SREX SynERgy between REgional Planning and EXERgy RESEaRch REPoRt EnERgy transition in South limburg

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1 SREX synergy between Regional Planning and exergy Research Report Energy transition in South Limburg

2 SREX REPORT ENERGY TRANSITION IN SOUTH LIMBURG

3 SREX report Energy transition in South Limburg Version 1.2, 16 th of March 2009 Edited by Siebe Broersma & Andy van den Dobbelsteen Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture With contributions by Ferry Van Kann, Nanka Karstkarel, Gert de Roo University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences Sven Stremke, Jusuck Koh Wageningen University, Landscape Centre Wouter Leduc & Ronald Rovers Wageningen University, Urban Environments Group Rob van der Krogt, Frans Claessen TNO/Deltares, Utrecht Leo Gommans, Andy van den Dobbelsteen Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture SREX is a research project on assignment by Paul Ramsak SenterNovem, Sittard 2

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 PREFACE 4 2 CASE-STUDY SOUTH LIMBURG: PART TWO Introduction Analysis of present energy system and potentials Present energy system South Limburg Potentials renewable energy South Limburg Regional scenarios and energy visions Scenario based far-future base-maps Energy visions Summary and Outlook 37 3 CASE-STUDY PARKSTAD: ENERGY PLAN AT URBAN SCALE Methodology Energy plan Exergieplanning Regionale energiepotenties, het aanbod aan restenergie De regionale energievraag Conversie, opslag en transport van energie Conclusie methodiek Ruimtelijk plan Rest-energie in de parkstadregio Conversie, opslag en distributie van reststromen Warmtenetten en restwarmte Parkstad inventory Inventory of urban functions Quantification of urban energy demand Quantification of urban energy supply Conclusions Energy-space scenarios for Parkstad Introduction on energy-space scenarios for South Limburg with the SREX approach Scenario method Spatial concepts for an exergetic sound Parkstad Limburg The area of Brunsummerheide East The area of Park Gravenrode Parkstad Limburg Stadium 68 REFERENCES 75 APPENDIX A: ROBUSTNESS OF PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS (WORKING DOCUMENT) 77 APPENDIX B: MAPS 78 3

5 1 PREFACE by Andy van den Dobbelsteen SREX stands for Synergy of Regional Planning and Exergy. It is an interdisciplinary research project conducted by the universities of Groningen, Wageningen and Delft, the Hogeschool Zuyd and TNO/Deltares, funded by SenterNovem under the programme of EOS-LT (long-term energy research incentive). Why synergy of regional planning and exergy? To answer this we first need to understand the concept of exergy. Exergy is the maximum work potential of energy, i.e. the quality part of energy. According to the First Law of Thermodynamics (with capitals, yes) energy never gets lost, but the Second Law explains that all processes develop towards an increasing amount of entropy, which can be seen as the waste part of energy (waste heat). Exergy is the part that is lost in and between processes. Our current energy system is based on efficiency but requires a lot of input from primary energy sources, predominantly fossil fuel. And we know this fossil fuel is finite. In addition, we use our energy very ineffectively: a lot of the exergetic potential is lost when for instance burning gas at a temperature of 1200 degrees centigrade, while using it to heat up houses to 20 degrees. Thus enormous amounts of unused waste heat are produced. primary energy power plant electricity into the air and water waste heat heavy industry storage primary energy power plant cascade of waste heat heavy industry storage horticulture hotel and catering waste electricity horticulture hotel and catering offices offices dwellings dwellings agriculture waste agriculture CURRENT SYSTEM waste into the environment SUSTAINABLE, LOW-EX SYSTEM A more sustainable, low-exergetic (low-ex) system would be based on the optimal deployment of waste energy flows. For instance, waste heat from industrial processes is still high-caloric, making it useful for application in different, lower-graded functions. Houses could be served with waste heat from greenhouses, avoiding the need for the highest-quality energy source we have: natural gas or oil. We thereby could preserve these for functions that really require the best energy available. The low-ex system is not necessarily efficient but very effective, potentially leading to improvement by a factor of 6, whereas we now struggle for 5% of efficiency improvement. In order to attain such a low-ex system, spatial planners should be fully aware of the energetic consequences of their decisions, as specific functions should be located close to one another, since transport of heat comes with great losses. At the regional level all types of spatial functions can be found, making the region the optimal scale to tackle the low-ex principle. This is why SREX was organised, combined expertise from spatial planning, landscape architecture, urban planning and energy technology. SREX uses two regions in the Netherlands as a testcase for the low-ex model to be developed: South Limburg and South-East Drenthe. This report reflects the final results from the Limburg studies. We hope you enjoy reading it and learning from it. Critical reviews are very welcome as we keep learning from new ideas 4

6 2 CASE-STUDY SOUTH LIMBURG: PART TWO by Sven Stremke and Jusuck Koh 2.1 Introduction The present document holds the contribution of work-package five (WP5) to the report In accordance with the SREX research proposal, we have completed our studies on the first case-study for the region of South-Limburg. Whereas the previous report (2007.2) focused on the survey of existing conditions in the region, the present report depicts four energy visions for South Limburg. These long-term visions are based on existing scenario studies for the Netherlands and, more specifically, for the province of Limburg. The main chapter of this contribution at hand is comprised of two parts. The first part describes the present energy system in South-Limburg. In addition, a number of sustainable energy potentials are being identified and quantified. Energy system and potentials are being mapped with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS). Part two sets out with a summary of existing scenario studies which describe possible far-futures for South Limburg. Likely developments and their implication for the energy system in South Limburg are being depicted in what we refer to as far-future base-maps. Four extreme possible futures have been chosen to work on. Our task was to develop possible strategies optimizing the energy system in each possible future; all four proposals are described and illustrated in part two. Finally, the appendix holds a table illustrating the (preliminary evaluation) of robustness of the here discussed measures. The table represents our first attempt of a comparative analysis between the four energy visions and will be further elaborated throughout the coming months. Our contribution to the present report concludes with the 17 GIS maps which we prepared in the process of the first case-study and presented during the SREX workshop in Maastricht. Our contribution to the report reflects our experiences and findings working at the regional scale in South Limburg. Regional energy visions provide, first of all, inspiration and identify possible pathways towards a more sustainable energy system. However, they also represent possibly context and conditions for more detailed studies at urban scale as they have been conducted for the Parkstad. Clearly, interventions at lower scales influence regional developments and vice versa. Both, differences in scale and time-horizon may complicate but also enrich the search for a more sustainable energy system and should complement each other. South Limburg represents the first regional case-study. With South Limburg we refer to the COROP region comprising 19 municipalities in the South of the Province Limburg. We have chosen to work with the research framework described by Carl Steinitz (2002). Steinitz has articulated a research approach to regional planning and design which is based on a number of six research questions. Although our approach relies heavily on Steinitz s framework, we have altered the original framework to suit the specific objectives of the SREX research project. The adapted research framework is illustrated below. Question I to III have been answered in the previous report (2007.2). Question II (analysis of the regional energy system) has been further elaborated with the help of GIS maps and included in this report However, in this report we are focusing on question IV and V. The last research question addressing decision-making and implementation remains to be explored. 5

7 (I) Inventory: How can the region be described? Spatial information: Urban areas, infrastructure, boundaries, population etc. - Specific values and functions of the region on the national scale (II) Analysis: How does the region operate (energetically)? Estimate current energy demand and supply of South Limburg - Visualize relevant energy locations (plants, electricity lines, gas network etc.) - Estimate the degree of self-sufficiency (III) Evaluation: Is the region functioning well? Compare self-sufficiency with other regions/countries/eu - What are the consequences of high energy dependency? - What happens of we project current trends into the future? (IV) Scenarios: How can the region be altered? Name and reason regional goals and time horizon (four scenarios for 2040) - By what measures/policies can the region be altered? - At which places and at what time (back casting: prioritizing and phasing)? (V) Impact: Which predictable differences might each scenario cause? Visual impact of sustainable energy transition in the region - Impact on biodiversity and landscape differentiation/heterogeneity - Estimate energy sufficiency and explore regional identity and other added values (VI) Decision model: Should the region be changed? - Summary of arguments and discussion of potential drawbacks - Communication with regional government and stakeholders - Implementation and integration in existing programs (e.g. landscape vision, EHS) - Context with national/global concern about climate change (CO 2 reduction) Note: The number of the respective report is indicated in italic after each research question 6

8 2.2 Analysis of present energy system and potentials The present energy system of South Limburg is the first concern of this chapter. The energy system of the region is described and discussed subsequently. South Limburg does, in many aspects, differ from the rest of the country. This is because most of the energy potentials are region-specific. We have explored the possibilities for renewable energy assimilation in the region and illustrated the findings in the second section of this chapter Present energy system South Limburg In the following, we will describe the present energy system of South Limburg. The system is being illustrated in three maps: (A1) energy provision, (A2) conversion, storage and transport, and (A3) consumption. Please note that all GIS maps can be found in the appendix. A1 Present energy provision The energy system of South Limburg is to more than 99% based on resources from outside the region. About 37% of the total energy demand is fulfilled by imported crude oil, 35% by natural gas and about 15% is electricity imported from outside the region. Remaining 11% of resources are - similar to the rest of the country - used as material resource for production of goods (e.g. DSM plastics and fertilizer) (CBS, 2005). Conventional energy sources: Currently, no exploitable conventional energy resources are present in South Limburg. Until the early 1960 s, hard coal represented a regional energy source. However, coal mining was put to a halt with the discovery of natural gas and oil in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. With the increasing price for coal, mining becomes feasible again in many regions of the world. The combination of poor quality coal and high wages in the Netherlands render coal mining unrealistic in the near future. Power plants: At the moment, only two power plants exist in the case-study region of South Limburg, both plants run on natural gas imported from outside the region. Geleen Swentibold CHP plant, electricity and heat primarily for DSM, natural gas & restgas from DSM, 231 MW, operated by Essent Maastricht Sappi CHP plant, electricity and heat for District Heating (DH), operated by Sappi Paper Industry and Essent Renewable sources: The share of renewable energy in the entire province of Limburg has been estimated 0.75 PJ in 2001 (PriceWaterHouseCoopers-Ecofys, 2003). The largest part of renewable energy is currently being yielded in Central and Northern Limburg. In South Limburg, less than 0.5PJ (or 0.4% regional energy consumption) is based on renewables. This share is clearly below the national average of 2.7% in In the following, we detail the present-day energy provision based on renewable resources. Biomass: Only few biomass conversion plants exist, some more are under construction. One new biomass based CHP plant is planned in Maastricht, another considered in Margraten. Reymerstok (Gulpen): Bio-ethanol fermentation plant, tons biomass = tons bioethanol (potatoes, residues beets and grain) Sittard: Biomass based CHP plant, re-constructed after fire in 2007 Sittard: Ten Kate energy plant, incineration of meat residues ( varkensvet ): 10 MW = electricity for households, under construction (figures to be confirmed) Maastricht-Limmel: Waste water treatment plant (RWZI), electricity production for own use based on methane gas ( kwh/year, run in cooperation with Essent) Solar energy/heat: A small number of large installations is listed for South Limburg. Sittard Haagsittardpark Wp Maastricht Bibliotheek Wp (8.000kWh/year) Electricity does currently not work! Maastricht Zwembad Jekerdal 464m 2 (50% of yearly heat demand) Solar electricity: The surface and capacity of PV cells in South Limburg remains unknown. Solland Solar manufactures PV cells (Avantis business park); no installed capacities DSM in Limburg produces silicon materials for PV cells 7

9 Wind energy: A total of three wind turbines generate electricity and feed the national grid. Heerlen de Beitel 1x750 kw = kwh (75m height) Kerkrade de Locht 2x2500 kw = kwh (80m tower height) Heerlen Avantis 3x1200 kw = kwh planned but net yet constructed A number of seven historical windmills are listed; their locations are shown on the GIS maps. At the moment, historic windmills do not generate electricity or power. East of Maastricht we find two large turbines which consume electricity to circulate air through a fruit orchard. They are being considered electricity consumers. Hydropower: More than 30 water mills exist in South Limburg. Some of them generate small amounts of electricity and feed into the national grid. See: Heat-cold storage/geothermal: The mine-water projects explore two old coal mines in the Mijnstreek for geothermal energy. Both mines should provide warmth to heat 700 dwellings and facilities. No other large-scale heat-cold storage projects are known at this moment. Heerlerheide, municipality of Heerlen Oranje Nassau, municipality of Heerlen On the following page, we show the energy provision in the area of Maastricht. The detailed map helps illustrating the different categories of energy provision. However, it only represents a small part of the original GIS map for the region, which is included in the appendix. 8

10 Figure 1: Present energy provision in the area of Maastricht A2 Present energy conversion, storage and transport National and regional gas grids are operated by Gasunie. The electricity grid is operated by Tennet/Essent. We also find LPG terminal gas stations indicated in the respective GIS map. At the moment, one single waste incinerator is being operated by ENCI in the South of Maastricht. The incinerator burns dried organic waste from waste-water-treatment plant for cement production. On the river Meuse, energy carriers are being brought into the region and distributed via the harbors and regional road system. District-Heating: A number of district heating grids are operated by Essent in the region (indicated in subsequent table). Two additional DH grids are under construction in the Parkstad Limburg: Heerlerheide and Oranje Nassau (also see Heat/Cold storage above). The warmtekansenkaart nederland indicates a number of potential locations for new district heating grids (SenterNovem). 9

11 Municipality Location Technology Energy source Heerlen t Loon CHP Natural gas Heerlen P. Schunckstraat CHP Natural gas Heerlen Parc Imstenrade Ketel??? Maastricht Ceramique CHP Natural gas Maastricht NW Entree CHP Natural gas Maastricht Mosae forum CHP Gas + waste heat Maastricht Stadion (not ready yet) CHP Biomass??? Sittard Hoogveld CHP Biomass Tabel 1: Size District heating grids in South Limburg (www.essent.nl) Figure 2: Present energy conversion, storage and transport in the area of Maastricht A3 Present energy consumption Energy demand: Based on the gross national energy consumption of PJ in 2004 (CBS 2005), we have calculated a per capita energy consumption of 207 GJ. This figure includes the per capita 10

12 energy consumption of Dutch industry, agriculture and the service sector. Based on the population number of in South Limburg, we have estimated the regional energy demand with approximately 120 PJ. Needless to say, we would have liked to base calculations on concrete demand figures from South Limburg. Unfortunately, such figures are not available. Sectoral energy consumption: The table below illustrates the yearly energy use per resource and sector in the Netherlands as well as in the case-study region of South Limburg. Consumption (in PJ) Total (NL) Total (SL) Industrie Transport Household Service/Agr. Natural gas , ,44 12,08 Crude oil + oil products ,64 19,08 0,16 2,28 Coal ,2 Electricity ,64 0,24 3,36 5,08 Others (refined oils etc.) ,24 2,12 Sum (without conversion) ,28 19,28 17,24 21,76 Total energy use per sector (incl. 20% loss ) PJ 120 PJ 52 PJ 23 PJ 20 PJ 25 PJ Table 2: Estimated energy use in South Limburg, calculated for each resource and sector (CBS, 2003) Utilization of energy: Looking at the demand side, one can also distinguish the type of application in which the 120 PJ of energy are being consumed in South Limburg. Based on national figures, we estimate a demand of 45 PJ for heating/cooling, 26 PJ for transportation, 17 PJ of electricity and 32 PJ for material production as well as loss in the conversion. Main energy consumers (sinks): Obviously, industry, transport and the service sector require vast amounts of energy. The densely populated urbanized areas in South Limburg also consume large amounts of energy per unit of surface. About 30% of the region is populated with more than inhabitants per square kilometer. Small towns and villages with a more dispersed population (70% of surface) need less energy per unit surface. Looking at the per capita energy consumption, one may expect the opposite: Remote locations and freestanding houses do require more energy per inhabitant and therefore will be taken into account during the design process. The below list specifies some of the main energy consumers in the region: Heavy industry: Geleen (DSM/Chemelot), Heerlen "De Beitel" (Dyneema BV), Kerkrade- Eygelshoven (Laura Staalcenter) GIS map built-up areas Business park and shopping centers (retail) see GIS map built-up areas Waste-water treatment plants (10 in South Limburg): up to kwh/year electricity and more than m 2 natural gas per plant see GIS map consumption Hospitals: Sittard, Geleen, Maastricht, Brunssum, Kerkrade ENCI factory Maastricht Airport Maastricht-Aachen Snowworld Landgraf Gulpener beer brewery in Gulpen Brand beer brewery in Wijre Alfa beer brewery in Schinnen 11

13 Figure 3: Present energy consumption in the area of Maastricht 12

14 2.2.2 Potentials renewable energy South Limburg Currently, many of the potentials for renewable energy are being neglected in regional planning. Only search-areas for wind and waterpower are indicated in the respective maps. In addition, large areas are being protected from any assimilation of wind and water power. The theoretical potentials for energy assimilation, however, are hardly being mapped. This has to do with the (still) underrepresented values of energy provision in present-day planning and design. In the following section, we will illustrate and quantify areas with great potentials for provision of renewable energy. All renewable energy potential maps have been used in designing the four energy visions illustrated in the consecutive chapters. P1 Solar energy potential The region of South Limburg has about hours of sunshine per year. The differences with other parts of the country are minimal. The national maximum of hours of sunshine has been recorded along the Western coastline. Annual solar radiation in the region is approximately 360 KJ/cm 2 or kwh/m 2 (www.knmi.nl) Looking at the case-study region, one can conclude that solar radiation is distributed relatively even across the landscape. Obviously, forests and water surfaces are excluded from active assimilation of solar energy. The greatest potentials lie in the urban fabric, where passive and active energy harvest can take place. On the map, we distinguish built-up areas into residential areas (17% surface SL) and industrial parks (5.5% surface SL). The total area of buildings in South Limburg amounts to hectares (5% surface SL). The total footprint of industrial and commercial buildings in South Limburg s is 708 hectares. An area as large as 700 football fields (mostly flat roofs) is available for potential assimilation of solar energy without increasing land-use pressure Size in hectares residential area industrial park buildings within greenhouse industrial park 708 Figure 4: Size of built-up areas in South Limburg with solar energy potential 13

15 Figure 5: Solar energy potentials in the area of Maastricht P2 Wind energy potential The region of South of Limburg has the second lowest wind speed of the Netherlands. The yearly average wind speed above ground is between m/s (www.knmi.nl). However, the wind speed at 100m above ground is significantly higher and reaches from 6.5 to 8.0 m/s (see diagram following page). Least wind speeds can be found above the urban fabric. This is due to the turbulences caused by the built structures in the cities. The highest wind speeds are present at the plateaus of the Heuvelland. The Heuvelland, however, is assigned National Landscape (+/- 50% area SL); a status which will limit potential harvest of wind energy. In the area of Aachen-Maastricht airport (82 ha), strong limitations apply for the assimilation of wind energy. Due to strong wind disturbances, forests (7.000 ha in South Limburg) have limited value for wind energy. Settlements and industrial parks, however, do have certain potentials. All these landuses are indicated in the wind energy potential map. 14

16 Area in hectares m/s m/s m/s Windspeed at 100m height Figure 6: Distribution of wind-speed 100m above ground in South Limburg (based on Figure 7: Wind energy potentials in the area of Maastricht 15

17 P3 Water power potential Compared with the rest of the country, the region of South Limburg has great contrast in relief. The lowest areas of the region are located in the Northern Maasvalley. The highest area is the Vaalserberg in the South-east corner with an elevation of 322 m above sea level. The river Meuse cuts through the region from South to North, fed by two regional tributaries: the Geul and the Gulp. Parallel to the river Meuse, the Julianacanal was built to provide conditions for water transportation throughout the year. The total length of all regional watercourses amounts to 238 km. The water surface is estimated hectares. Along the Meuse and the canal, we find nine locks. 14 sluices exist in the tributaries. More than 30 historical water mills still exist in South Limburg, some of which generate small amounts of electricity. Two hydro-power plants are being operated in the Province; they are both located outside the case-study region in Northern Limburg. Figure 8: Water power potentials in the area of Maastricht P4 Biomass potential As indicated in chapter present energy provision, a small number of facilities exist where biomass is being converted to electricity and heat. Considering the fact, that 75% of the area in South Limburg is covered by biomass, it becomes clear that large potentials remain unexplored. Among the mostpromising possibilities are residues from fruit-growing as well as organic waste from the

18 inhabitants in the region. When we talk about conversion of biomass, transportation distances and technologies remain important issues. Collecting organic waste in the densely populated cities of Maastricht, Sittard-Geleen and the Parkstad seems the most feasible solution. As indicated in the below diagram, two thirds of the region has a population density of more than 100 inhabitants/km Total area in hectares Figure 9: Distribution of housing densities in South Limburg (all inhabitants per km 2 Another source of second generation biomass is the maintenance of public green, sport-fields and road verges, landscape maintenance as well as forestry. From an energy perspective, waste-watertreatment plants do not only consume energy, they can also provide biogas and/or electricity based on the fermentation of collected waste water. Potential land for first-generation biomass production, that is short-rotation coppice or energy crops, is limited to hectares or 28% of the land surface. The following two tables list the length of longitudinal landscape elements as well as the total size of areas with relevance to biomass. Longitudinal landscape element with potential biomass provision Local road (regionale weg) Tree row (bomenrij) Hedgerow (heg/smalle houtrand) Main road (hoofdweg) Freeway (autosnelweg) Dike (dijk) Table 3: Longitudinal landscape elements with potential biomass provision Length 648 km 534 km 496 km 288 km 110 km 35 km 17

19 Land-uses with potential biomass provision Arable land (bouwland) Pasture (weiland) Deciduous forest and poplars (loofbos, griend en populierenopstand) Parks, sport fields, allotment gardens (park, plantsoen, sportterrein, volkstuin) Commercial fruit-growing (fruitkwekerij) Mixed forest (gemengd bos) Orchard (boomgaard) Buildings outside building area (huizen buiten bebouwd gebied) Coniferous forest (naaldbos) Nursery (boomkwekerij) Landfill (stortplaats) Greenhouses (kas/warenhuis) Table 4: Overview of land-uses with potential biomass provision Size ha ha ha ha ha ha 831 ha 471ha 287 ha 188 ha 130 ha 8 ha Figure 10: Biomass potentials in the area of Maastricht 18

20 P5 Heat/cold and geothermal potential Clearly, the great potentials of a former mining region are not being materialized at the moment. The Mijnstreek is as big as half the region; more than hectares of complex, three-dimensional mining-system. Twelve mine-shafts can be identified on historical maps; all of which are being closed and no longer accessible. As indicated earlier, two new district heating projects connect to old mines and use their volume for water storage. Four of the existing district heating grids lie above former mining areas, three more outside of it. SenterNovem has estimated the potentials for heat/cold exchange across the Netherlands. In South Limburg, only seven percent of the region offers very good conditions for heat/cold exchange in the underground. About two thirds of South Limburg is designated ground-water protection area ( hectares); restrictions apply for the exploitation of the underground. Potential heat/cold exchange Area in hectares Relative size in SL Very good % Good % Moderate % Table 5: Potential heat/cold exchange in South Limburg (based on A number of sources for potential heat cascading have been identified in the region. Among the hotspots are the ENCI waste incinerator in the South of Maastricht, two conventional power plants as well as five areas with heavy industry in the North and the East of the region. The size of all heavy industry areas amounts to 857 hectares. The total size of residential areas, in contrast, is more than hectares. Thus, in terms of size we are estimating a ration of 1:12 between potential heat sources and sinks. Obviously, other industries may also offer residual heat to feed energy cascades and remain to be explored. business park: logistics industrial park (first class) heavy industry other industry residential area shopping area public facilities socio-cultural facilities landfil extraction of raw materials Figure 11: Distribution of land-uses with relevance to heat/cold exchange and geothermal energy (all in hectares) Finally, large paved surfaces of the regional road system (total length km) offer opportunities to incorporate heat assimilation and/or electricity generating devices such as the Peltier elements. 110 km of freeways, 288 km of main roads and 648 km of regional roads crisscross the case-study region of South Limburg. Currently, the Ring-road of the Parkstad is being planned; it seems logical to explore energy assimilation as part of such large-scale infrastructural project. For more information on energy potentials of road surface please refer to Wouter Leduc s contribution in this report. 19

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