The ascent of the Frisians. The Dutch Commercial System and the market for maritime transport,

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1 1. Projectinformatie The ascent of the Frisians. The Dutch Commercial System and the market for maritime transport, This project involves the analysis of the Dutch maritime transport market in the period Long-term shifts of the regional division of shipmasters domiciles will be explained as results of structural changes of supply and demand of transport services. The project will contribute to the understanding of the development of the Dutch commercial system and the economies of Holland, Friesland and the Wadden Islands, where most shipmasters lived. 2. Main applicant Volledige naam Dr J.W. Veluwenkamp Geboortedatum Geslacht Man Organisatienaam Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Afdeling Faculteit der Letteren Onderafdeling Arctisch Centrum Straat A-weg 30 Postcode 9718 CW Plaats GRONINGEN Telefoon URL 3. Mede-aanvragers prof.dr. L. Hacquebord Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Faculteit der Letteren Arctisch Centrum A-weg CW Groningen prof. (per ) dr. J.F.J. Duindam Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (per ) Faculteit der Letteren leerstoelgroep vroegmoderne geschiedenis Oude Kijk in t Jatstraat EK Groningen 4. Previous and Future Submissions We have not submitted this proposal to NWO before. We have not submitted and we shall not submit it elsewhere, either. 1

2 5. Institutional Setting This research project will be carried out in the context of the chair of Early Modern History of the University of Groningen. 6. Period of Funding. The total duration of the project will be four years. The intended starting date is 1 June Composition of the research team a. Main applicant Dr. J.W. Veluwenkamp, University of Groningen. b. Co-applicants Prof. Dr. L..H. Hacquebord, University of Groningen, promotor PhD project 1 Prof. Dr. J. Duindam, University of Groningen (from 1 November 2008), promotor PhD project 2 c. Researchers We have not yet decided who will carry out the project. Therefore, the names of the researchers are not yet known. The researchers will be recruted through application. d. Other involved researchers Advisors: Dr. A.J. Brand, University of Groningen Dr. G.M. Welling, University of Groningen Drs. S. van der Woude, Frisian Historical and Literary Centre Tresoar, Leeuwarden 8. Structure of the Proposed Research 1. The Frisian shipmasters in the Baltic trade and the Dutch market for maritime transport ( ). PhD project (aio). Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Supervisor: Dr. J.W. Veluwenkamp. 2. The Makkum shipmasters community in the 18th century. Social, economic and institutional structure and development. PhD project (aio). Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Supervisor: Dr. J.W. Veluwenkamp. 3. The shipmasters in the Dutch commercial system ( ). Regional differentiation in the Dutch market for maritime transport. Postdoc project. Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Supervisor: Dr. J.W. Veluwenkamp. 9. Description of the Proposed Research The proposed project will extensively exploit the Sound Toll Registers online (STR online), the electronic database of the Sound Toll Registers accessible via the internet which will be completed in NWO has granted us a large investment subsidy to realize that database in May 2008 (REDS, Realization of an Electronic Database of the Sound Toll Registers, file nr ). One of the reasons we applied for that subsidy was to be able to carry out the project we propose now. 2

3 The scholarly goal of the proposed project is to contribute to the understanding of the development of the Dutch maritime transport market, the Dutch commercial system, the regional economies of the Northern Netherlands, the shipmasters economic and social strategies and the development of the Dutch economy as a whole in the period In that period the Dutch rose to primacy in European trade and shipping, reached their Golden Age and subsequently lost their position of wealth and economic power. Commerce and shipping were interdependent. Basically, merchants, mainly based in Amsterdam and other towns in Holland, demanded maritime transport while shipmasters, mainly based in villages and small provincial towns in Holland, Friesland and on the Wadden Islands, supplied it. Changes in Dutch commerce and the regional economies led to shifts in the demand and supply of shipping services and, consequently, to changes in the regional distribution of the shipping industry. An indication thereof is the change in the regional distribution of shipmasters domiciles. It is a well-established historiographical notion that, in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the point of gravity of the domiciles of the Dutch shipmasters shifted from Holland to Friesland and the Wadden Islands. This phenomenon is a subject of ongoing historiographical debate, but has not been thoroughly analysed and explained. The central research question of the proposed project follows from these considerations. It involves the explanation of the just mentioned shift of the Dutch shipmasters domiciles from roughly west to east. The explanation will be sought in changes of demand and supply of maritime transport and in the shipmasters strategies. The demand for maritime transport shifted whenever the structure of the commerce changed as regards the ports of destination and the volume and the composition of the commodities traded. One change occurred in the course of the seventeenth century, when the principal function of Dutch commerce shifted from the distributive trade of the omnipresent international middelman to trade relating to the rising Dutch export industry. A second change occurred in the course of the eighteenth century, when a structural decrease of the commerce related to the export industry was compensated by a simultaneous increase of the trade with the German hinterland and the distribution of colonial products. This change is connected with the notion of external contraction of the Dutch European trade the increase of the proportion of the trade with nearby countries. The supply of maritime transport changed whenever regional economic structures changed. Changes like that occurred in the Netherlands, for example, as a result of the agricultural depression between 1650 and 1750 and the simultaneously continuing expansion of the Zaan shipbuilding and sawmill industry. A provisional hypothesis or line of reasoning for the proposed project is that the shift from middleman and export industry trade to commerce with the German hinterland and the distribution of colonial products resulted in an absolute and relative increase of the demand for transport in small vessels. As Frisian and Wadden Islands shipmasters sailed, as a rule, smaller vessels than shipmasters from Holland this resulted in an increase of the demand for Frisian shipping and a decrease of the demand for Holland shipping. Consequently, given the simultaneous agricultural depression, shipping was an attractive livelihood option and increased in Friesland and on the Wadden Islands. In Holland, attractive alternatives for the switch-over to smaller ships could be found in the service of the flourishing East India Company (VOC) and in the persistently strong shipbuilding and sawmil industries. 3

4 The research method of the proposed project involves a focus on the analysis of the development of Dutch shipping to the Baltic Sea area with emphasis on the contribution of the Frisian shipmasters. The focus on shipping to the Baltic Sea is justified as this area was one of the main destinations of Dutch trade and shipping. Moreover, only for the Baltic trade and shipping there is a great relevant time series available: the Sound Toll Registers (STR). The STR are the records of the toll the king of Denmark levied on the passage of ships through the Sound, the strait between Denmark and Sweden. They have been preserved for about 300 of the 360 years from 1497 till 1857 and include a practically uninterrupted series from 1574 to They contain information on about 1.7 million passages. For each individual passage, both westward and eastward, the STR contain the name of the shipmaster, his town of residence, the ship s port of departure, the composition of the cargo, the due toll per commodity and from the mid-1660s the ship s port of destination. The Frisian focus of the proposed project is justified by the fact that Dutch shipmasters were dominant in maritime transport to and from the Baltic and by the fact that Frisian shipmasters were prominent among the Dutch. To discuss our central research question we shall combine archival sources and the historiography on shipping, the regional economies of Holland, Friesland and the Wadden Islands, and the Dutch commercial system. The historiography provides a sound general basis for the study of the development of the commercial system, the regional economies and the shipping industry. There are, however, hardly any studies on shipmasters strategies and shipmasters communities. To collect relevant information it will therfore be necessary to do extensive research in archival sources. The STR, made usable through STR online, are crucial to the project. They offer insight in the patterns of the individual shipmasters careers, in the patterns of their domiciles, their cargoes and their harbours of departure and destination. In addition to the STR there are many stray archival sources providing detailed but isolated information, such as Frisian taxbooks and censuses for a few individual years and churchbooks with information on births, deaths and marriages. To test the reliability of the STR data and to complete the analysis with data concerning destinations not related to the Baltic shipping we shall use the notarial archives of especially Amsterdam which contain a huge amount of hard to process but extremely valuable information on trade and shipping. As theoretical framework for this project we shall apply the economic principles of regional specialization and absolute and comparative advantages. We shall make the analytical connection between the highly dynamic demand and the more gradually shifting supply of maritime transport. Almost by definition, the rise of Frisian and Wadden Islands shipping indicates that maritime transport there became increasingly productive in comparison with other sectors and - absolutely and/or relatively Holland. The explanation for this could be that there were differences in the ratio between the prices of labour, capital and natural resources, in technical factors such as the availabilty of certain types of ships, and in the availabilty of relevant skills and knowledge. The previous history of this project involves the work of the research group on the history of the Dutch commercial system (see bibliography and curriculum vitae of the principal applicant). The proposed study of the development of the market for maritime transport is a continuation of this line of research. To be able to carry out 4

5 this project was one of the reasons we applied for the large investment subsidy for the Realization of an Electronic Database of the Sound Toll Registers (REDS) which NWO has granted us in May The scholarly importance of the intended project lies in its contribution to the explanation of the economic and social development of the Netherlands between 1550 and One of the main questions in the study of early modern European social and economic history involves this problem area. It is a prominent example of one of the central questions in the study of history, involving the causes of the fact that some nations rose to wealth and power and others declined to poverty and weakness. This question is connected with the great discussion about the chronology of the great divergence between Europe and Asia, involving the question when the world s economic, political and cultural centre of gravity shifted from east to west. Also connected is the question of the timing of the shift of economic power within Europe from south to north. The proposed project is original and innovative with regard to study object, purpose, use of theory, empirical approach and method. It will produce the first comprehensive history of early modern shipmasters communities as a function of the market for maritime transport. It aims on the one hand to explain the dynamism of the communities and the maritime transport sector and on the other hand to contribute to the explanation of the development of the early modern Dutch economy. For that purpose it applies the theoretical notions of regional specialization and absolute and comparative advantages. Methodologically, it connects the social and economic dynamism of shipmasters communities with the development of international trade and the regional economy - studying the connection between the markets for commodities and transport on a local, regional and national level. Essential and very innovative is the use of the empirical data of the STR on a comprehensive scale, using the individual shipmasters as the units of analysis - rather than the Sound passages as was usual in the historiography. The proposed project is well embedded in existing research programs. The research profile of the Chair of Early Modern History (Veluwenkamp, applicant), the Arctic Centre (Hacquebord, co-applicant), the Department of Informatics of the Faculty of Arts (Welling, advisor) and the Hanse Study Centre (Brand, advisor), all University of Groningen, include the study of the medieval and early modern social and economic history of the Netherlands, especially in the field of Dutch trade, shipping, whaling and industry. In addition, the project is embedded in the research programme titled Economy and Society in the Low Countries in the Pre-industrial World (http://www.lowcountries.nl/) of the N.W.Posthumus Institute, the Dutch national research school for economic and social history. The proposed project is of social and cultural interest as it contributes to the study of the Dutch Golden Age, its origins and its aftermath. In that period, in many ways, the Dutch identity took shape as an open, internationally orientated trading and transporting nation, ready to respond to internal and external changes and influences. For reasons of political and social hygiene it is vital for any nation to have a scholarly sound understanding of its own past. Today, in the Netherlands, we see both a growing interest in the national past and a tendency to witdraw in cultural complacency combined with attempts to shield society from cultural changes and 5

6 influences. New scholarly discussions about the roots of Dutchness will contribute to discussions of our identity today. The proposed project involves a programme in which two PhD students and one postdoc will participate. The added value of this programme is that the project cannot be carried out by one person. All three studies require time consuming and detailed research into the primary sources. The contribution of the postdoc will include a command of the entire problem area. The three components are partly overlapping so that the three researchers will co-operate and benefit from each others empirical and intellectual contributions. The PhD students will directly benefit from the postdoc s study on the Dutch commercial system and the postdoc will directly benefit from the first PhD student s work on Frisian shipping and the Frisian economy and from the second PhD student s work on shipmasters strategies. The three components of the project are specified below. The first PhD study: The Frisian shipmasters in the Baltic trade and the Dutch market for maritime transport ( ). It is the aim of this PhD project to analyse and explain the general shift of shipmasters domiciles from west to east - as observed in the historiography - for the case of the Frisian shipmasters. It will analyse and explain the quantitative development of the Frisian shipmasters community as a result of the development of the Frisian economy and the Dutch market for maritime transport. The first basic analysis of this study is descripive in nature. It involves the development of the numbers of Frisian shipmasters in total and per place of residence and the extent to which they specialized with regard to destinations and/or size and/or composition of cargoes. It will be empirically mainly based on the Sound Toll Registers, made accessible by STR online. It will make clear wether all the Frisian shipmasters more or less transported all goods to all destinations or specialized individually, locally or regionally. To carry out this analysis and draw significant conclusions it is essential to move the attention from passages which is routine in the historiography - to individual shipmasters which is completely new. The identification of individual shipmasters and their careers will therefore be crucial in this study. As it will be impossible to identify all individual shipmasters within the time limits of the project the shipmasters from a selection of places of residence (towns, villages) and periods will be studied in detail. Additional research to identify Frisian shipmasters and their businesses will be carried out in the charterparties and maritime attestations which are available in abundance in the notarial archives of Amsterdam. This additional research is necessary to test the reliability of the STR data and to complete the analysis with data concerning destinations not related to the Baltic shipping. First, it will be established wether Frisian shipmasters appearing in the STR sailed to destinations not recorded in the STR. Second, it must be established wether there were any Frisian shipmasters who did not appear in the STR. In both cases, the relevant sailing patterns will be analysed and related to the conclusions based on the STR. The second basic analysis aims to explain the conclusions of the first basic analysis. The rise of Frisian shipping indicates that the shipping business became more attractive in comparison with other sectors mainly agriculture, which was in a slump between 1650 and To explain this, the development of the main sectors of the 6

7 Frisian economy wil be studied, including agriculture, industry, trade and shipping. This analysis will mainly be based on historiographical research. The general hypothesis of the proposed project suggests that shipping was an increasingly attractive option in Friesland also because the Dutch demand for maritime transport changed and gradually involved smaller vessels such as the Frisians sailed. The analysis of the development of the demand for maritime transport will be carried out by the postdoc. Its results will be applied by the PhD student to his own study. The second PhD study: The Makkum shipmasters community in the 18th century. Social, economic and institutional structure and development. This second study aims to deepen the general analysis of the first study and facilitate a better understanding of the processes observed there. It involves an in-depth analysis of the shipmaster community of the Frisian village of Makkum, situated on the Zuiderzee. Makkum is a typical example of Frisian villages which rose, in the eighteenth century, as centres of rural trade and industry besides the eleven Frisian towns. The geographical and chronological scope of this study is much more focused than that of the first and it will go into much further detail. It will analyse and explain the development of Makkum maritime shipping and the Makkum shipmasters community as a result of the development of the demand for maritime transport, the development of the Makkum economy and the commercial and social strategies of individual Makkum shipmasters. The choice for the town of Makkum for this casestudy is determined by the availability of the Kingma Archive, which includes the personal archives of several generations of shipmasters belonging to the Kingma family. The first basic analysis of this study involves the development of the numbers of individual Makkum shipmasters and the extent to which they specialized with regard to destinations and/or size and/or composition of cargoes. It will be empirically mainly based on the Sound Toll Registers, made accessible by the STR online project. It will make clear wether all the Makkum shipmasters transported the same goods to the same destinations or specialized individually. To test the validity of the STR data and to complete the analysis with data concerning destinations not relating to Baltic shipping, additional research will be carried out in the notarial archives of Amsterdam (compare the first PhD study). In addition, use will be made of the shipmasters archives in the Kingma Archive. The second basic analysis involves the commercial and social strategies of the Makkum shipmasters. The commercial strategy includes the way destinations and cargoes are chosen and, partly connected with this, the mechanisms of the connections between the shipmasters and their crews, shipowners, ship charterers, cargo owners and other business relations. The question, here, is how the shipmasters tried to survive competition. The historiography shows that early modern Dutch entrepreneurs specialized to accumulate expertise, maintened permanent relations with customers and suppliers to safeguard turnover, and handed on their expertise and relations to the next generation as important assets enabling their families to keep up their social positions. The hypothesis for this study is that the shipmasters who may be conceived as entrepreneurs in the shipping business acted in an analogous way, that they specialized with regard to destinations and/or size and/or composition of cargoes and that they maintained permanent relations with their business relations and formed dynasties in their line of business. This second basic analysis includes the social position of the Makkum shipmasters, measured in numbers, wealth, governmental 7

8 power and prestige. Did they have businesses or employments other than shipping? Did they recruit their crew in the town and the area? This analysis will mainly be based on the Kingma Archive. The third basic analysis involves the development of the structure of the Makkum economy and of the position of the shipping sector in that economy. The rise of Makkum shipping indicates that the shipping business became more attractive in comparison with other sectors. For this purpose the development of the main sectors of the Makkum economy wil be studied, including agriculture, industry, trade and shipping. This analysis will be based on historiographical and archival research. As indicated above (first PhD study) the analysis of the development of the demand for maritime transport will be carried out by the postdoc. Its results will be applied by the PhD student to his own study. The basic assumption is that the Dutch demand for maritime transport gradually connected better with the Frisian supply. The postdoc study: The shipmasters in the Dutch commercial system ( ). Regional differentiation in the Dutch market for maritime transport. It is the aim of this postdoc study to analyse and explain the general shift of shipmasters domiciles from west to east - as observed in the historiography - for the shipmasters of Holland, Friesland and the Wadden Islands. It will analyse and explain the quantitative development of the relevant shipmasters communities as a result of the development of the regional economies and the Dutch market for maritime transport. A provisional line of reasoning has been indicated above (The central research question). The shift in the Dutch commercial system from middleman trade and export industry related commerce in the seventeenth century to trade with the German hinterland and the distribution of colonial products in the eighteenth century resulted in a decrease of the demand for transport in large vessels and an increase of the demand for transport in small vessels. As Frisian and Wadden Islands shipmasters sailed, in average, smaller vessels than shipmasters from Holland this resulted in an increase of the demand for Frisian and Islands shipping and a decrease of the demand for Holland shipping. Consequently, given the simultaneous agricultural depression, shipping was an attractive livelihood option in Friesland and on the Islands. In Holland attractive alternatives for the switch-over to smaller ships could be found in the service of the flourishing East India Company (VOC) and in the persistently strong shipbuilding and sawmil industries. The postdoc study consists of three parts. The first part involves the development of the structure of the demand for maritime transport in the Dutch commercial system as indicated above. This analysis will be mainly based on historiographical research. The historiography of Dutch trade and shipping is rich and extends from broad interpretations to detailed case studies. Yet there is no study available which discusses the relation between the development of trade and the demand for shipping. The results of this part will be applied by the PhD students to their own studies. The second part involves the economic developments of Holland, Friesland and the Wadden Islands and their consequences for the spatial distribution of the supply of maritime transport, departing from the provisional line of reasoning indicated above. For this purpose the development of the main sectors of the relevant economies wil be studied, including agriculture, industry, trade and shipping. The shift of the shipmasters domiciles indicates that the shipping business became less attractive in some regions and more attractive in others in comparison with other economic sectors. For situation in Friesland the analysis will be based on the results of the 8

9 relevant analysis of the first PhD student. For Holland and the Islands the analysis will be based on historiographical and archival research. The regional studies by Faber and Van der Woude on, respectively, Friesland and the Noorderkwartier are relevant and comprehensive. Yet there is no study which discusses the relation between regional economic development and the supply of shipping. The third part is the sythesis. It starts out with an analysis of the shifts in shipmasters domiciles and specializations covering Holland and Friesland and the Wadden Islands. For the situation in Friesland this analysis will be based on the results of the relevant analysis of the first PhD student. For Holland and the Islands it will be carried out on the basis of extensive additional research in STR online, completed with data from charterparties and maritime attestations from mainly - the Amsterdam notarial archives so that the analysis will involve also shipping to important European destinations as the White Sea and Mediterranean areas and the whaling business. Subsequently, this synthesis will explain the shipmasters domiciles and specializations shifts as the result of the development of the demand for maritime transport (the first part of the postdoc study), the development of the supply of maritime transport (the second part of this postdoc study) and the shipmasters social and economic strategies as analysed by the second PhD student. 10. Summary in key words history, trade, shipping, Netherlands, Friesland 9

10 11. Work Programme Time schedule First PhD study Second PhD study Postdoc studies June 2009 November 2009 Reading up. Design of thesis. Reading up. Design of thesis. December 2009 May 2010 June 2010 Febrary 2011 March 2011 May 2011 June November 2011 December May 2012 June 2012 May 2013 The Frisian economy. Historiographical research. Writing a draft analysis. Frisian shipping and shipmasters. Historiographical research. Research in notarial archives. Writing a draft analysis Frisian shipping and shipmasters. Research in STR online. Identification individual shipmasters. Writing a draft analysis Confronting and integrating archival and historiographical research, including the first part of the postdoc study. Writing and completing thesis. The Makkum economy. Historiographical research. Writing a draft analysis. Shipmasters strategies Kingma family. Historiographical research. Research in the Kingma archive. Writing a draft analysis. Makkum shipping and shipmasters. Research in STR online. Identification of individual shipmasters. Research in notarial archives. Writing a draft analysis Confronting and integrating archival and historiographical research including the first part of the postdoc study. Writing and completing thesis. June 2010 February The demand for shipping in the Dutch commercial system. Historiographical and archival research. Writing synthesis. March November 2011: The supply of shipping in Holland, Friesland and the Wadden Islands. Historiographical and archival research. Use of first part of the first PhD study s results. Writing synthesis. December May Shipmasters, Dutch trade and the economies of Holland, Friesland and Wadden Islands. Historiographical research. Research in the STR online. Research in notarial archives. Confronting and integrating archival and historiographical research including first two postdoc studies and the provisional results of the PhD studies. Writing synthesis. 10

11 12 Word Count Section 9 of this application, excluding the despription of the three components of the project, contains 1979 words. 13.Planned Deliverables The project will result in the publication of two Phd theses and a series of three articles written by the postdoc. The third article will be a sythesis of the results of the two PhD studies and the two other articles. The ambition will be to publish each of the three articles in one of the following scholarly journals. Economic History Review European Review of Economic History Explorations in Economic History Journal of Economic History Past and Present 14. Short Curriculum vitae of the principal applicant (Veluwenkamp) I graduated as an historian in Leiden in 1976 and and took my PhD there in From 1981 to 1991 I worked in staff positions in the savingsbank sector in Amsterdam. Since 1991 I have worked as a lecturer at the Arctic Centre and the department of history of the University of Groningen. In that capacity, I co-ordinated, from 1999 through 2003, together with Dr. Ferry de Goey (Erasmus University Rotterdam), the research plan Entrepreneurship and Institutions in a comperative perspective of the N.W.Posthumus Institute, the Dutch national research school for economic and social history. From 2000 through 2003, I co-ordinated together with Dr. Herman de Jong (University of Groningen) one of the modules of the PhD educational program of the N.W.Posthumus Institute. My main research is in the field of early modern commercial and entrepreneurial history with special attention for the Dutch commercial system and trade between the Dutch Republic and Russia. This line of research began with my graduation thesis (published in 1977) about the seventeenth-century Amsterdam commercial house of Thesingh, active in the Russia business, in which I suggested that the Amsterdam merchants of the age tended to maintain permanent relations with suppliers and customers and to specialize in a limited range of geographical destinations and a limited set of products. The main source material for this thesis consisted of Amsterdam notarial acts, which allow very limited insight in the internal affairs of the commercial companies considered. To test my findings, I shifted attention to an eighteenth century Amsterdam linen merchant whose books have survived, Jan Isaac de Neufville, and devoted my doctoral thesis to his commercial behaviour. The outcome of this project confirmed my earlier findings. I concluded that the commercial behaviour of Dutch entrepreneurs of the age should be characterized as monopolistic competitive rather than monopolistic as Peter Klein had argued in his 1965 study on the Trip family. I extended my study of entrepreneurial behaviour to the social behaviour of businessmen in an article about the eighteenth century Leiden woollen cloth producer Daniël van Eys, suggesting that businessmen did not only specialize and entertain permanent business relations but also tended to succeed their fathers in their companies and tended to marry daughters of entrepreneurs in the same 11

12 line of business. Consequently, there would have existed family networks of entrepreneurs within specialized lines of business (1992). I elaborated on these findings in several articles about the Dutch merchant community in Russia and combined them in a monography about the Dutch entrepreneurs in Russia in the period (2000). However cleverly entrepreneurs act commercially and socially, their failures and successes are much dependent on large-scale institutional developments they cannot control. The rise and decline of the Dutch commercial system in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was to a large extent determined or at least influenced by developments of that nature. For that reason, I have widened the scope of my research to the institutional context of entrepreneurship (2002, 2006). Relevant publications by the pricipal applicant J.W. Veluwenkamp, N huis op Archangel. De Amsterdamse koopmansfamilie Thesingh, , Jaarboek Amstelodamum 69 (1977) J.W. Veluwenkamp, Ondernemersgedrag op de Hollandse stapelmarkt in de tijd van de Republiek. De Amsterdamse handelsfirma Jan Isaac de Neufville & Comp., (Meppel 1981). J.W. Veluwenkamp, De Leidse lakenondernemer Daniel van Eys, ', Leids Jaarboekje (1992) J.W.Veluwenkamp, Lading voor de Oostzee in: R.Daalder e.a. ed., Goud uit graan. Nederland en het Oostzeegebied (Zwolle 1998) J.W.Veluwenkamp, Archangel. Nederlandse ondernemers in Rusland, (Amsterdam 2000). F. de Goey en J.W.Veluwenkamp ed., Entrepreneurs and institutions in Europe and Asia (Amsterdam 2002). J.W.Veluwenkamp, International business communication patterns in the Dutch commercial system, in: H.Cools, M.Keblusek en B.Noldus ed., Your humble servant. Agents in early modern Europe (Hilversum 2006) Summary for non-specialists Dit project betreft een onderzoek naar de Nederlandse markt voor zeetransport in de periode tussen 1550 en Het project zal bijdragen aan het inzicht in de ontwikkeling van het Nederlandse handelsstelsel en de economieën van Holland, Friesland en de Waddeneilanden, en daarmee aan de analyse en de verklaring van de economische opkomst, bloei en achteruitgang van de Nederlandse Republiek. Tussen 1550 en 1700 beleefden de Noordelijke Nederlanden een spectaculaire economische expansie en beleefde de Nederlandse Republiek haar Gouden Eeuw, toen de Nederlanders de Europese handel en scheepvaart domineerden. In de loop van de achttiende eeuw keerde het tij en ging veel van de economische macht en rijkdom van de Nederlanders verloren. Niettemin bleven hun handel en scheepvaart in absolute termen op peil. Gedurende gehele periode van 1550 tot 1800 oefenden de kooplieden uit de Hollandse steden, waarvan Amsterdam de belangrijkste was, een omvangrijke vraag uit naar zeetransport en werd in het aanbod daarvan voorzien door schippers uit de dorpen en provinciestadjes van Holland, Friesland en de Waddeneilanden. In de loop van de tijd traden er verschuivingen op in de herkomst van de schippers. De opvallendste verschuiving vond plaats in de loop van de zeventiende en de achttiende eeuw toen 12

13 het zwaartepunt van de herkomst van de schippers zich verplaatste van Holland naar Friesland en de Waddeneilanden. De centrale probleemstelling van dit project betreft de verklaring van de verschuivingen van de herkomstplaatsen van de schippers. Die verklaring zal worden gezocht in de veranderingen die optraden in de vraag naar zeetransport, in het aanbod daarvan en in de sociale en economische strategieën van de schippers. De vraag naar zeetransport wijzigde zich in de loop van de tijd doordat binnen het Nederlandse handelsstelsel de internationale tussenhandel en de handel ten behoeve van de exportnijverheid maakte plaats voor handel met het directe achterland en de distributie van koloniale waren. De hypothese is dat een en ander leidde tot minder vraag naar transport in grote schepen en meer vraag naar transport in kleine schepen. Doordat schippers uit Friesland en van de Waddeneilanden over het algemeen relatief kleine schepen zeilden, konden zij beter dan de Hollanders voldoen aan de nieuwe vraag. Hun aantal groeide doordat er in de periode sprake was van een depressie in de landbouw zodat Friezen en Eilanders moesten zoeken naar vervangend emplooi. Tegelijkertijd hadden de Hollandse schippers naast de optie over te schakelen op het gebruik van kleinere schepen de mogelijkheid werk te vinden binnen bloeiende sectoren als de Zaanse scheepsbouw en houtzagerij en de VOC. Het project richt zich vooral op de analyse van de vaart op het Oostzeegebied door Friese schippers. De aandacht voor het Oostzeegebied wordt gerechtvaardigd doordat dit een van de belangrijkste handelsbestemmingen was en doordat voor de gehele bestudeerde periode een unieke bron voor de handel en scheepvaart op dat gebied beschikbaar is. Deze bron wordt gevormd door de Sonttolregisters (STR), de administratie van de tol die de koning van Denemarken hief in de zeestraat tussen Denemarken en Zweden. Wij zullen hiervan gebruik maken door middel van de Sonttolregisters online (STR online), de via het internet toegankelijke elektronische databank van de STR die in 2011 zal zijn voltooid dankzij de grote investeringssubsidie die NWO ons in mei 2008 toekende. De aandacht voor de Friese schippers wordt gerechtvaardigd doordat Nederlandse schippers het zeetransport naar het Oostzeegebied domineerden en doordat onder hen de Friezen in de loop van de tijd het meest talrijk werden. Het project heeft drie onderling samenhangende onderdelen twee promotieonderzoeken en een postdocstudie. Elk van die onderdelen bestudeert de opkomst van de Friese schippers vanuit een verschillende invalshoek. Het ene promotie-onderzoek betreft een studie van de ontwikkeling van de Friese schippersgemeenschap tussen 1550 en Dit onderzoek zal empirisch vooral zijn gebaseerd op de historiografie en de STR online. Om de analyse te completeren met gegevens over andere vaarten, zal additioneel onderzoek worden verricht in de notariële archieven van Amsterdam. Het andere promotieonderzoek betreft een studie van de schippergemeenschap van Makkum in de achttiende eeuw, inclusief de economische en sociale strategieën van individuele Makkumer schippers. Deze casestudy zal behalve van de historiografie, de STR online en notariële archieven gebruiken maken van het Kingma Archief, dat onder meer de persoonlijke archieven van een aantal generaties Makkumer schippers bevat. De postdocstudie verbreedt de analyse met analyses van de regionale economieën van Holland en de Waddeneilanden, plaatst de resultaten van de twee promotieonderzoeken in een bredere context en omvat de synthese van het project als geheel. Hij zal de verschuiving van de herkomstplaatsen van de Nederlandse schippers verklaren als een gevolg van de ontwikkeling de zeetransportmarkt en de schippersstrategieën. Daarmee zal hij bijdragen aan de analyse en de verklaring van de lange-termijnontwikkeling van de vroegmoderne Nederlandse economie. 13

14 16. Research budget 14

15 Annex: literature and archival sources Akveld, L., e.a. (ed.), In het kielzog. Maritiem-historische studies aangeboden aan Jaap R. Bruijn bij zijn vertrek als hoogleraar zeegeschiedenis aan de Universiteit leiden (Amsterdam 2003). Bang, N.E., and K. Korst, Tabeller over skibsfart og vaeretransport gennem Oeresund [7 volumes] (Copenhagen and Leipzig ). Bes, L., E. Frankot and H. Brand (eds) Baltic Connections. Archival Guide to the Maritime Relations of the Countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) (Leiden 2007) 3 vols., 2315 pp. (also: Bieleman, J., Boeren in Nederland. Geschiedenis van de landbouw (Amsterdam 2008). Boelmans Kranenburg, H.A.H., De haringexport naar het oostzeegebied in de 18e eeuw, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 72 (1959) Bohn, R., (ed.), Nordfriesische Seefahrer in der frühen Neuzeit (Amsterdam 1999). Brand, H, (ed.), Trade, diplomacy and cultural exchange : continuity and change in the North Sea area and the Baltic, c (Hilversum 2005). Brand, H, and L. Müller (eds), The dynamics of economic culture in the North Sea- and Baltic Region in the late Middle Ages and early modern period (Hilversum 2007). Buck, P. de, and J.Th. Lindblad, `De scheepvaart en handel uit de Oostzee op Amsterdam en de Republiek', Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 96 (1983) Buck, P. de, and J.Th. Lindblad, `Navigatie en negotie; De Galjootsgeldregisters als bron bij het onderzoek naar de geschiedenis van de Oostzeehandel in de achttiende eeuw', Tijdschrift voor Zeegeschiedenis 9, Themanummer 300 jaar D.O.H. & R. (1990) Boon, P., Bouwers van de zee. Zeevarenden van het Westfriese platteland, c (Den Haag 1996). Braam, A. van, Bloei en verval van het economisch-sociale leven aan de Zaan in de 17de en 18de eeuw (Wormerveer z.j.). Christensen, A.E., Der handelsgeschichtliche Wert der Sundzollregister. Ein Beitrag zur seiner Beurteilung, Hansische Geschichtsblätter 59 (1934) Christensen, A.E., Dutch trade to the Baltic around 1600 (Copenhagen and the Hague 1941). Daalder, R. e.a. ed., Goud uit graan. Nederland en het Oostzeegebied (Zwolle 1998). Damsteegt, B.C., Nieuwe Spiegel der Zeevaart. Beknopte historische atlas van de Europese kusten met de oude Nederlandse namen (Tweede, herziene druk, Amsterdam 2001). Eeghen, I.H. van, Inventarissen van de archieven van de Directie van de Moskovische Handel, Directie van de Oostersche Handel en Reederijen, Commissarissen tot de Graanhandel en Commissie voor de Graanhandel (Amsterdam 1961). Faber, J.A., Drie eeuwen Friesland. Economische en sociale ontwikkelingen van 1500 tot 1800, 2 delen (Leeuwarden 1973). Faber, J.A. De Sontvaart als spiegel van de structuurveranderingenin de Europese economie gedurende de achttiende eeuw, Tijdschift voor Zeegeschiedenis 1 (1982) Goey, F. de, and J.W. Veluwenkamp (eds.), Entrepreneurs and institutions in Europe and Asia (Amsterdam 2002). Hacquebord, L., Smeerenburg. Het verblijf van Nederlandse walvisvaarders op de Westkust van Spitsbergen in de zeventiende eeuw (Amsterdam and Groningen 1984). Hart, W.G. 't, and P.C. van Royen, Het smakschip "De Neufville van der Hoop". Een onderzoek naar de rendabiliteit van de Nederlandse vrachtvaart in de achttiende eeuw, Economisch- en Sociaal-Historisch Jaarboek 48 (1985) Heeres, W.G., e.a. (ed.), From Dunkirk to Danzig. Shipping and trade in the North Sea and the Baltic, (Hilversum 1988). Lemmink, J.Ph.S., and J.S.A.M. van Koningsbrugge, Baltic affairs, relations between the Netherlands and North- Eastern Europe, , essays, Baltic studies I (Nijmegen 1990) Holm, C.F., Bidrag til Sundtoldens Historie (Copenhagen reprint 1975). The Interactions of Amsterdam and Antwerp with the Baltic Region, De Nederlanden en het Oostzeegebied, (Leiden 1983). Israel, J.I., Dutch Primacy in World Trade, (Oxford 1989). Jeannin, P., `Les comptes du Sund comme source pour la construction d indices généraux de l activité économique en Europe (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle), Revue Historique 231 (1964) , Johansen, H.C. Shipping and trade between the Baltic and Western Europe, (Odense 1983). Klein, P.W., De Trippen in de 17e eeuw. Een studie over het ondernemersgedrag op de Hollandse stapelmarkt (Assen 1965). Knoppers, J.V.Th., Dutch Trade with Russia from the Time of Peter I to Alexander I (Montreal 1976). Knoppers, J.V.Th., and F.Snapper, De Nederlandse scheepvaart op de Oostzee vanaf het einde van de 17e tot het begin van de 19e eeuw, Economisch en Sociaal-historisch Jaarboek 41 (1978) Landes, D., The wealth and poverty of nations. Why some are so rich and some are so poor (New York 1998). Lesger, C., The Rise of the Amsterdam Market and Information Exchange; Merchants, Commercial Expansion and Change in the Spatial Economy of the Low Countries, c (Ashgate 2006). Lindblad, J. Th., and P. de Buck, `Shipmasters in the Shipping between Amsterdam and the Baltic, ', in: The Interactions of Amsterdam and Antwerp with the Baltic Regio, / De Nederlanden en het Oostzeegebied, (Leiden 1983)

16 Krzysztof, N., The Baltic rim trade in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries and the Sound tax database on CD- ROM, History and Computing 12:3 (2000) Maritieme geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 4 delen (Bussum ). Ondernemende geschiedenis. 25 opstellen geschreven bij het afscheid van Mr. H. van Riel (Den Haag 1977) Ormrod, D., The rise of commercial empires. England and the Netherlands in the age of mercantilism, (Cambridge 2003). Poelman, H.A., (ed.), Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den Oostzeehandel, Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Grote Serie, 35, 36 (Den Haag 1917). Pomeranz, K., The great divergence. China, Europe, and the making of the modern world economy (Princeton 2000). Royen, P.Ch. van, Zeevarenden op de koopvaardijvloot omstreeks 1700 (Amsterdam 1987). Royen, P.C. van, J.R. Bruijn en J. Lucassen ed., Those emblems of hell? European sailors and the maritime labour market, , Research in Maritime History 13 (St. John s, New Foundland 1997). Schumpeter, E.B., English overseas trade statistics (Oxford 1960). Soom, A., Der baltische Getreidehandel im 17. Jahrhundert (Stockholm 1961). Tielhof, M. van, De Hollandse graanhandel, Koren op de Amsterdamse molen (Den Haag [1995]). Tielhof, M. van, The mother of all trades. The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the late 16th to the early 19th century (Leiden etc. 2002). Ufkes, T., Nederlandse schippers op Danziger en Stockholmse handelsschepen, , Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 15 (1996) Unger, W.S., `De Sonttabellen voltooid', Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 41 (1926) Unger, W.S., `De publikatie der Sonttabellen voltooid', Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 71 (1958) Veluwenkamp, J.W., `De buitenlandse textielhandel van de Republiek in de achttiende eeuw', Textielhistorische Bijdragen 34 (1994) Veluwenkamp, J.W., Archangel. Nederlandse ondernemers in Rusland, (Amsterdam 2000). Vries, D.P. de, Inventaris van de archieven van de bewoners van het huis annex kantoor van de Firma M.H. Kingma te Makkum (Leeuwarden 1989). Vries, J. de, and A. van der Woude, Nederland De eerste ronde van moderne economische groei (Amsterdam 1995). Vries, Joh. de, De economische achteruitgang der Republiek in de achttiende eeuw (tweede druk; Leiden 1968). Wallerstein, I., The modern world-system vol.i, Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European worldeconomy in the sixteenth century (New York etc. 1974). Wallerstein, I., The modern world-system vol.ii, Mercantilism and the consolidation of the European World- Economy, (New York etc. 1980). Wallerstein, I., The modern world-system vol.iii, The second era of great expansion of the capitalist World- Economy, s (San Diego etc. 1989). Wegener Sleeswijk, R.S., Rendement van 36 Friese partenrederijen ( ), Fries Scheepvaart Museum en Oudheidkamer. Jaarboek (1986) Wegener Sleeswijk, R.S., Omvang en financiering van de Friese vrachtvaart in de 18e eeuw, It Beaken 54 (1992) Welling, G.M., The prize of neutrality. Trade relations between Amsterdam and North America A study in computional history (Amsterdam 1998). Winkelman, P.H., ed., Bronnen voor de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Oostzeehandel in de zeventiende eeuw, Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, 133, 161, 178, (Den Haag ). Woude, A.M. van der, Het Noorderkwartier. Een regionaal historisch onderzoek in de demografische en economische geschiedenis van westelijk Nederland van de late middeleeuwen tot het begin van de negentiende eeuw, 3 delen (Wageningen 1972). Archival sources National Archive, Kopenhagen, Denmark Sound Toll Registers Municipal Archive, Amsterdam Galjootsgeldregisters Notarial Archives Tresoar, Leeuwarden Archive of the company of M.H. Kingma at Makkum Assignments Registers of 1749, Friesland Floreen Registers Friesland, Friesland census 1698, 1714, 1744, 1796 Registers of baptisms, marriages, memberships and burials Specie Registers, Friesland,

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