A PROCESS DESIGN AND TOOL-SUITE TO ENHANCE MATCHING IN THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM

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1 i A PROCESS DESIGN AND TOOL-SUITE TO ENHANCE MATCHING IN THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM Extending the MATRIX Delft, March 2005 Master thesis Student: Erik Schalkwijk Professor: Prof. dr. ir. A. Verbraeck Faculty: Technology Policy and Management PoR: ir. J. Smits Delft University of Technology 1 st coach: ir. S.P.A van Houten 2 nd coach: dr. M.S. van Geenhuizen

2 Preface and acknowledgements Delft, March 2005 This report concludes the thesis work I carried out at the Port of Rotterdam. It took me a period of 8 months to make the last step to the master s degree. I go back to the moment Alexander Verbraeck proposed to participate in a project at the Port of Rotterdam, something with a matching, area planning and the Matrix. I felt like Alice when she looked down the rabbit hole, clueless of what to expect. Before I knew it I found myself in a Wonder-world which challenged me in many ways. No specific knowledge is required to be able to read this report. For those interested in the way this research was conducted should read chapter one. Reading chapter two and three gives an idea of the current way of matching at the PoR, and opportunities to enhance decision making. In chapter four and five we describe a process and tool-suite for matching. Readers who are interested in a methodology to test the process and tool-suite may be satisfied by reading chapter six. I would like to thank the many persons who contributed to this thesis. Professor Dr. ir. Alexander Verbraeck, under whose guidance this research was conducted. The support, helpful criticism and many discussions with ir. Stijn-Pieter van Houten and Drs. ing. Jan-Willem Weststrate helped me sharpen my view. Furthermore I would like to thank Dr. Marina van Geenhuizen, ir. Joop Smits and ir. Priscilla Veenstra for their careful reading and support. Finally I would like to thank Daniëlle Stekelenburg, Étrimara Plender and Anka Verbeek for reviewing this thesis Erik Schalkwijk

3 iii Executive summary The Port of Rotterdam (PoR) is responsible for developing and exploiting acres of the Rotterdam port and industrial zone (the zone). Parts, i.e. lots, of the zone can be developed in many different ways, varying from hosting private lessees to nature compensation. Area planning is conducted to develop a number of lots in the zone in best interest of the PoR and its customers. Processing the complexity and amount of information to make a comprehensive area plan requires interdisciplinary teams that work together during several stages of a project. Such a project takes on average a period of 10 months. Making area plans while the zone increases in complexity is far from trivial. Therefore the PoR and Delft University of Technology work together to enhance area planning processes. Our research focused on a part of the area planning process called matching, which is the process of evaluating and comparing alternative land-uses for lots. We studied three reports on area plans, observed an area planning process and performed multiple interviews with experts in order to sharpen our view on the current way of matching in area planning. We discovered a number of opportunities and weaknesses in current matching processes that can guide us in reaching our objective. To be able to exploit opportunities and minimise the influence of weaknesses we reconsidered decision processes and looked at computer enabled services to support these processes. The designed process is based on three pillars: (1) framing decision making to support handling complex decisions, (2) managing decision processes to guarantee progress, openness and substance in decision making, (3) strategically plan decision making activities to efficiently come to a selection of feasible and most desired uses for lots. Concepts for a suite of computer enabled services are designed. This suite supports decision makers in matching processes. It enables decision makers to get an overview of the expected consequences and performance of alternatives and the opinions of the parties involved. Furthermore, the suite provides services to record the motivation and argumentation behind decisions taken. A prototype of the suite has been demonstrated to employees of the Design and Drawing Office, the Commercial Division and several other departments. Concerning our prototype of the suite the 2004 final rapport of the DES-project concluded: It was clear that the added value of having area planning instruments available can enhance the quality of the matching processes in the port. [Verbraeck et al., 2005] Based on positive reactions at the PoR and the rationale behind the process designed we believe we are on the right track. A future case study centred around a fictitious but realistic case will enable us to obtain proof whether the rational behind the proposed process and suite is valid. Preliminary to the case study we conclude that based on the rationale behind the designed process and suite we have been able to design a way to enhance matching in the area planning process at the PoR

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5 v List of content Preface and acknowledgements Executive summary ii iii 1 INTRODUCTION Spatial-planning is far from trivial Setting of this research Stakeholders Decision enhancement studio for spatial-planning Focus of this research Area planning: type of spatial-planning Partly developed port area What is matching Research objective and question Research approach Outline of this thesis THE CURRENT WAY OF WORKING IN MATCHING An area planning process: the Noordwest-hoek case The current way of area planning Start up Investigate area Opportunities and constraints Design area plan Finalise Matching with the Matrix : aspects to weigh alternatives Weighing on different scales Availability Accessibility Liveableness Sustainability Commercial attractiveness Weaknesses and opportunities DESIGN APPROACH TO ENHANCE MATCHING More than a suite of services Requirements to enhance matching Process-design approach Exposition of process-design approaches Why we used the process-managerial approach 33

6 3.4 Approach to develop a suite of services Why develop a service The spiral approach to develop a suite for matching Reflection PROPOSED WAY OF WORKING FOR MATCHING Frame decision making Manage the decision processes Create an open decision process Assure progress in decision processes Protect the core-values of parties involved Guarantee substantial land-use selection Strategically plan decision making activities Two phases that pursue different sets of objectives Modes of work used to describe flows of activities Determine feasible options Select and rank competitive options Reflection CONCEPTS FOR A SUITE TO SUPPORT MATCHING View matching elements Slice through the matching cube Access item Access option Threats to the suite TEST PROPOSAL FOR A NEW WAY OF MATCHING Test objective Introduction to case studies Design case Case introduction of Noordwest-hoek Conflicting interests in the case Validate case with experts Prepare prototype and participants Perform and evaluate case study CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography I

7 vii Terminology III appendix A Matrix 1 appendix BDesirable land-uses for the Noordwest-hoek 3 appendix CDecision Support Suites and Studios 5 appendix DProposal Noordwest-hoek (Dutch) 6 appendix EFeasible land-uses in the Noordwest-hoek 10 appendix FInterview questions (Dutch) 12 appendix GInterview Cees Pons (Dutch) 13 appendix HInterview Pim de Wit (Dutch) 16 appendix IInterview Jasna de Groot (Dutch) 19 appendix JInterview Harry Smit (Dutch) 23 appendix KInterview Eric van Andel (Dutch) 27 appendix LCurrent area planning process 30 appendix MRIV background layers 31 appendix NRIV-architecture (Dutch) 32 appendix OPrototype of the Matching Cube Suite 33

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9 ix List of abbreviations APT Area Planning Team BRZO Note on risks and severe injury CD Commercial Division CRM Customer Relation Management DDO Design and Drawing Office DES Decision Enhancement Studio DPD Division Port Development DSNG Decision Support New Generation EM Evaluation Matrix GIS Geographical Information System IOR British Institute of Operational Research MCS Matching Cube Suite MCDM Multi Criteria Decision Making MER Milieu Effect Rapportage MIL Milieu MOT Maasvlakte Oil Terminal MOU Memorandum of Understanding MT Management Team MTG Maximum Tolerated Noise Level MV2 Maasvlakte 2 NW-hoek Noordwest-hoek O&I Ontwikkeling en Infrastructuur PoR{ XE "PoR" \t "" } Port of Rotterdam PI Performance Indicator RFP Rail Feeder Point RIV Ruimtelijke Informatie Voorziening RIVM Dutch national institute of public health and the environment RPA Rotterdam Port Authority PRC Port Research Centre SE Systems Engineering STRAT Strategy Department TUD Delft university of technology WPC World Port Centre

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11 xi List of figures figure 1.1 Services which support both individual and collaborative activities 4 figure 1.2 Four types of spatial planning 6 figure 1.3 Matching is like a puzzle of lots and land-uses 7 figure 1.4 Inductive hypothetical model cycle and thesis outline 10 figure 2.1 Desirable land-uses for lots in the Noordwest-hoek figure 2.2 Phases in area planning 15 figure 2.3 Start up phase in current area planning process 16 figure 2.4 Compilation of an area planning team 17 figure 2.5 Investigate area phase in the current area planning process 17 figure 2.6 Opportunities and constraints phase in the current area planning process 18 figure 2.7 Design area plan phase in the current area planning process 19 figure 2.8 Finalise phase in the current area planning process 20 figure 2.9 Feasibility-desirability consequences of aspect categories on a match 21 figure 3.1 The RIV with one of the undeveloped-area layers activated 35 figure 3.2 One cycle of the spiral model 36 figure 4.1 Framing decision making into a cube 40 figure 4.2 Maintain land-use selections in different matching processes 41 figure 4.3 Relative distances of actors, participants and members involved in matching46 figure 4.4 Increasing level of detail and decreasing number of relevant alternatives 50 figure 4.5 Chronological positioning of the phases 52 figure 4.6 Tailored strategic choice approach 53 figure 4.7 Flow of activities to determine feasible options 56 figure 4.8 Select and rank competitive options process diagram 60 figure 4.9 Cases that can potentially be supported 62 figure 5.1 Support matching process with the evaluation matrix service 63 figure 5.2 Artist impression of a user interface to access the elements in matching 64 figure 5.3 Numerical nine point scale of relative preference [Saaty, 2004] 66 figure 5.4 Two examples of judgement functions 66 figure 5.5 Artist impression of the evaluation matrix user interface 67 figure 5.6 Key to symbols in the evaluation matrix 67 figure 5.7 Artist impression of an item user interface 69 figure 5.8 Artist impression of the option user interface 70 figure 6.1 Five steps to perform a case study 74 figure 6.2 Impression of the Noordwest-hoek in the year figure 6.3 Planning of the test-day 78 figure 7.1 Framework for decision making and slices from the matching cube 83

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13 Introduction 1{ TC \l 1 } 1 Introduction The Port of Rotterdam (PoR) is the port authority responsible for developing and exploiting acres of the Rotterdam port and industrial zone (the zone). The zone can be developed in many different ways, from renting it to private companies to nature compensation area. Intelligent and conscious development of the zone is in the best interest of the PoR and its customers. In the past, the PoR managed to control the development of the zone with plans based on experience and intuition. Nowadays processing the complexity and amount of information to make a comprehensive area plan requires interdisciplinary teams who work together during several stages of a project, which takes on average a period of 10 months. In spatial planning processes a systematic preparation of activities for the development of parts of the zone is made. The interests involved in area development make spatialplanning an important instrument. The high standards for spatial plans and limited resource capacity, money and time available, stress the importance of improving it. In this thesis we work towards a way to enhance part of a specific type of spatial planning at the PoR. In this chapter we aim to answer the following questions: what is this research about, why is it performed and how is it done? In section 1.1 we introduce spatial planning since it is the central subject in this research. The research is done within a larger project which aims to enhance spatial planning at the PoR. The setting of the research is described in section 1.2. The pursued to enhance spatial planning involves many subjects. The subject we focus on in this research is, matching in a specific type of spatial planning that we describe in section 1.3. Our objective within this research field is described in section 1.4. To strategically reach our objective we need a research approach. In section 1.5 we describe the approach and outline of this thesis report. Finally the outline of this thesis is described in section Spatial-planning is far from trivial In this section we introduce spatial-planning in order to get an idea of what spatial planning is. Some knowledge on spatial planning and its complexity is necessary to interpret the intent of this research. Spatial planning is the whole of decision processes required to make a systematic preparation of activities to develop an area in such a way that it optimises the availability, accessibility, liveableness, sustainability and commercial attractiveness, in a flexible way and in harmony with its external environment [van der Blaak et al., 2004]. Making long-term plans for a complex and dynamic area like the Rotterdam port and industrial zone is far from trivial. The number of aspects involved makes collecting and processing information a complex exercise. Aspects such as: noise, external safety and road accessibility are involved because the PoR and its context (organisational mash, rules of the game and physical laws) demand certain characteristics and performance. The decision makers in spatial planning processes come from different departments within the PoR. The decision processes are characterised by information asymmetry, different opinions and individual interests. The decision makers act as individual actors who look at the issues from different perspectives.

14 2 A process design and tool-suite to enhance matching Controlling spatial development in the port and industrial zone is far from trivial. Without conscious and intelligent planning it may develop in a way that is not in the best interests of the PoR. Different land-uses in vicinity of each other may lead to: advantages which strengthen the position of the PoR and their customers and disadvantages which weaken their position. When for instance the PoR would agree to every request from a potential or existing lessee the land-use might become fragmented. Fragmented development may lead to conflicts between land-uses and obstruction of bundling services such as roads, electricity, quays, or cables and pipelines [Chin et al., 2004]. In the end this may lead to higher costs and reduce the competitiveness of the port and their customers. The process of spatial planning need to be enhanced to come to area plans which reflect the interests of the PoR. Today s choices should create advantages and avoid disadvantages without unnecessary block possibilities in the future. Permitting certain developments in the zone commits the PoR to a certain land-use of that area for a significant period. 1.2 Setting of this research The Port of Rotterdam (PoR) and Delft University of Technology (TUD) have agreed to a memorandum of understanding (MoU) which has resulted in the ides to develop a `Decision Enhancement Studio (DES) [Keen and Sol, 2004] for spatial planning. Since mid-2003 a combined PoR and TU-Delft team (DES-team) is responsible for developing a DES for spatial-planning. The DES-project aims to enhance decision making in spatial-planning. Since this research focuses on enhancing a part of spatial planning the stakeholders in this research are the same as the DES-project. We describe the stakeholders of this research in sub-section In sub- section we describe the intent of the DES-project in more detail Stakeholders The stakeholders in this research are the PoR and Delft University of Technology. Actively the Division Port Development (DPD) and Commercial division (CD) of the PoR are involved. The divisions PI and CD are among others involved in spatial planning. The PoR is the port authority for the Rotterdam port and industrial zone. The division Port Development is responsible for optimising the development, construction, design and management of port area. This division s main concerns are focused on clientspecific infrastructure such as quay walls and jetties as well as public infrastructure such as port basins, roads, railroads and pipeline strips. Limiting conditions involve environmental restrictions, land-use legislations and agreements with neighbouring actors. 1 For the PoR it is important that development of area is controlled and spatial plans are well considered. Spatial planning enables the division Port Development to prevent unnecessary investments in infrastructural and logistical deficiencies. The Commercial Division focuses on attracting new businesses and cargo flows and on strengthening existing cargo flows to and from the port of Rotterdam. Together with its clients, the Commercial Division develops new logistic and industrial concepts and makes sure these concepts are implemented. The division maintains commercial 1 visited at the 15 th of September 2004

15 Introduction 3{ TC \l 1 } contacts with existing lessees and shipping companies. Furthermore, the Commercial Division is responsible for all rental and leasehold contracts and for offering information on and the collection of harbour dues. 2 The Commercial division guards the interests and needs of all their lessees and potential lessees. An area plan enables the Commercial division to specifically search for potential lessees as well as make a quick scan of the available lots for a potential lessee. Another stakeholder is the Systems Engineering Group (SE-group). The SE-group is part of the Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management of Delft University of Technology. The SE-group is participating in the DES-project. The faculty is active on the interface between technology and management. The research of the SE-group focuses on both system analysis and decision support. The DES-project provides a case to apply the knowledge present in the group. The case provides more understanding of decision processes in spatial planning Decision enhancement studio for spatial-planning The DES-project starts with the assumption that a studio or tool suite enhances the decision process in spatial planning at the Port of Rotterdam [Chin et al., 2004]. In the DES-project the DES-paradigm is applied on the decision processes in spatial-planning at the PoR. In this paragraph we introduce the Decision Enhancement Studio paradigm, describe the ambition of the DES-project and its vision. Introduction of the Decision Enhancement Studio Paradigm In this section we introduce the Decision Enhancement Studio idea (see appendix C). Keen and Sol [Keen and Sol, 2004] argue that decision support needs to focus on decisions that matter. In order to make decision making more likely elements in decision making systems need to be integrated. A decision making system becomes a decision enhancement studio when the elements form a system in which decision making is more likely. The elements in a Decision Enhancement Studio are: - Landscaping is the assessment of the organization s business vision, time horizon, partnership strategies and imperatives. Landscaping is important because this defines what will be the decisions that matter for the organisation. The process answers such questions as how far out are we looking and what is our time horizon? How broad is the scope, do we look at our enterprise needs and plans or do we also take into account our supply chain, customers, partnerships, the decision context, stakeholders and governance rules for the decision process? [Keen and Sol, 2004] Without a clear idea about the decision making landscape it is hard to understand the context of the decisions. - Orientation and initiation ensures the skills, credibility and domain expertise in a team to attract, motivate, coordinate and help the studio participants move towards decision commitment. [Keen and Sol, 2004] - Recipes are proven, repeatable, adaptive and codified procedures built on practice and experience that can be exchanged between organisations [Keen and Sol, 2004]. Recipes should be applied wherever possible because they provide, to some extent, certainty on a successful decision making process. - Suites are integrated sets of tools focused on enhancing the process and the people contributing to decision-making. A service should combine the usefulness, usability 2 visited at the 15 th of September 2004

16 4 A process design and tool-suite to enhance matching and usage to the organisational, social and political context to successfully enhance decision making. The usefulness of tools and methods is the value that they add to decision processes, their usability is the mesh between people, process and technology and their usage is their flexibility, adaptively, and suitability. [Keen and Sol, 2004] - The process is a coherent set of activities done by a group of participants to reach a certain goal. The way the process is designed influences the likelihood of their making effective decisions, make commitment to a decision and the explicit target and agenda [Keen and Sol, 2004]. In our research we apply the DES theory to enhance decision processes. Ambitions and vision of a suite for spatial planning at the PoR In the Decision Enhancement Studio paradigm, suites of software tools may support decision makers. The DES-team aims to exploit opportunities to support making decisions in spatial planning using computer enabled services. The suite in the DES aims to support both individual and collaborative activities. Ensure that tools are designed and implemented within an overall distributed architecture. [Keen and Sol, 2004] The left side of figure 1.1 illustrates a member of a spatial planning team working individually. The member wants, for instance, to distribute his newly acquired information to other spatial planners or express his preference for certain options based on that information. figure 1.1 Services which support both individual and collaborative activities On the right side of figure 1.1 we illustrate a meeting supported by a computer enabled service. During the meeting a domain specialist, for instance, advises other members on decisions to make using geographical information. On the long term a Business Development Manager of the PoR (BDM) may be supported by the services provided by the studio. A BDM is responsible for acquiring new customers for the PoR Using the studio a BDM could for instance prepare a meeting in his hotel-room and quickly scan for promising lots for a potential lessee. 1.3 Focus of this research In this section we describe the focus of this research within the DES-project. The focus is determined in close contact with the stakeholders. A focus is necessary to efficiently

17 Introduction 5{ TC \l 1 } utilised the limited resources and time available for this research. A focus enables us to produce specific applicable output instead of some general findings. In this research we focus on matching, in a specific type of spatial planning processes for particular types of area. Many different types of spatial-planning activities are performed at the PoR. We narrow the scope of this research to a specific type of spatial-planning called area-planning. In sub-section the type of area planning is explained based on three leading axioms. Sub-section consists of a description of the focus on area planning in partly developed port area. One of the decision processes to support is matching alternative land-uses and lots in the Rotterdam port and industrial zone. In sub-section we describe matching in more detail Area planning: type of spatial-planning Studying a collection of spatial plans shows differences between them in terms of scale, scope and time range. Although the names for the types of spatial planning at the PoR are not univocal it may, to some extent, provide insight into the three axioms. - The scale of spatial planning is related to the size of the area or lots considered. The size of spatial planning at the PoR varies from acres in a port-plan to less then 1 acre in a development-plan. The general order of spatial planning types in that continuum is: port-plan, spots-plan, area plan and development plan. - The scope refers to the level of detail of a spatial-plan. The level of detail is how specific the plan prescribes the activities for the development. The level of detail is a continuum from general market segments from containers, chemical or dry-bulk, to specific lessees or non commercial land-uses. Another element is the geographical level of detail. In a spatial-plan it can be indicated in detail (lot specific) or in general, without considering lot boundaries (spot). In general a port-plan prescribes general market segments in terms of big coloured spots in the zone and general description of adjustments. On the other end of the continuum a development-plan prescribes for instance a specific lessee or non-commercial land-use for a lot. - An area plan is made for a time range. Some of the plans made are impossible to realise within a certain time range. The current occupation for instance cannot be transported to another location instantly. The time range of spatial-planning at the PoR is a continuum from 20 years in a port-plan to 1 year in a development plan. Example of different types of spatial planning For an area near the Markweg, the area plan is quite specific. The small lot sizes and limited facilities in this area limit the bandwidth of optional lot land-use combinations. Because the high level of detail it was possible to study the nature-values in the area. Based on the study an integration, compensation and mitigation plan for the naturevalues is put up. The aggregation level in the Europoort-Oost case was higher and a nature-value study was not relevant in this stage of the spatial planning activities 3. The PoR does not have univocal definitions and vocabulary for the different types of spatial planning. Some of the terms used are: port-plan, spots-plan, area-plan and development-plan. We use the three axioms mentioned to classify the differences between the spatial plans. The types of spatial planning are illustrated in figure Interview with Jasna de Groot, see appendix I

18 6 A process design and tool-suite to enhance matching - Port plan Scale: Rotterdam port and industrial zone ( ha) Scope: depending on the area considered in the zone Time range: 20 years - Spot plan Scale: depending on the area considered but in general it covers more then one lot Scope: a relatively high aggregation level Time range: approximately 10 years - Area plan Scale: depending on the area considered Scope: depending on the leading problems and presence of potential lessees Time range: approximately 5 years - Development plan Scale: a lot Scope: the plan for a specific lot with a specific land-use is worked out in detail Time range: approximately 1 year The different types of spatial planning are related to each other. Choices made in spatial plans made on a general level should be reflected in the spatial plans on a more detailed level. The other way around is true as well. figure 1.2 Four types of spatial planning Partly developed port area At the PoR there is a significant difference between area planning in greenfield situations such as the Maasvlakte 2 and partly developed area such as the Noordwesthoek. Area planning of new port areas may be done in completely different

19 Introduction 7{ TC \l 1 } organisational setting compared to existing port area. The organisational setting of an area plan should fit the issues at hand. Area planning for the Maasvlakte 2 project is done in a separate more independent organisation within the PoR. The established companies and other developments in partly developed area affect the ability and potential to develop the area in their vicinity. Existing services and large companies such as Lyondell, MOT and Euromax in port areas like for example the Maasvlakte, make some options more likely then others. This is due to potential opportunities and weaknesses. This research focuses on existing port area; areas planning for greenfield situations are excluded What is matching In the process to a spatial plan all intellectual efforts can be categorised in determining the possibilities, merits or adjustments [Voogd, 1995]. Key in area plans are the selections of feasible and most desired land-uses for lots are determined by these possibilities, merits and adjustments. For this research we focus on matching. A match in the Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary 4 is something, which is similar to, or combines well with something else. Matching in area planning at the PoR is the process of evaluating and comparing lots and land-uses on multiple aspects. Matching lots and land-uses on multiple aspects is like a puzzle. In figure 1.3 the puzzle of matching lots and land-uses in the Rotterdam port and industrial zone is illustrated. Land-uses are potential lessees, general market segments or other possible land-uses. The supply side are the available lots in the Rotterdam port and industrial zone. The land-uses are like pieces of a puzzle; they all have specific shape and characteristics. The lots are like vacant parts of the puzzle having specific shapes and characteristics as well. A potential match is when a piece fits the vacant place in the puzzle. Matching is a part of area planning which orients on fitting lots and land-uses on each other not only on their shape but other aspects as well. Matching is therefore a complex process. Matching land-uses and lots in the Rotterdam port and industrial zone is therefore far more complex than a regular puzzle. figure 1.3 Matching is like a puzzle of lots and land-uses 4 visited at the 12 th of October 2004

20 8 A process design and tool-suite to enhance matching Within this description of matching we find that lots, land-uses and aspects have not been specifically defined yet. In the next paragraphs we describe lots, land-uses and aspects in more detail. Lots considered in matching Control over the spatial development is only possible when the PoR has the ability to influence the way it is exploited. In general a lot considered in spatial planning is: A specified part of space (land and/or water) in the Rotterdam port and industrial zone which is: non issued and undeveloped PoR owned area, undeveloped strategic option area or unfavourable used area. The areas considered are divided in three types. In the next enumeration we describe the types in more detail: - Non issued and undeveloped PoR owned area is considered in area planning. The PoR is responsible for exploiting ha of the Rotterdam port and industrial zone. Especially in relatively new port area such as the Maasvlakte only a part of the area is developed. - Undeveloped and retrievable strategic option area is considered in area planning. Some lessees require additional area to be able to expand their activities in the future. To create that flexibility they include optional area into the deal with the PoR. Optional area generates relatively little revenues compared to developed area and therefore it can be unfavourable for the PoR. In spatial planning the PoR identifies whether they want to recover the area and therefore they confirm whether the lessee is willing to release his option. - PoR owned area which current land-use is not in the best interest of the PoR. Unanticipated dynamics and spatial planning errors may result in an unfavourable situation for the PoR. A customer might for instance fail to meet its transhipment quota or produce more noise than permitted. In some cases of persistent disadvantages the PoR may choose to clean up an area and redevelop it. Land-uses considered in matching Area planners need to determine feasible and most desired land-use for the lots considered in matching. In general a land-use considered in spatial planning is: A land-use is a way to develop and exploit a lot. If the area planning team chooses to exploit a lot commercially a general market segment or potential customer is chosen. Alternative non-commercial ways to developing a lot are: for example port facilities, public area or nature compensation. Aspects considered in matching The aspects considered matching are: Subjects relevant when weighing and evaluating alternative land-uses for lots. The subjects such as: noise, external safety and road accessibility are involved because the PoR and its context (organisational mash, rules of the game and physical laws) demands for certain characteristics of lot and land-use combinations. The PoR acts in a mash of organisations, such as current and potential lessees, environmental organisations and municipalities, who are in many cases mutually dependant on each other. Potential lessees who need area in the zone and the PoR who is responsible for exploiting the zone are mutual dependant. The potential lessee

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