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1 Dutch group settlement in Brazil; Thematic guide with Dutch sources relating to the group migration and the colonies of Dutch in Brazil in the period A project of the Nationaal Archief and the New Holland Foundation for the MCH program 2012 L.A.H.C. Hulsman i

2 Translated by Floris van den Broecke from the Dutch version: Nederlandse groepsmigratie naar Brazilië ( ) ii

3 Index Tables, maps, illustrations Abbreviations Preface by the National Archivist Preface by the Director-General of the Arquivo Nacional v vi vii x Introduction 1 Background to the guide 1 2 Historical context 6 3 Organisation of the guide Classification Part 1. Descriptions of the 13 archives 3.3 Part II. Thematic descriptions 20 4 Notes on bibliography 21 Deel I. Archives 23 1 Nationaal Archief Government Government Archives to be transferred Dutch East Indies Other archival collections Illustrations Regionale Historische Centra Noord-Hollands Archief Zeeuws Archief Drents Archief Groninger Archieven Utrechts Archief Historisch Centrum Overijssel TRESOAR, Frysk Histoarysk 128 en Letterkundich Sintrum 2.8 Brabants Historisch Informatie 129 Centrum 2.9 Gelders Archief Regionaal Historisch Centrum 132 Limburg 3 Other Archives 3.1 Katholiek Documentatie 133 Centrum 3.2 Historisch 142 Documentatiecentrum voor het Nederlands Protestantisme (1800-heden) 3.3 Archief- en 146 Documentatiecentrum van de Gereformeerde Kerken (vrijgemaakt) ( 3.4 Erfgoedcentrum Nederlands Kloosterleven Sint Aegten 149 iii

4 Parl II. Thematic descriptions Brazilian context Migration from the Netherlands Dutch emigration system Government Church organisations Calvinist-Protestant 159 organisations 2.2 Roman Catholic organisations Dutch communities in Brazil 166 Communities before Comunidade Holanda Carambeí 172 Communities after Holambra ABC-kolonies Castrolanda Arapoti Tronco Monte Alegre Rio Grande do Sul/ Santa 188 Catarina 6.1 RSG/SC before Não-Me-Toque Tijuquinhas, Tijucas 192 Secundary settlements by region Mato Grosso: Maracaju Goiás: Rio Verde Minas Gerais MG vóór Frutal, Paracatu, Araxas (1970) Unaí Maranhão: Balsas De groepsmigratie uit Nederlands-Indië De sociaaleconomische ontwikkeling van de kolonies 7 Persoonlijke geschiedenis van migranten Economische ontwikkeling Sociale ontwikkeling De band met Nederland: familie Groepsmigratie en regionale 210 bindingen 7.3 Terug in Nederland 211 Bibliography 212 iv

5 Tables, maps, illustrations Tables Table 1. Historical overview of Dutch group migration to Brazil 2 Table 2 Archive depositories 15 Table 3 Alfabetisch overzicht van Archieven in het Nationaal 24 Archief Table 4 Vermelding over de groepsmigratie vanuit Nederlands- 102 Indië naar Brazilië op andere plaatsen in het Nationaal Archief. Table 5 Calvinist Protestant Netherlands Table 6 Diagram of the Roman Catholic organisation 164 Table 7 Nederlanders in Braziliaanse kolonies Tabel 8 Regionale groepsmigratie 210 Map Brazil 5 Illustrations Illustration 1 Cover: Arrival of Dutch migrants in Santos in the Diário da Noite, São Paulo d.d. 9 June 1960 (NL-HaNA _12170) Illustration 2 Flower culture in Holambra 1977 (Historisch en Cultureel ix Museum van Holambra, SP, Brazilië) Illustration 3 Logo Batavo (photo author 2012) 10 Illustration 4 Cattle breeding at the ICEM School in Castrolanda 12 (NL-HaNA_ _1430) Illustration 5 Letter from Carambeí 1913 (NL-HaNA_ _292) 22 Illustration 6 UWS emigrants SP (NL-HaNA_ _1466) 158 Illustration 7 UWS emigrant in Belo Horizonte 159 (NL-HaNA_ _1466) Illustration 8 School Castrolanda (NL-HaNA_ _1605) 165 Illustration 9 List with names of Dutch colonisers from Gonçalves 175 Júníor in Paraná (NL/HaNA_ _292) Illustration 10 The beginning of Holambra II (NL-HaNA_ _1626) 177 Illustration 11 Museum Holambra I 179 Illustration 12 Milk production Castrolanda (NL-HaNA_ _1430) 182 Illustration 13 Arapoti Ruitervereniging (NL-HaNA_ _1668) 184 Illustration 14 Veiling Holambra (photo author 2012) 202 Illustration 15 School Castrolanda (NL-HaNA_ _1605) 205 Illustration 16 Holambra (photo author 2012) 209 v

6 Abbreviations ABC ADC AEC BA BHIC BuZa C CBTB CCLPL CEC Cg CGK CPJ CSLE CRM DA DAT DBD DEZ DTH DWH/LA EB ECH ECLA ES FEKV GAB GAR GCE GES GEV GKN GO HCO HDC IER IOM IPB IRB ICEM IISH KAB KB KCES KDC KES RKEV KNBTB MA MCH Arapoti, Castrolanda en Carambei in Paraná Archief- en Documentatiecentrum van de Gereformeerde Kerken (Vrijgemaakt, Artikel 31) Algemene Emigratie Centrale Bahia Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum Buitenlandse Zaken Consulaat Christelijke Boeren en Tuinders Bond Cooperativa Central de Lacticinios do Parana Ltda. Christelijke Emigratie Centrale Consulaat-generaal Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerken Christelijke Plattelands-Jongeren Centrale Stichting Landbouw Emigratie Ministerie van Cultuur, Recreatie en Maatschappelijk Werk Drents Archief Departamento de Asistência Técnica Directie Buitenlandse Dienst Directie Economische Zaken Directie Technische Hulpverlening Directie Westelijk Halfrond/ Bureau Latijns Amerika Emigratiebestuur Emigratie Centrale Holland Economische Commissie voor Latijns Amerika (van de VN) Espírito Santo Friesche Emigratie en Kolonisatie Vereeniging Gewestelijk Arbeids Bureau Stadsarchief Rotterdam Gemeenschappelijk Cultureel Erfgoed programma (GCE-programa) Gereformeerde Emigratie Stichting Gereformeerde Emigratie Vereeniging Gereformeerde Kerken Nederland Goiás Historisch Centrum Overijssel Historisch Documentatiecentrum voor het Nederlands Protestantisme Igrejas Evangelicas Reformadas no Brasil Internationale Organisatie voor Migratie Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil Igrejas Reformadas do Brasil Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration International Institute of Social History (IISG) Katholieke Arbeiders Beweging Koninlijke Bibliotheek Katholieke Centrale Emigratie-Stichting Katholiek Documentatie Centrum Katholieke Emigratie Stichting Roomsch-Katholieke Emigratie Vereeniging Katholieke Nederlandse Boeren en Tuindersbond Maranhão Mutual Cultural Heritage vi

7 MG MS MT NA NED NHF NMI NRKM NVL OCW OOS PE PR RHCL RK RNH RS RU SAA SC SER SLN SP SZ UA Vc VU ZA Minas Gerais Mato Grosso do Sul Mato Grosso Nationaal Archief Nederlandse Emigratiedienst New Holland Foundation Nederlands Migratie Instituut Nederlands Rooms-Katholieke Middenstandsbond Nederlandse Vereeniging Landverhuizing Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap Orgaan van Overleg en Samenwerking der Maatschappelijke Emigratie Pernambuco Paraná Regionaal Historisch Centrum Limburg Rooms-Katholiek Noord-Hollands Archief Rio Grande do Sul Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen Stadsarchief Amsterdam Santa Catarina Sociaal Economische Raad Stichting Landverhuizing Nederland São Paulo Sociale Zaken Utrechts Archief Vice-consulaat Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Zeeuws Archief vii

8 Preface by the Algemeen rijksarchivaris When one thinks of migration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, one usually thinks of Australia, Canada and possibly South Africa. Brazil is less well known as a country for emigration. Yet thousands of Dutch people risked the Atlantic crossing. Some fared better than others. A large number of expatriates returned disillusioned to the mother country when they became acquainted with the exotic climate, the mostly uncultivated countryside and the little help offered by the government. The language was also a problem. A hardened core remained and together with compatriots founded a number of communities in the immense Brazilian territory. A number of these Dutch enclaves have played a significant part in Brazilian society to the present day, in particular in the area of innovation in agriculture and horticulture. These communities are also important for the growing trade between the Netherlands and Brazil. Some of these can still be recognised as an entity like Carambeí, Holambra and Castrolanda, while other ones have been more or less absorbed into Brazilian society. Many emigrants and their descendants still feel a connection with the Netherlands even if the Dutch language has been integrated over time with the Portuguese and even if some members of the new generation have never set a foot on Dutch soil. This report describes the theme of 'Dutch Group Migration to Brazil ( ) in broad outlines and further provides an overview of the most important sources. It offers assistance in the research of Dutch migrants to Brazil. What kind of people were they? What experiences did they go through? What was the role of the government and what did the churches do? How did emigration to Brazil fit into the larger framework of 19th and 20th century emigration? We hope that this report will inspire many to consult the archives and look for the individual story of the emigrant. This report has been made possible within the context of the Common Cultural Heritage Programme. The idea of publishing such a guide to archival sources arose from the request made by our partner Arquivo Nacional (the National Archives of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro) to highlight the subject of 'Dutch Emigration to Brazil'. This has developed into a joint project where the Arquivo Nacional investigated the sources within its own borders and the National Archive of the Netherlands commissioned the New Holland Foundation to draw up an inventory. The sources in both countries complement each other. The two projects together create a complete overview of the most important sources on the subject. The Nationaal Archief manages part of the sources listed in this publication. The collection comprises written and photographic material originating from the Ministry of Social and Foreign Affairs among viii

9 others, including the Consulate in Brazil, but also from the Dutch High Commission in Bandung because of the emigration to Brazil by a group of Indonesian Dutch after the war. Emigration is a fascinating subject. The archives contain the personal stories of people who went to look for a different and better life. These stories deserve to be discovered. Martin Berendse National Archivist of the Netherlands Figure 2: Flower culture in Holambra 1977 (source: Historisch en Cultureel Museum van Holambra, SP, Brazil) ix

10 Introduction by the Director-General of the Arquivo Nacional (Brazil) Brazil is a country where the immigration phenomenon is especially significant already in the colonial period to the native population were added Portuguese colonizers and Black slaves, those brought forcefully from Africa to America. Portugal always controlled its American dominium, avoiding people of other countries. Even the French and Dutch military interventions did not have significant repercussions on the population. This situation will be altered with the coming of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil in The 19 th and 20 th centuries will be marked by such an ingress of immigrants seduced by the new opportunities and, at the same time stimulated by problems in their origin countries. Today, practically, there is no Brazilian that does not have, besides Portuguese, some Italian, German, Polish, Dutch, etc. among his/her forefathers. No wonder both the immigration and the records that refer to it have a special interest to all Brazilians, since it touches not only the history of the nation, but their own origin and history, as individuals and families. Therefore, the relevance of this publication, which attends a pertinent question to both Brazil and the Netherlands: those that here are called immigrants are the same that are called emigrants there, and the families involved nowadays have branches in both countries. This work, thus, is especially adequate to integrate the activities that, in the context of the Common Cultural Heritage Programme, are developed by the Arquivo Nacional [Brazilian National Archives] and the Nationaal Archief [Dutch National Archives]. From the part of Brazil, our equivalent initiative will be an inventory guide, which aims at raising, in Brazilian institutions, the record groups about the Netherlands or the Dutch people. Among other initiatives in the same Programme, there is the project, already underway, to build a box to keep records that is appropriate to the local weather. This project is being carried out by the Arquivo Nacional, the Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo [São Paulo State Technological Research Institute] and the consultant on conservation José Luiz Pedersoli Júnior. This Guide, as one of the first fruits of the Brazilian participation in the Common Cultural Heritage Programme, has a special significance. The fact that the main archival institutions in Brazil and in the Netherlands have opted to produce a finding aid, more specifically a guide the most general type, which, besides offering data on the custodian institutions, describes summarily the pertinent archive groups and collections, reaffirms their specificity as memory institutions whose primordial mission is to preserve records and make them accessible to all who so desire. That is strengthened by the chosen theme, which interests all citizens of both countries and all those that study the migratory phenomenon, which has a worldwide proportion. Moreover, the fact of having chosen English as its language surpasses eventual barriers that could be created by the use of Dutch or Portuguese. x

11 By presenting this publication, the Arquivo Nacional not only congratulates and thanks our Dutch colleagues for their research, but also reaffirms its belief in partnerships as a method of work that favours the growth of all involved. Jaime Antunes da Silva Director-General of the Arquivo Nacional (Brazil) xi

12

13 Introduction 1 Background to the guide The Common Cultural Heritage Programme, or MCH programme in Dutch, was officially started on 1 January This programme, initiated and financed jointly by the Ministries of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) and Foreign Affairs (BuZa), is aimed at creating and maintaining access to the common cultural heritage and to revealing the shared past. Besides India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Ghana, Suriname and Russia, Brazil has been identified as a priority country for intensive cooperation during the time of the MCH programme. The history of migration is one of the priorities of the programme 1. Many thousands of Dutch people migrated to Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and many oversees communities were created where the tie with the Netherlands is still felt very strongly indeed. The history of these communities has been written mainly by people who took part in this history and is for the most part relatively unknown in the Netherlands itself. For a long time, emigration to Brazil has stood in the shadow of the much bigger mass emigration of the Dutch to the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The Dutch in Brazil are part of the larger communities of nineteenth and twentieth century immigrants who helped to define the modern face of Brazilian society. Italians and Germans are especially prominent, but although limited as far as numbers are concerned, the Dutch input has a clear presence nevertheless. The agrarian settlements created by Dutch group migration have played a part in the development of modern Brazilian agriculture, including the manufacture of agricultural machinery and equipment and the introduction of innovative techniques. The trademark of the Batavo cooperative is widely known in Brazil and the flowers from Holambra are frequently praised by the Brazilians. The history of Dutch group migration to Brazil is a shared heritage that deserves more prominence. It is therefore a great stride forward in deepening our mutual relations that, together with the New Holland Foundation, the Nationaal Archief has taken the initiative to produce a guide to Dutch sources for the historiography of Dutch group migration to Brazil. 1 For the GCE programme refer to: 1

14 Table1. Historical overview of Dutch group migration to Brazil 1822 Independence of Brazil 1826 Diplomatic relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Kingdom of the Netherlands Group migration from Western Dutch Flanders to Espírito Santo to the predominantly German colonies of Rio Novo, Urucu and Santa Leopoldina, where in the latter a Dutch settlement arises: Comunidade Holanda (Magaraní (ES). In the southern states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina groups of Dutch migrant settle in the mainly German colonies, including: Santa Maria de Soledade (São Vendelino) (RS); Nova Petrópolis (RS); Santa Cruz (RS); Santo Ângelo (Agudo (RS); Dona Francisca (Joinville (SC) 1889 The Federal Republic of Brazil is founded. Immigration is encouraged The Brazilian government adopts a new law which aims to stimulate immigration. The 3,500 Dutch citizens who leave are a small minority of the total influx of migrants. The Brazilian government registered 2,073 Dutch nationals in the port of Rio de Janeiro in , some of them went on to live in the government colonies mentioned below João Pinheiro (Sete Lagoas) (MG) Vargem Grande (Belo Horizonte) (MG) Nova Baden (Belo Horizonte) (MG) Miquel Calmon (PR) Affonso Penna (PR) Gonçálves Júnior ( Irati (Iraty) (PR) Ijuhy (Ijuí) (RS) Commandany (Comandaí- Santo Ângelo) (RS) Guarany (Guaraní das missões) (RS) 1911 Foundation of Carambeí (Carambehy). The colony develops partly due to the influx of Dutch people from the neighbouring government colony Gonçálves Júnior near the city of Iratí. (PR) Many colonies are in difficulties and immigrants have to be repatriated. Dutch people are leaving João Pinheiro (MG) among other places. The Dutch also departed from Gonçalves Júnior, Ijuhy and Guarany etc. The Dutch migrants in ES migrate further inland, including to São João do Garrafão Dutch Migration Act. The group migration by Dutch people comes under a government policy from1936 onwards. The Ministry of Social Affairs starts to implement a pro-active emigration policy. Church organisations such as the Christian Emigration Centre, the Reformed Emigration Union and the Roman Catholic Emigration Union collaborate with the Netherlands Emigration Foundation founded in Plan by the Roman-Catholic Emigration Union for an agricultural colony near Pirassununga (SP) in Brazil. 2

15 1948 Foundation of the Roman Catholic colony Holambra. (Fazenda Riberão) (Municipality of Mogi Mirim) SP 1949 Foundation of Monte Alegre (Dutch Reformed Liberated Article 31) (PR) Dutch settle in Não-me-Toque (Pelotas; partly a separation from Holambra) (RS). N.B. Pelotas is located elsewhere Foundation of Castrolanda in collaboration with Carambeí (PR) Tahim Project, Bage (RS) 1953 Timmer Plan for group migration from Dutch-East Indies to the Amazon area.am 1953 Foundation of Tronco (PR), split from Holambra Urban Worker Scheme (UWS) urban migration to - Salvador (BA) - Goiânia GO - Belo Horizonte (MG) - Curitiba (PR) - Recife. (PE) - Rio de Janeiro (RJ) - São Paulo (SP) - Porto Alegre (RS) Dutch groups from Holambra migrate to Tijuquinhas and Tijucas (SC) 1960 Foundation of Arapoti, linked with Castrolanda and Carambeí (PR) The 1960s and 1970s were characterised by an expansion of the existing agricultural colonies Foundation of HolambraII (Paranapanema) SP Aguai, CasaBranca SP (settlement from Holambra I), Araxa, Andradas, Munhoz MG Fazenda Modêlo (expansion of Castrolanda) (PR) Taquari (expansion of Holambra II (SP) Stability was achieved in 1970 and the settlements begin to expand further. The ABC group of colonies in Paraná: Arapoti, Carambeí and Castrolanda( (PR), Holambra I and II (SP) and colonies such as Não-me-Toque in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expand, including expansion to Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) Closure of Monte Alegre as ground lease (from the Klabin Company) expired (PR) Iratí project: (PR) 3

16 1972 Expansion of Não-me-Toque in the south (Panambi and Campo Real) (RS) N.B. Campo Real was for a time another name for Não Me Toque. A few large-scale farmers from NMT establish themselves in Palmeiras das Missões RS in Tibagi (ABC) (PR) Itararé (ABC) SP 1972 Paracatu (MG) 1972 Maracajú (including from Não me Toque) (MS) 1972 Itiquera/Alto Garças (MT) 1974 Balsas (MA) Rio Verde (including from Holambra I and II) but also immigrant children near Mineiros and near Goiânia (GO) 1985 Unaí (including ex Monte Alegre) / Brasolândia (MG) Novo Eldorado project concerning the reclamation of part of the tropical forest in Brazil by Dutch farmers 1992 End of Dutch government intervention in immigration 1998 Holambra Golden Jubilee 2011 Centenary Anniversary of Carambeí and Ano da Holanda Brazilian states: AM = Amazônas; BA = Bahia; ES = Espirito Santo; GO = Goiás; MA = Maranhão; MG = Minas Gerais; MS = Mato Grosso do Sul; MT= Mato Grosso; PE = Pernambuco; PR = Paraná; RSG = Rio Grande do Sul; SC= Santa Catarina; SP = São Paulo. 4

17 Dutch group settlement in Brazil; o National or State Capital Old colony New colony Secondary settlement The map gives an overview of a number of major migration destinations for Dutch nationals in Brazil in the period between 1822 and 1992 (Haye, Hulsman 2012). (see also the A3 sized map in the annex) 5

18 2 Historical context The group migrations of the Dutch to Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has resulted in a number of communities which have become typical for the image of the Netherlands formed by the modern Brazilian. This guide is limited to the group migrations that took place between 1822 and As for the earlier Dutch migration to Brazil, the reader is referred to the work of Harold van Straaten and the Mauritania project. Dutch group migration during this period must be seen in the broader context of the transatlantic migrations which led to the relocation of approximately 50 million people in the period between 1815 and The Dutch share was limited to about 250,000 persons, 0.5% of the total of transatlantic migrants. Group migration by the Dutch can be divided into two periods, namely the period and the period. In the first period migration was mainly a social phenomenon that arose from the requests by developing countries and was controlled by private emigration agents. The 'pull factor' led to uncontrolled group emigration of Dutch citizens to Brazil, which came in two waves. After independence in 1822, the Brazilian authorities stimulated the immigration of white Europeans to Brazil. Initially it was predominantly the Portuguese, followed by the Spanish and Italians who emigrated to Brazil in the nineteenth century. German immigrants settled from 1824, particularly in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The first Dutch immigrants mingled with this larger influx from around The first group migration was not very successful and Dutch interest in Brazil as an emigration destiny declined. After the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the establishment of the Federal Republic in 1889 the involvement in immigration by the Brazilian authorities led to a second wave of Dutch emigration from 1907 to Immigrants were offered to settle in government colonies where they were given an entitlement to land after a number of years. The passage was paid by the Brazilian government. Hack has estimated that the number of Dutch emigrants to Brazil between 1884 and 1940 numbered 8,200 individuals, 0.2% of the total number of immigrants who arrived in Brazil at that time. The peak in Dutch migration was between 1904 and 1914, when 3,456 persons left for Brazil. Of these departed in 1908 and Brazil was relatively popular among the Dutch in the period , because 6.5% of the total number of Dutch who emigrated in this period chose Brazil as their migration destination. 6

19 Migration in this period was characterised by the huge demand for agrarian migrants. Commercial emigration agents made money from their mediation activities and emigrants were often tempted by false promises. The Dutch immigrants in Brazil were faced with many obstacles. An unfamiliar uncultivated natural environment, a different culture and a foreign climate reduced many of them to penury or even death. Plenty of immigrants were forced to repatriate from Brazil back to the Netherlands between 1910 and 1925 and the popularity of the country as a destination for emigration declined for the second time in spite of the restrictions in immigration into the US in The Dutch government attempted to control emigration through the Wet van 1 juni 1861 houdende bepalingen omtrent den doortogt en het vervoer van landverhuizers (Act of 1 June 1861 with provisions regarding the passage and transport of migrants). The government did not wish to be directly involved with emigration from the Netherlands, but limited itself to the registration of migrants and giving subsidies to the private organisations. After 1900, organisations sprang up which had the aim to protect the interests of migrants. The Nederlandse Vereeniging Landverhuizing NVL (Netherlands Migration Association) was founded on 12 December 1913, followed by the Roomsch-Katholieke Emigratie Vereniging (RKEV) (Roman Catholic Emigration Association) in 1925 and the Gereformeerde Emigratie Vereeniging GEV (Emigration Association of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands) in In the early years there was very little to do for these associations. The flow of migrants declined in the twenties, partly as the consequence of the economic crisis and the restrictions of the immigration countries. Brazil for instance, restricted its immigration in As a result of the crisis, the emigration of the Dutch was increasingly regarded as socially important in the fight against unemployment. This led to the foundation of the Stichting Landverhuizing Nederland SLN (Netherlands Emigration Foundation) on 23 June 1931 whilst the NVL was disbanded. The Migration Act of 1936 can be regarded as pivotal in the change from uncontrolled migration to regulated emigration. The Act restricted the freedom of movement of the private middlemen through the introduction of a licence system. It laid the basis for the post-war emigration system that aimed to guide Dutch citizens in their passage to a new home country and thereby protect society from the pressures of overpopulation. The government became pro-actively involved in the emigration of Dutch people to Brazil. The Ministries of Social Affairs (SZ) and Foreign Affairs (BuZa) were central to this system, in which church organisations also played a significant part. Regulated group migration became the official Dutch norm for Brazil. 7

20 Migration had come to a standstill in the years from 1940 to 1945, but was quickly resumed after the war. 3,618 Dutch citizens emigrated to Brazil between 1946 and 1957, which is approximately 1.2% of the total number of the 307,312 Dutch emigrants in this period. Initially, the emigrants were chiefly supported by the farmers associations which had formed emigration committees and started emigration services. This lead was followed by the labour unions and small businesses and retailers federations, women's institutes, employers and employees associations when emigration from the cities became more significant. There was a gathering of forces and in the end three large emigration centres were created: the Christelijke Emigratie Centrale (Christian Protestant Emigration Centre) in 1938, the Katholieke Centrale Emigratie-Stichting (Roman Catholic Emigration Foundation Centre) in 1949 and the Algemene Emigratie Centrale (General Centre for Emigration) in The priority for these organisations was to provide both spiritual and practical support and follow-up for the emigrant. The rules of the new emigration policy and its implementation were enshrined in the Wet op de Organen voor de Emigratie (Emigration Organisations Act) of This Act liquidated the SLN. The SLN tasks were taken over by the newly instituted Nederlandse Emigratiedienst NED (Netherlands Emigration Services) of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Health. These latter services provided the central administrative and executive body for migration. It consulted with other countries, supervised the emigration application bureaus (approved by the Emigration Board), arranged and oversaw the grants for emigrants and furnished information. An emigration officer in the relevant destination country would investigate the possibilities of establishing Dutch emigrants in his district. He would also have maintained professional contacts regarding emigration matters with the government and other authorities in his district. He subsequently represented the interests of the Dutch immigrants. The Dutch and Brazilian governments signed a treaty in 1950 on emigration which specifically mentioned the agrarian group migration of the Dutch. Whereas there was a strong emphasis on agricultural emigration before the war, so-called urban emigration quickly became more prominent after the war. Only 10% of Dutch emigration after 1954 had an agricultural character. Urban group migration to Brazil was primarily limited to migrants from the Dutch East Indies. In the period 1950 to 1960, several hundreds of Dutch people migrated to cities such as Recife, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo under the auspices of the Urban Workers Scheme (UWS). 8

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