USING CNG (COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS) AND LNG (LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS) TO DEVELOP NEW MARKETS IN BRAZIL

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1 Definitie van opmaakprofiel: Standaard: Inspringing: Links: 1,59 cm 23 rd World Gas Conference, Amsterdam 2006 USING CNG (COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS) AND LNG (LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS) TO DEVELOP NEW MARKETS IN BRAZIL Hijjar, J. R. A., D.Sc. Brazil Definitie van opmaakprofiel: Kop 1: Hoofdletters Definitie van opmaakprofiel: Kop 2: Lettertype: Niet Cursief, Hoofdletters Definitie van opmaakprofiel: Kop 3: Inspringing: Links: 1,59 cm : Lettertype: 11 pt : Kop 3, Centreren : Lettertype: 11 pt, Superscript : Lettertype: 11 pt : Lettertype: Niet Cursief : Standaard : Lettertype: 14 pt, Vet Verwijderd: MONETIZING PETROBRAS URUCU FIELD NATURAL GAS RESERVES - CNG AS A MARKET AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TOOL IN THE AMAZON Verwijderd: de Xerez Verwijderd: M : Lettertype: Niet Vet, Spaans (Spanje-modern) : Lettertype: Niet Vet : Lettertype: Niet Vet, Spaans (Spanje-modern) : Kop 3, Centreren : Standaard Verwijderd: Carvalho, R.N. Cordeiro de Melo, T.C. Paterman Brasil, N. : Spaans (Spanje-modern) Verwijderd: : Standaard, Inspringing: Links: 6,67 cm, Eerste regel: 0,95 cm : Kop 2

2 ABSTRACT Bearing in mind the sparse natural gas pipeline network in Brazil and many incipient markets away from direct influence of such network, alternative ways of transportation and distribution shall be considered in order to develop such markets. Many cases have already been analyzed and, due to size and distance of specific markets, the use of CNG or LNG to supply natural gas has been proved economically feasible when compared to the construction of a pipeline. In fact, there are now in Brazil some on-going CNG business cases and one LNG project under implementation. It shall be noted that in Brazil there is no importation of LNG, which implies relevant liquefaction costs. This paper intends to identify the aspects to be considered when analyzing CNG and LNG projects and to present how CNG and LNG can be strategically used to develop new markets. There are two possible ways: a) supply CNG or LNG on economic and long-term basis or; b) supply CNG or LNG temporarily to a relatively small and far target market until that market grows, making it feasible to be served by a pipeline. Then, using the mobility of CNG or LNG infrastructure (the mobile pipeline concept), redirect supply to a further market. issues. Some examples are analyzed, with due considerations on physical, economic and strategic Finally, conclusions are produced showing the feasibility of using CNG and LNG to develop new markets in Brazil. Verwijderd: MONETIZING... [1] Verwijderd: Monetizing the... [5] Verwijderd: Urucú Verwijderd: Urucu natural... gas [7] a PETROBRAS refinery in Verwijderd: do Verwijderd: to gasoline or... [8] diesel powered vehicles and Verwijderd: mostly for those... [9] Verwijderd: specialy Verwijderd:. Verwijderd: like Verwijderd: It is specially... true [10] Verwijderd: taxi drivers,... [11] either individuals or companies. Verwijderd: Naturally, Verwijderd: It is common... that [12] Verwijderd: al Verwijderd: -friendly and... [13] Verwijderd: convertion Verwijderd: conversion... of [14] Verwijderd: convertion Verwijderd: conversion... kits. [15] Verwijderd: Verwijderd: parameters... for [16] a Verwijderd: convertion Verwijderd: conversion... kit [17] it is Verwijderd: and under... [18] controlled conditions Verwijderd: according to... FTP- [19] Verwijderd:. Verwijderd: and the emission... [20] Verwijderd: original.this Verwijderd: original. This... [21] Verwijderd: usually Verwijderd: accepted Verwijderd: by Brazilian... [22] emission legislation Verwijderd: as a satisfactory... [23] Verwijderd: environmental Verwijderd: legislation.... [24] Verwijderd: those Verwijderd: some pioneer Verwijderd: s Verwijderd: tests for a... couple [25] Verwijderd: conversion kit Verwijderd: identified Verwijderd: proper parameter... [26] Verwijderd: equipments Verwijderd: NGV conversion... [27] Verwijderd: level constraints Verwijderd: legislation Verwijderd: s Verwijderd:. Based on... these [28] Verwijderd: and Verwijderd: gas and b Verwijderd: B... [2]... [3]... [4]... [6]... [29]... [30]... [31]... [32]

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. CNG and Small LNG Project Analysis 2.1 The The CNG Project 2.2 The Small LNG Project 2.3 Basic Differences to be Considered : Lettertype: Niet Vet 3. The Use of CNG AND LNG to Develop New Markets in Brazil 3.1 Supply CNG or LNG on Economic and Long-term Basis 3.2 Supply CNG or LNG Temporarily to a Small and Far Market 4. The On-going Projects in Brazil 4.1 CNG Projects 4.2 The LNG Project - GEMINI 4.3 New Special CNG Projects 5. Conclusions : Lettertype: Niet Vet : Lettertype: Niet Vet : Lettertype: Niet Vet : Lettertype: Niet Vet : Kop 2 Verwijderd: ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CNG AND SMALL LNG PROJECT ANALYSIS The CNG Project The Small LNG Project Basic Differences To Be Considered 3. THE USE OF CNG AND LNG TO DEVELOP NEW MARKETS IN BRAZIL Supply CNG Or LNG On Economic And Long-Term Basis Supply CNG Or LNG Temporarily To A Small And Far Market 4. THE ON-GOING PROJECTS IN BRAZIL CNG Projects The LNG Project - GEMINI New Special CNG Projects 5. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Verwijderd:

4 1. INTRODUCTION The beginning of Natural Gas Industry in Brazil was marked by direct selling from Petrobras (the brazilian state-owned oil company) to some big customers located close to oil production fields. Since the available natural gas in the country was associated to oil and the most important oil fields were located offshore, the gas pipeline network needed to supply those target market was built close to the coast and was, indeed, very small. Verwijderd: : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm In the middle nineties, two facts showed up to change a great deal the situation. The recently voted brazilian constitution defined a new regulation for the natural gas industry. The distribution of natural gas by pipeline was defined as a monopoly of the Federative States (public service). Many state companies were created to distribute natural gas as well as some private companies, that operated by concession (Local Distribution Companies LDCs). It was also decided to implement a joint-ventured big pipeline project to import natural gas from Bolivia to the south of Brazil, primarily to be used in thermoelectric plants. At that point, we could say that a real natural gas market had just started and many efforts were made to achieve new markets. Despite of that, the transportation and distribution pipelines are still very sparse (see figure 1 below), what leads CNG and LNG to play an important hole to develop new markets. : Engels (V.S.) PECÉM SÃO LUÍS URUCU MANAUS GASFOR II URUCU PORTO VELHO NORDESTÃO II CATU PILAR GASENE CACIMBAS - VITÓRIA LORENA POÇOS DE CALDAS URUGUAIANA PORTO ALEGRE CAMPINAS RIO EXISTING PIPELINES DESIGNED PIPELINES PIPELINES BEING STUDIED Figure 1 Transportation Pipeline Network in Brazil 2. CNG AND SMALL LNG PROJECT ANALYSIS 2.1 The CNG Project A typical CNG small project comprises one compressing station (where natural gas is available and compressed to kgf/cm 2 and put into cylinders especially designed for that), the transportation of such cylinders on trucks, trains or boats and a receiving station (where the gas is Verwijderd: PETROBRAS ACTIVITIES IN THE AMAZON THE URUCU PRODUCTION AREA : Kop 2, Meerdere niveaus + Niveau: 1 + Nummeringopmaakprofiel: 1, 2, 3, + Beginnen bij: 1 + Uitlijning: Links + Uitgelijnd op: 0 cm + Tab na: 0,63 cm + Inspringen op: 0,63 cm : Standaard : Standaard, Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm : Superscript

5 delivered to the customers). The empty cylinders are then returned to the compressing station to restart the process again. A schematic figure is shown below. Target Market (NGV Station Industry, etc.) Compressing Station Distribution Pipeline Mobile Pipeline Figure 2 The CNG Project 2.2 The Small LNG Project A typical small LNG project comprises one liquefaction station (where natural gas is available, refrigerated to a temperature of -163º C and put into recipients designed for that), the transportation of such recipients on trucks, trains or boats, one regas station and a receiving station (where the gas is delivered to the customers). The empty recipients are then returned to the liquefaction station to re-start the process again. Some tanks are normally used to storage liquefied gas throughout the process. : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm : Engels (V.S.) Target Market Distribution pipeline Regas Station Storage Tank FIM Mobile Pipeline Liquefying Station Storage Tank Figure 3 The LNG Project : Inspringing: Links: 4,13 cm, Eerste regel: 0,95 cm

6 2.3 Basic Differences to be Considered When natural gas is compressed to kgf/cm 2, it shrinks to a volume of approximately 300 times less the original one. If it is liquefied, the volume reduction is of about 600 times (no high pressures are needed). Also, the cylinders designed to support high pressures are very heavy, when compared to the recipients to be used with LNG. Those factors cause transportation cost for CNG to be bigger than for LNG. On the other hand, the liquefaction station is much more expensive than the compression one and LNG process includes one more step of regasification, whose cost shall be considered too. It shall be noted that in Brazil, at the present time, there is no importation of LNG. Summarizing, to compare CNG, LNG and pipeline projects, one must consider the feasibility of such complex logistics and also the comparative economics, since CAPEX and OPEX can vary significantly for each case. It is normally accepted that when the demand is small as it is the distance between the market and the gas supply station, CNG projects are very feasible. For long distance and big gas demand, the pipeline seems to be the best solution. Finally, for long distance and moderate demand, LNG projects fit quite well. Although, the results of most business cases in Brazil have agreed with those assumptions, some specific cases showed that, despite common sense, it is a good idea to consider different options when analyzing such opportunities. 3. THE USE OF CNG AND LNG TO DEVELOP NEW MARKETS IN BRAZIL There are two possible ways to use CNG and LNG to develop new markets in Brazil: supply CNG or LNG on economic and long-term basis or supply CNG or LNG temporarily to a relatively small and far target market until that market grows, making it feasible to be served by a pipeline. In that case, using the mobility of CNG or LNG infrastructure (the mobile pipeline concept), one can redirect supply to a further market. 3.1 Supply CNG or LNG on Economic and Long-term Basis Due to the scarcity and location of brazilian pipeline network, there are many small markets away from direct influence of such network. As Local Distribution Companies (LDCs) tend to reach the more profitable markets and other ones are not considered in their development plan to be served by pipeline in the near future, a great opportunity for CNG and LNG projects has been created. It will always be the risk of a pipeline to be built to reach that market, but one can always work together with LDCs. 3.2 Supply CNG or LNG Temporarily to a Small and Far Market As part of their strategy, some LDCs began planning the development of market away from the existing pipelines. The so-called Interiorization plans have been idealized in two different ways. Some LDCs are in the process of building pipelines (but just to some point inside the state) and others have decided to use CNG and LNG projects to expand the border of gas supply in consecutive phases. In other words, serve a specific market inside the state by trucks, make the market big and, finally, build a pipeline. After that, a new phase begins from that point on. In order to keep focusing on their normal job (pipeline distribution), many LDCs tend to have partners to implement that program. : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm Verwijderd: The Urucu Production Area The Urucu Production Area is located in the Coari County, the middle of the Amazon jungle, distant some 650 km from Manaus, the capital of the Amazon State. It received its name after the Urucu River, one of the Solimões River affluents. Petrobras started its production activities in Urucu after the discovery of a significant reserve of oil and natural gas in Many challenges have been conquered to establish production activities in such a remote area since 1988 when the first commercial well started production. In 1998 the multiproduct pipeline Urucu-Coari started operations, transferring the Production Area production to the port facilities in Coari in the Solimões River. By 2001 figures, local operations in the Urucu Production Area involved up to 900 people, working on a facilities complex composed of an airport, two river ports, 70 km of paved roads and 40 km more of non-paved roads, a pipeline network connecting more than 90 geographically disperse wells (among production, gas and water injection) to an industrial plant called Polo Arara, where oil and gas are processed. The... [36] : Superscript : Superscript : Superscript Verwijderd: The Urucu- Coari-Manaus gas pipeline The re-injection volumes... are [37] : Superscript : Superscript Verwijderd: URUCU FIELD NG AND PREVIOUS ANALYSIS : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm : Kop 3 : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm... [38] : Lettertype: Niet Vet

7 4. THE ON-GOING PROJECTS IN BRAZIL 4.1 CNG Projects The first CNG project in Brazil was held in 2001 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (in the south of the country) and was designed to provide m 3 /day to an industry located 40 km away from the pipeline. A new pipeline was to be built in three years. After that, the CNG infrastructure was moved to serve a new small market a little bit further. URUCU Figure 4 CNG Project in Rio Grande do Sul By the same time, many other projects were developed by LDCs in the northeast of the country, to supply CNG to cities in the interior of the states, specifically for Natural Gas filling stations. One shall remember Brazil has the second biggest fleet of Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) in the world. Those projects were developed in the following states: Paraíba, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Ceará, Espírito Santo e Rio Grande do Norte. The average volume of natural gas supplied was m 3 /day (each project). URUCU Figure 5 CNG Projects in the Northeast of Brazil After the implementation of those first CNG projects, some others were developed close to the biggest markets of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The target segment markets are: industries, gas filling stations and residences. Verwijderd: Verwijderd: EXPERIMENTAL Verwijderd: : Kop 2, Meerdere niveaus + Niveau: 1 + Nummeringopmaakprofiel: 1, 2, 3, + Beginnen bij: 1 + Uitlijning: Links + Uitgelijnd op: 0 cm + Tab na: 0,63 cm + Inspringen op: 0,63 cm Verwijderd: for the early supply of natural gas to Manaus was named as Experimental NGV Project of Urucu Natural Gas, given its characteristics as a field test for the converted vehicles. Also, it is a temporary operation, as it is supposed to operate only untill regular supply is not provided by the... [39] : Superscript : Superscript... [40]... [41]... [42]... [43]... [44]... [45]... [46]... [47]... [48]... [49]... [50]... [51]... [52]... [53]... [54]... [55]... [56]... [57]... [58]... [59]... [60]... [61]... [62]... [63]... [64]... [65]... [66]... [67]... [68]

8 Figure 6 CNG Projects in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Two specific CNG projects have special characteristics due to the strategic importance. The two of them are designed to supply important cities, prior to the future construction of long pipelines. The first project started supplying Teresina (capital of the state of Piauí) in February The compression station is 600 km away and the economics is based on the profits to be obtained afterwards, with CNG infrastructure relocation. The second one started supplying Manaus, a city located in the tropical forest (capital of Amazonas state), in July Here, a combined transportation process is employed, using barges and trucks. In the future, those trucks will be used to supply CNG to be used in small thermoelectric plants close to the city of Manaus. 4.2 The LNG Project - GEMINI URUCU URUCU Figure 7 CNG Projects in Amazonas and Piauí At present, the GEMINI project is not only the first but the only LNG project on-going in Brazil. It was designed to provide m 3 /day of natural gas to the central region of the country, starting in The market to be supplied comprises three states (Goiás, Paraná, São Paulo) and the city of Brasília (the capital of Brazil). The average distance of LNG transportation will be 600 km. The whole chain showed in Figure 3 is employed, since no LNG is available in Brazil. It is a joint venture project with two partners: Petrobras and a big private company specialized in gas trading and logistics. The GEMINI project has two types of customers: three LDCs and some other industries, comprising long-term and temporary supply (where pipeline is supposed to be built in three years). : Spatiëring tussen Aziatische en Latijnse tekst aanpassen, Spatiëring tussen Aziatische tekst en nummers aanpassen Verwijderd: : Engels (V.S.) : Engels (V.S.) : Superscript Verwijderd: The main... [102] objectives of the project Verwijderd:... [69]... [70]... [71]... [72]... [73]... [74]... [75]... [76]... [77]... [78]... [79]... [80]... [81]... [82]... [83]... [84]... [85]... [86]... [87]... [88]... [89]... [90]... [91]... [92]... [93]... [94]... [95]... [96]... [97]... [98]... [99]... [100]... [101]... [103]

9 : Lettertype: 10 pt 4.3 New Special CNG Projects Figure 8 LNG Project - GEMINI Considering the lack of redundancy in brazilian pipeline network, it is not easy to proceed maintenance and assess pipeline integrity without interrupting the delivery to certain markets. Since CNG market has increased in Brazil and more CNG equipments are becoming available, a new special CNG project is being evaluated to provide natural gas to some specific markets during interruption of pipeline delivery. The first state to be supplied is Sergipe, located in the northeast of Brazil. 5. CONCLUSIONS URUCU PORTO LIQUEFACTION PLANT This paper presented some concepts related to CNG and Small LNG projects. Physical and economic aspects were addressed, when the differences between each type of solution were stressed. After that, two different business approaches to develop new markets in Brazil were explained, based on previous experience of the author in the brazilian natural gas market. Many different CNG projects were presented, showing how they really contributed to develop new markets and expanded the borders of natural gas supply. Some of those projects were based on long-term supply and others were part of a structured plan to progressively achieve further markets. The only LNG project under development in Brazil the GEMINI was explained and it was shown that it will provide gas to many different customers, on a long-term basis or not. Finally, it can be concluded that it has been feasible to use CNG and LNG to develop new markets in Brazil, especially because the present extent of the pipeline network. : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Verwijderd: <#>DESIGN OF THE LOGISTICS General configuration Access to the Urucu Production Area is only possible by air or through the winding and narrow Urucu River. At the location named Porto Evandro, on the Urucu River banks, Petrobras has long established docking facilities for the river barges serving the production area with the supplies and equipments not suitable for air transportation. Therefore, the natural choice to transport CNG from Urucu to Manaus was the use of river barges. An initially considered option would involve specially adapted barges for CNG transportation, with high-pressure containers assembled directly on the barge deck. It would provide a large storage capacity resulting on lower operational costs to supply a given CNG volume. On the other hand, the construction costs for such barges would represent a too high initial investment, specially considering the temporary characteristics of the project once the gas pipeline starts operations it would be quite difficult to find any commercial application for the barges. Furthermore, none of sparsely located injection wells from which the natural gas would be collected is close enough to Porto Evandro as to allow... for [104] : Superscript : Superscript : Tekstkleur: : Tekstkleur: : Superscript : Superscript : Superscript : Superscript : Superscript : Superscript : Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Verwijderd: : Kop 2... [105]

10 REFERENCES 1. CenterPoint s Portable Utility Set To Capitalize On Pipeline Integrity, Pipeline & Gas Journal, April Poli, L. F. E. D, Brasil, N. P., Cheroto, S. et al., (2005) Market Developmenet Analysis for the Brazilian Gas Distribution Case: CNG Anticipating Pipeline Network Gas Supply. In: Preprints CD-ROM of the 18th World Petroleum Congress, Block 3 Forum 13 Poster, Johannesburg, September Verwijderd: : Engels (V.S.) Verwijderd: Hatch, M.J. and Schultz, M. (2003), ``Bringing the corporation into corporate branding,european Journal of Marketing, Vol. 371 No. 7/8,pp LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Transportation Pipeline Network in Brazil Figure 2 The CNG Project Figure 3 The LNG Project Figure 4 CNG Project in Rio Grande do Sul Figure 5 CNG Projects in the Northeast of Brazil Figure 6 CNG Projects in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Figure 7 CNG Projects in Amazonas and Piauí Figure 8 LNG Project GEMINI : Portugees (Brazilië) : Portugees (Brazilië)

11 Pagina 2: [1] Verwijderd Marcos de Xerez :11:00 MONETIZING PETROBRAS URUCU FIELD NATURAL GAS RESERVES - CNG AS A MARKET AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TOOL IN THE AMAZON Pagina 2: [2] Jorge :36:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 2: [3] Petrobras :51:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 2: [4] Petrobras :51:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 2: [5] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 MONETIZING THE NATURAL GAS (NG) RESERVES OF PETROBRAS IN THE URUCU FIELD REPRESENTED A SERIES OF CHALLENGES OF DIVERSIFIED NATURES. FROM THE TECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIONS TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF A GAS PIPELINE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AMAZON JUNGLE, TO THE BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO BE OVERCOME IN ORDER TO MAKE THE WHOLE VENTURE FINANCIALLY FEASIBLE. BUT BESIDES THESE ASPECTS THERE STILL WAS AN ADDITIONAL DIFFICULTY: THE COMPOSITION OF THE NATURAL GAS FROM URUCU PRESENTS A HIGH LEVEL OF NITROGEN AND A LOW LEVEL OF METHANE. SEVERAL STUDIES WERE PERFORMED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE NECESSARY MODIFICATIONS ON THE EQUIPMENTS OF THE MAIN CONSUMERS FOR THE Pagina 2: [6] Marcos de Xerez :15:00 Kop 2, Centreren Pagina 2: [7] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 Urucu natural gas a PETROBRAS refinery in Manaus and power generation plants in the area, which are typically diesel fuelled. Nevertheless, the appeal for the use of a potentially cleaner fuel in a region so much concerned with environmental issues represents an additional incentive to overcome those barriers. IN THAT SENSE, THE USE OF NATURAL GAS FOR NGV (NATURAL GAS VEHICLES) IS ALSO A VERY SIGNIFICANT MARKET SEGMENT, DESPITE THE MUCH LOWER VOLUME LEVELS IT REPRESENTS WHEN COMPARED TO POWER GENERATION. THE MAIN ASPECT HERE ARE THE LOWER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARED Pagina 2: [8] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 TO GASOLINE OR DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES AND THE COST SAVINGS IT MIGHT PROVIDE FOR END CONSUMERS. THE NATURAL GAS SERVICE STATION LOW PRICE USUALLY PRACTICED IN BRAZIL MAKES IT A VERY APPEALING FUEL OPTION, WITH COST ADVANTAGE Pagina 2: [9] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00

12 MOSTLY FOR THOSE CONSUMERS WITH A RELATIVELY HIGH DAILY MILEAGE Pagina 2: [10] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 IT IS SPECIALLY TRUE (AND COST ADVANTAGEOUS) FOR Pagina 2: [11] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 TAXI DRIVERS, EITHER INDIVIDUALS OR COMPANIES. Pagina 2: [12] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 IT IS COMMON THAT LOCAL GOVERNMENTS EXHIBIT SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL INTEREST ON MAKING SUCH AN ENVIRONMENT Pagina 2: [13] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 -friendly and inexpensive fuel available for their communities. IN BRAZIL, THE USE OF NATURAL GAS TO POWER VEHICLES (NGV) IS BASED MAINLY ON THE Pagina 2: [14] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 CONVERSION OF ORIGINALLY GASOLINE POWERED VEHICLES BY THE USE OF Pagina 2: [15] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 CONVERSION KITS. NATURAL GAS IS POTENTIALLY A MORE ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY FUEL BUT UNLESS THE CONVERSION KIT IS CONVENIENTLY ADJUSTED, A CONVERTED NGV CAN PRESENT EVEN HIGHER EMISSION LEVELS THAN THE ORIGINAL. IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE APPROPRIATE SET OF TUNING Pagina 2: [16] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 PARAMETERS FOR A NGV Pagina 2: [17] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 CONVERSION KIT IT IS NECESSARY TO PERFORM A SERIES OF EMISSION TESTS. THOSE TESTS ARE PERFORMED ON CERTIFIED CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER EMISSION LABORATORIES Pagina 2: [18] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00

13 AND UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS Pagina 2: [19] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 ACCORDING TO FTP-75 DRIVING CYCLE Pagina 2: [20] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 AND THE EMISSION RESULT (CO AND NOX) OF THE CONVERTED NGV SHOULD BE EQUAL OR LOWER THAN THE Pagina 2: [21] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 ORIGINAL. THIS PROCEDURE IS Pagina 2: [22] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 BY BRAZILIAN EMISSION LEGISLATION Pagina 2: [23] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 AS A SATISFACTORY PROOF OF THE COMPLIANCE OF CONVERSION KITS TO THE BRAZILIAN EMISSION Pagina 2: [24] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 legislation. PETROBRAS HAD ALREADY PERFORMED Pagina 2: [25] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 TESTS FOR A COUPLE OF CONVERSION KITS USING THE NATURAL GAS PRODUCED IN URUCU. THE EMISSION RESULTS OBTAINED INDICATED THAT, AS LONG AS THE Pagina 2: [26] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 PROPER PARAMETER VALUES WERE USED, THE Pagina 2: [27] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 NGV CONVERSION KITS WOULD COMPLY WITH THE ESTABLISHED EMISSION Pagina 2: [28] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00

14 . BASED ON THESE RESULTS, AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DO PETRÓLEO, GÁS NATURAL E BIOCOMBUSTÍVEIS - ANP, THE BRAZILIAN REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR OIL, NATURAL Pagina 2: [29] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 IOFUELS, AGREED TO ISSUED A THIRTY MONTH Pagina 2: [30] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 AUTHORIZATION FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL USE OF THE NATURAL GAS FROM Pagina 2: [31] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 Urucu for a restricted NGV fleet in Manaus. The objective of such authorization was to allow for additional emission field tests to be performed before a final clearance of the Urucu natural gas would be granted for use on NGV. UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS, THE MARKET AGENTS WOULD USUALLY ACCEPT THE NECESSARY INVEST Pagina 2: [32] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 MENT COSTS TO TEST AND CERTIFY THEIR CONVERSION KIT PRODUCTS. THE GREEN FIELD NGV MARKET OF THE AMAZON, HOWEVER, WOULD NOT CATCH THEIR INTEREST, SPECIALLY CONSIDERING THAT THE URUCU- MANAUS NATURAL GAS PIPELINE START-UP WAS SCHEDULED FOR ONLY TWO YEARS AHEAD AND THE Pagina 2: [33] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 still unresolved environmental issues related to the Urucu natural gas composition. THE NECESSARY MARKET ORIENTED POLITICAL DECISION TO RESOLVE THAT TIE DOWN SITUATION WAS TAKEN BY PETROBRAS ALONG WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF AMAZON. BY MEANS OF A TECHNOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT, A PROJECT TO IMPLEMENT A UNIQUE COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS ( Pagina 2: [34] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00 CNG) transportation logistic was carried on to supply the test fleet with the necessary natural gas, from the Urucu field to Manaus, long before the pipeline is completed. THE URUCU PRODUCTION AREA IS LOCATED Pagina 2: [35] Verwijderd Jorge :38:00

15 EXTENDS OVER XXXX SQUARE KILOMETERS IN Pagina 6: [36] Verwijderd Jorge :27:00 The Urucu Production Area The Urucu Production Area is located in the Coari County, the middle of the Amazon jungle, distant some 650 km from Manaus, the capital of the Amazon State. It received its name after the Urucu River, one of the Solimões River affluents. Petrobras started its production activities in Urucu after the discovery of a significant reserve of oil and natural gas in Many challenges have been conquered to establish production activities in such a remote area since 1988 when the first commercial well started production. In 1998 the multi-product pipeline Urucu-Coari started operations, transferring the Production Area production to the port facilities in Coari in the Solimões River. By 2001 figures, local operations in the Urucu Production Area involved up to 900 people, working on a facilities complex composed of an airport, two river ports, 70 km of paved roads and 40 km more of non-paved roads, a pipeline network connecting more than 90 geographically disperse wells (among production, gas and water injection) to an industrial plant called Polo Arara, where oil and gas are processed. The required electric power is locally provided by a 16 Mw natural gas fired power plant, as does the 40 x 10 3 liters per day demand of diesel, supplied by a Diesel Processing Unit (DPU). The natural gas production is processed on a Natural Gas Processing Unit (NGPU) with production capacity of 1,100 ton per day of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The remaining 6 X 10 6 m 3 per day natural gas production are re-injected in the reservoir by a set of three turbo-compressors. Pagina 6: [37] Verwijderd Jorge :28:00 The Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline The re-injection volumes are significant. Urucu natural gas reserves are presently estimated as capable of providing a production of up to 5.5 x 10 6 m 3 per day, for the next 20 years. In order to properly monetize these reserves, Petrobras is currently carrying out a US$ investment for the construction of the 660 km long Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline. Anchoring the project, two power plants presently consuming fuel oil shall be converted to use the natural gas supplied by the new pipeline and generate a total of some 480 Mw. Additionally, five more independent energy suppliers are expected to generate 60 Mw each on gas fired power plants. Furthermore, Petrobras Manaus Refinery REMAN will also consume 40,000 m 3 per day, while scattered industrial clients will have m 3 per day available for their use. Preliminary construction tasks are already underway and operation start up is scheduled for As for any industry enterprise of such magnitude, and specially considering the issues related to the construction of a pipeline in the middle of a rain forest, there are several environmental, political and social compensations that are supposed to be covered by the enterprise participating companies. The Urucu-Coari-Manaus is no exception. Besides all the studies and analysis on the real and potential environment impacts of the construction, and the definition of appropriate actions to prevent or minimize them, there is a set of compensations related to social impacts to the population near the pipeline route and also economical impacts due to the introduction of a new energy option on local business. Presently, the natural gas service station low price still usually practiced in Brazil makes it a very appealing fuel option, with significant cost advantages, mostly for those consumers with a relatively high daily mileage like taxi drivers, either individuals or companies. It is common that local governments exhibit significant political interest on making such an environmentfriendly and inexpensive fuel available for their communities. One of the compensations requested by local agencies in order to grant Petrobras with the necessary installation and operational authorizations was that a project to supply a limited vehicle fleet in Manaus with natural gas be implemented before the gas pipeline actually starts operations. The project would allow all the agents in the natural gas vehicle business chain (government agencies, service and equipment suppliers, etc) to develop the necessary processes and expertise to

16 fully support the future demands of an expanding market as soon as the regular supply through the gas pipeline initiates. The potential natural gas vehicle (NGV) market in Manaus is much less significant as a business for Petrobras than the power generation and industrial segments are. Nevertheless, natural gas is known to present significant environmental advantages when compared to gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. Considering that corporate images are views of the organization developed by its stakeholders; the outside world s overall impression of the company including the views of the customers, shareholders, the media, the general public and so on, the appeal for the use of a potentially cleaner fuel in a region so much concerned with environmental issues might represent a marketing opportunity for Petrobras. The incentive and contribution to the development of a NGV market in the Amazon would reinforce Petrobras corporate brand image as a company committed to properly deal with environmental issues and to pursue ways of doing business in a sustainable way. However, another specific and difficult aspect had to dealt with: the special composition of the Urucu Field natural gas. Its low methane (68%) and high nitrogen (18%) contents do not comply with current Brazilian legislation for NGV and potentially represent a situation where environmental damages induced by its usage would be greater than the original fuel. Next section discusses the actions taken by Petrobras to overcome this situation. COMPOSITION OF Pagina 6: [38] Marcos de Xerez :18:00 Kop 2, Meerdere niveaus + Niveau: 1 + Nummeringopmaakprofiel: 1, 2, 3, + Beginnen bij: 1 + Uitlijning: Links + Uitgelijnd op: 0 cm + Tab na: 0,63 cm + Inspringen op: 0,63 cm Pagina 7: [39] Verwijderd Jorge :24:00 for the early supply of natural gas to Manaus was named as Experimental NGV Project of Urucu Natural Gas, given its characteristics as a field test for the converted vehicles. Also, it is a temporary operation, as it is supposed to operate only untill regular supply is not provided by the gas pipeline under construction. Pagina 7: [40] Petrobras :55:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,59 cm Pagina 7: [41] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [42] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [43] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [44] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [45] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [46] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [47] Jorge :52:00

17 Pagina 7: [48] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [49] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [50] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [51] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [52] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [53] Jorge :02:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 7: [54] Jorge :02:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 7: [55] Petrobras :56:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 7: [56] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [57] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [58] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [59] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [60] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [61] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [62] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [63] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [64] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [65] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [66] Jorge :52:00

18 Pagina 7: [67] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 7: [68] Petrobras :57:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 8: [69] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [70] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [71] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [72] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [73] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [74] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [75] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [76] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [77] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [78] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [79] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [80] Jorge :09:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 8: [81] Jorge :09:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 8: [82] Jorge :09:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 8: [83] Jorge :09:00 Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 8: [84] Jorge :09:00 Lettertype: Niet Vet, Portugees (Brazilië) Pagina 8: [85] Jorge :02:00 Portugees (Brazilië)

19 Pagina 8: [86] Petrobras :57:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 8: [87] Jorge :11:00 Lettertype: Niet Vet Pagina 8: [88] Jorge :11:00 Lettertype: Niet Vet Pagina 8: [89] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [90] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [91] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [92] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [93] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [94] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [95] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [96] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [97] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [98] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [99] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [100] Jorge :52:00 Pagina 8: [101] Petrobras :57:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 8: [102] Verwijderd Jorge :21:00 The main objectives of the project Partícipes e outras entidades envolvidas Legal and regulatory aspects Pagina 8: [103] Petrobras :58:00 Inspringing: Eerste regel: 1,5 cm Pagina 9: [104] Verwijderd Jorge :40:00

20 DESIGN OF THE LOGISTICS General configuration Access to the Urucu Production Area is only possible by air or through the winding and narrow Urucu River. At the location named Porto Evandro, on the Urucu River banks, Petrobras has long established docking facilities for the river barges serving the production area with the supplies and equipments not suitable for air transportation. Therefore, the natural choice to transport CNG from Urucu to Manaus was the use of river barges. An initially considered option would involve specially adapted barges for CNG transportation, with high-pressure containers assembled directly on the barge deck. It would provide a large storage capacity resulting on lower operational costs to supply a given CNG volume. On the other hand, the construction costs for such barges would represent a too high initial investment, specially considering the temporary characteristics of the project once the gas pipeline starts operations it would be quite difficult to find any commercial application for the barges. Furthermore, none of sparsely located injection wells from which the natural gas would be collected is close enough to Porto Evandro as to allow for the construction of a temporary feed line for CNG containers aboard the barges. And the same situation is true on the other end of the river transportation phase it would be necessary to build specific facilities to take the natural gas from the barges in the Manaus Port to the service station appointed to the project. It was therefore necessary to adopt a different solution, including road transportation. Several CNG distribution projects are already operational in Brazil. Most of them use CNG transportation trailers equipped with several high-pressure steel cylinders, which are pulled by trucks. The operational experience, along with established service and equipment suppliers are already available in the country for this kind of system. Given these conditions, the solution adopted for the project involves CNG transportation trailers, towed by trucks on the land legs and boarded on conventional river barges for the fluvial leg. Dimensioning of the logistic system Dimensioning of the transport system, and the resulting supply capacity, was mainly constrained by the size of the usually available barges in the region and by its maximum length as to allow for maneuverability while sailing through the Urucu River. Also, the Brazilian legislation imposes a maximum weight limit for trailers traveling on federal roads that, for CNG transport trailers, leads to the usual design of 5,000 m 3 of CNG capacity trailers, which are the most readly available from local suppliers. Given these conditions, it was selected for the project a barge size of 800 ton displacement, which would carry up to 6 CNG transport trailers at a time, representing a total 30,000 m 3 transport capacity. Table X shows the distances and the time required for each leg of a complete cycle from Manaus to Urucu and back, using the selected equipment. Leg Manaus Porto Evandro LUC-9 Porto Evandro Porto Evandro Manaus Table X: Title of the table Distanc e Time (days) Notes River distance Up river Including CNG loading River distance Down

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