better quality of life in the city. Approach for implementation A lot is already possible in terms of technology, and that will continue to increase. Broadband infrastructure is not absolutely essential to make a start with a smart lighting grid. And on the other hand the broadband network will in any case be rolled-out further in the coming years. This is why there was a discussion in the roadmap sessions about the approach to be followed towards the implementation of the smart lighting grid. In fact two options can be distinguished at top level : starting with a low bandwidth (wireless) lighting grid for connections to sensors and lighting controls; first installing the broadband infrastructure and then connecting the lighting system to it at some point in the future. These two options differ in the required investment levels and lead times. The payback models for the investments will also have to be included in considering the investment decisions. It emerged from the roadmap sessions that finding a payback model for public private partnerships is one of the issues for which a number of parties still have to find a solution. Different areas in the city demand different infrastructure and have different possibilities in terms of the payback model. Where the city centre requires high data rates to integrate video signals, lower data rates may be sufficient for control of the lighting systems in some of the residential areas. It is also clear that more customers for high bandwidths can be found in the city centre, thereby enabling other payback models. It therefore appears logical to differentiate the plans for the respective areas, while also taking into account the payback model and the stakeholder needs in each area. Implementation roadmap Based on the above, there are two main themes for the implementation of the roadmap: 1 Innovation plan for city areas Differentiation in solutions for a range of needs, taking into account the consequences of those differences for the infrastructure and the opportunities for payback models with new products and services in the city area. 2 The above themes will be further detailed in an innovation plan in the following step. Experimenting with the role of the municipality Working in a Quadruple Helix structure in the development of new ecosystems for innovation demands a new role by the municipality, in which new payback models can also arise in public private partnerships.
19 The complete overview Roadmap42 A larger version of the roadmap is shown on a gatefold page in the appendix.
20 18 Prerequisites Innovation for innovation plan From roadmap to innovation plan Based on the vision and roadmap, future-proof follow-up steps can now be defined. Because the city s ambition is to stay ahead in technology and innovation, it is important for the innovation process to be defined and anchored to allow continuous experimentation and development with new products and services. Although most parties (companies, knowledge institutes and the municipality itself) are aware that innovations relating to the smart lighting grid have to be handled in a different way than through the standard tendering processes, it is not yet clear how the innovation process should actually be handled. Partnerships between public and private parties will change, and will focus mainly on knowledge integration to reach a total system concept and on generating new payback models. The municipality will have to safeguard public interests in these partnerships, which means it will have to take its full responsibility in the Triple Helix (while at the same time extending this into a Quadruple Helix by actively involving citizens). The following pages present a step-by-step plan for the development of urban areas. But before doing this, it is important first to carefully define the prerequisites for innovation. The first step to be taken is to gain insight into the system architecture. In the illustration on the right, four levels are distinguished in the architecture (centre column, from bottom to top): infrastructure, devices, data and services. Each of these levels is an enabler for the level above it, and innovation can take place at each level. The municipality can ensure continuous innovation by the way the project description is formulated, instead of simply specifying the one-off delivery of a system or provision of a service. Existing contracts and regulations will most probably cause limitations in the ability to do this. Where regulations need to be changed, the municipality will have to call on the European authorities to take the lead in the discussion about necessary changes. Societal issues will determine the priorities for innovation in this process. To ensure innovation through the entire system, two aspects will need to be arranged : Guarding public interest Creating conditions to safeguard the public interest and availability of basic services by providing open access to the system at all levels. It is not necessary for the municipality to be owner of the system, but she will need to enforce universal and easy access for services of public interest in running and new contracts. Open knowledge Providing access to acquired knowledge of proven user profiles for cocreation partners Open data Providing access for involved parties to data for general/public interest Open access Providing access for modules to the system (the lego lamppost) System architecture Services Data Devices Innovation in quadruple helix Ensuring continuous innovation and co-creation with citizens by organising the quadruple helix. The role of the municipality in this structure is to guard the public interest in the various innovation initiatives of citizens and commercial parties in the living labs in the city. For this role it is important that the municipality proves to be a reliable partner. Despite political influences, the policy will have to be consistent. Social innovation Continuous monitoring of societal issues to prioritise innovation Services innovation Stimulating application development to ensure the ambition is realised, within code of conduct System innovation Organising development of a standard interface between systems 1 The openness of the system (the left column in the illustration) The municipality will have to ensure transparency at all levels of the system. For most commercial parties this will conflict with their present business models, which are in many cases based on ownership of (parts of) the system. 2 The organisation of innovation (the right column) In the organisation of innovation the municipality will have to take a controlling role in organising the partnership in the Quadruple Helix. Open connectivity Providing access for public services to the infrastructure Infrastructure Structure innovation Continuous monitoring alignment of shorter and longer term decisions in infrastructure with vision and roadmap to avoid conflicts and mismatches
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