MEERJARENPLAN VOOR EEN IOP-PROGRAMMA OP HET GEBIED VAN ZELF-HERSTELLENDE MATERIALEN

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1 MEERJARENPLAN VOOR EEN IOP-PROGRAMMA OP HET GEBIED VAN ZELF-HERSTELLENDE MATERIALEN PROPOSAL FOR A NATIONAL (DUTCH) INNOVATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMME (IOP) ON SELF HEALING MATERIALS

2 SAMENVATTING Samenvatting Dit rapport beschrijft de doelstellingen, organisatie en begroting van een nieuw Innovatief Onderzoeksprogramma (IOP) op het gebied van Zelf-Herstellende Materialen. Na presentatie op 16 maart 2005 voor de IOP stuurgroep, ontvingen de initiatiefnemers tot het IOP Zelf-Herstellende Materialen het formele verzoek om een compleet onderzoeksen organisatieplan voor een meerjarig IOP uit te werken en in te dienen. Het onderhavige rapport is het resultaat van diverse gesprekken tussen de initiatiefnemers tot dit IOP en de vertegenwoordigers van de Nederlandse materiaal-producerende en materiaal-verwerkende industrie en beoogt de contouren van een IOP Zelf-Herstellende Materialen te schetsen. In het rapport wordt ingegaan op de strategische relevantie van dit nieuwe vakgebied binnen het aandachtsgebied "Hightech systemen en materialen". Aangetoond wordt dat Nederland uitermate goed gepositioneerd is om een belangrijke rol te gaan spelen op dit nieuwe gebied, mits een coherent onderzoek van voldoende omvang opgezet kan worden. Bij de uitvoering van dit onderzoek kan gebruik gemaakt worden van eerdere grote nationale investeringen op het gebied van de materiaaltechnologie via de TTI s NIMR en DPI alsmede van de stimuleringsgelden die de TU Delft beschikbaar gesteld heeft voor de ontwikkeling van zelf-herstellende materialen. Zelf-herstellende materialen (gedefinieerd als materialen voor structurele doeleinden die in staat zijn de tijdens gebruik opgelopen schade geheel zelfstandig, dan wel met een lichte externe stimulus, in-situ te repareren) vormen een recentelijk geïdentificeerde uitbreiding van bestaande technische materialen, die in hun vermogen schade ongedaan te maken, een zeer waardevolle nieuwe eigenschap verkregen hebben. Deze materialen hebben een grote innovatieve, technologische en commerciële potentie en zullen leiden tot een belangrijke verbetering van de duurzaamheid en betrouwbaarheid van de daaruit vervaardigde producten en installaties (zie bijvoorbeeld ons artikel in Intermediair [1], appendix 1). Het IOP onderzoek naar zelf-herstellende materialen, is ingericht langs bestaande materiaalklassen polymeren, metalen, beton en andere materialen voor civiele toepassingen, en composieten en laminaten. Door het onderzoek op deze wijze te groeperen wordt optimaal gebruik gemaakt van de bestaande academische en industriële netwerken. Anderzijds is het thema van Zelf- Herstellende Materialen dermate innovatief dat het ruime mogelijkheden biedt nieuwe industriële activiteit te scheppen. Het initiatief wordt ondersteund door een groot aantal Nederlandse bedrijven en organisaties. Het IOP Zelf-Herstellende Materialen past geheel binnen het Nederlandse regeringsbeleid voor wat betreft technologische en industriële innovatie. De beoogde innovatie op materiaalgebied wordt ook versterkt door enige nieuwe aspecten in projectselectie, projectuitvoering en organisatiestructuur. Bij de uitwerking van dit programma werden de initiatiefnemers geconfronteerd met dusdanig grote buitenlandse belangstelling dat het eigenlijke rapport, met toestemming van SenterNovem, in de Engelse taal geschreven is, teneinde internationale samenwerking te faciliteren en te versnellen. 2

3 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS Table of contents 1 Introduction Sketch of the field Self Healing Materials Ambition of the IOP Self Healing Materials 6 2 Self Healing Materials and the Dutch industry Industrial Support for an IOP Self Healing Materials Application areas and utilisation of Self Healing Materials Absorption of the IOP generated knowledge in the Dutch industry 10 3 Knowledge Infrastructure Participating Partners International Scope 13 4 The Self Healing Research Programme Selection of research themes Project selection procedure and selection criteria 17 5 Knowledge transfer, network formation, embedding and concentration Knowledge transfer Network formation Embedding Concentration 22 6 The organisation of the IOP The Programme Committee The Programme Office Advisory Committees Knowledge Transfer Committee Scenario Committee Project leaders and researchers 28 7 Finance Knowledge development Stimulating other activities Management expenses Relation to other funding sources 32 8 Summary and Conclusions 34 Appendix

4 1 INTRODUCTION In October 2004, the Dutch government defined High Tech Systems and Materials" as one of the focal points for innovation and active stimulation [2]. "High Tech Systems and Materials" covers an area with a yearly added-value of about 18 billion Euro, generating over jobs. Materials development as a precursor to new industrial activity was named explicitly as an important aspect. The relevance of material development as a key ingredient for high tech systems and integrated and multifunctional products was confirmed again in a governmental policy document in 2005 [3]. The strategic relevance of materials technology has been recognised by former governments too, and has led to the creation of successful Leading Technological Institutes in the field of metals (NIMR) and polymers (DPI) as well as a number of successful Innovative Research Programmes (IOP s) in materials sciences. 4

5 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 1 The IOP Programme on Self Healing Materials presented here extends this line of national research policy and aims at opening a totally new field of materials science for the Dutch industry. 1.1 Sketch of the field Self Healing Materials Structural materials play a dominant role in modern life. Wherever a structure or an object has to carry a mechanical load, to keep a constant shape or to guide away forces, structural materials come into play. Due to their load bearing function these materials are required to be very reliable in performing their task. Therefore a classical structural material has always been optimised for strength and toughness, and even then man-made engineering structures are over-dimensioned for added safety. Besides reliability, durability is a key design issue for structural materials; they are usually applied in structures (bridges, satellites, etc) that have to perform their task over a longer period of time in a reliable manner. Usually the durability of a structure requires regular maintenance. Although over time the properties of man-made structural materials have improved enormously, they are still susceptible to damage. Even long before fatal damage e.g. fracture occurs, the material will acquire a lot of invisible damage on a microscopic scale: micro-cracks. These micro-cracks might accumulate into a major catastrophic crack. The classical approach to material improvement is by making the material stronger and hence slowing down the process of micro and macro crack formation. However, sooner or later even the best optimised material will fail due to crack accumulation. A radically different concept in materials optimisation can be found in biological materials: rather than avoiding them, micro cracks are allowed to form but the material has the ability to detect and repair these defects. The material has become Self Healing. This IOP proposal aims at defining a national research programme to impart this self healing ability to man-made structural materials. Self healing ability comes in different grades (see table 1). A minimal self healing material can repair the damage only partially, repairs the damage only once and needs an external trigger to perform the action. Furthermore, the standard properties of minimal Self Healing Materials might be inferior to those of existing materials. On the other hand an ideal self healing material will repair damage fully, totally autonomous and an infinite number of times. Ideally the properties of the self healing material are the same or better than those of existing materials. In developing man-made Self Healing Materials early results are expected to be of the minimal self healing grade. However, in time qualities will shift towards those of ideal Self Healing Materials. The ability of self healing is not yet present in existing man-made materials, as knowledge of the basic mechanisms was not available. However, based on extensive discussions and Minimal Self Healing Material Ideal Self Healing Material - Repairs damage partially - Repairs damage completely - Repairs damage only once - Repairs damage an infinite number of times - Repairs damage by external triggers - Repairs damage autonomously - The self healing material has properties - The material has comparable or better properties inferior to existing materials than existing material - Is expensive - Is cheap Table 1 Definition area of Self Healing Materials 5

6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION studies by the applicants, it is believed that self healing behaviour can be realised in all principal material classes: polymers [5], metals [6], concrete and civil engineering materials [7], and composites and laminates [8]. The possibility to develop self healing mechanisms for all these material classes simultaneously opens up the possibility of cross-fertilisation between various specialist areas: mechanisms well known in one material could be transferred to another material class. A rapid realisation of Self Healing Materials requires a broad and multidisciplinary approach: specialists in materials synthesis, material characterisation, material testing, material modelling, product development and product testing are to be brought together from the beginning of the research. Hence the topic of Self Healing Materials can only be addressed successfully in a multidisciplinary research environment of sufficient size. This field of Self Healing Materials research is now rapidly becoming a completely new branch of materials research. The official birth of the field can be traced back to 2001 when Professor Scott White from the University of Illinois first published his results on self healing in polymer based systems by microencapsulated repair agents [4]. Since then, this area of research is developing rapidly as is demonstrated by the number of patents and publications on Self Healing Materials and related topics. The Netherlands are ideally positioned to become a major academic and industrial player in this field due to an excellent research infrastructure, leading material manufacturing companies and strong academic-industrial networks in existing material classes. The applicants of this IOP proposal, led by the Delft Centre for Materials (DCMat), and with strong academic partners from the other (Technical) Universities Eindhoven, Groningen and Twente, possess the full range of expertise and facilities required to make a dedicated investment into the area of Self Healing Materials over all major material classes successfully. In addition, the Dutch materials industry linked to this IOP project is capable of absorbing the new knowledge and converting it into new industrial activities. The proposed multi-material approach and the collaboration of both fundamental and application oriented groups have drawn a lot of attention and recognition and are unique on the international scene. 1.2 Ambition of the IOP Self Healing Materials The central ambition of the IOP programme on Self Healing Materials can be defined as follows: To make The Netherlands a leading player in the field, to develop new Self Healing Materials and to create new industrial activity. To this aim the research should initially focus on three principal research questions: 1. How to introduce a self healing mechanism in structural materials? 2. How to quantify the effect of self healing in product performance? 3. How to utilise the potential of such a new material in new products? The research should ultimately lead to the conception of a completely new family of reliable, durable and hence sustainable materials. The embedding of this research in the framework of an IOP will guarantee that the newly acquired knowledge will be transferred to industry and utilised for new processes and products. 6

7 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 1 7

8 2 SELF HEALING MATERIALS AND THE DUTCH INDUSTRY 8

9 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER Industrial Support for an IOP Self Healing Materials In 2004 Self Healing Materials was chosen as the new central research theme for the Delft Centre for Materials. Soon it was realised that the scope of the field was such that expansion into a national research programme was necessary. In the preparation of this (national) IOP programme the applicants approached the major players in the material producing and processing industry (DSM, Corus, AkzoNobel, Teijin, Shell, Stork Fokker, BAM, ENCI, ABT) as well as the Dutch institutions responsible for the technological and fundamental research in the principal material classes, polymers (DPI), metals (NIMR), concrete (CUR), technology in general (STW) and TNO. All parties reacted very positively to the initiative, as they recognised the strategic value of Self Healing Materials and the need for a consorted national approach to this new field. The parties contacted all offered help and support to establish this IOP and have been generous in making time available of key personnel. Of particular value has been the strong support from DSM and Corus. It was decided not to concentrate on involving small and medium sized enterprises in research activities during the start-up phase of this programme, but to focus the effort initially on major companies. Smaller companies will be involved at later stages of the programme once the principal concepts have been developed and the research shifts to more application oriented domains. However, in anticipation of the approval of an IOP and to inform smaller Dutch companies and organisations of the potential of Self Healing Materials, a first national conference on Self Healing Materials will be held on Wednesday 26th October 2005 in Delft. The programme for this conference is currently being compiled (www.selfhealingmaterials.nl). In addition, interviews on the national plans for self healing material research in the Netherlands have been given to periodicals such as Intermediair (Appendix 1), Onderzoek Nederland, X-Links, STW annual report, DPI annual report, Chemisch Weekblad and the Dutch national radio. As a result of the start of Self Healing Materials research in The Netherlands, several international companies and institutes showed a keen interest and solicited for modes of co-operation. Currently we have contacts in Australia (CSIRO), France (ONERA, Shell), the United Kingdom (Corus, Rolls Royce, Forgemasters), Germany (MPI, Tenax, Ticona) and Japan (Nippon Steel), discussing directions in Self Healing Materials research and possibilities for future co-operation. 2.2 Application areas and utilisation of Self Healing Materials Clearly, the future application areas of Self Healing Materials are yet to be established and are likely to develop in the near future. However, it is most likely that Self Healing Materials will find at least their application in: - products and installations, which once in operation are difficult to reach, such as high-rise buildings, marine applications, underground piping and wind turbines; - products where a pristine surface appearance under all conditions is important (such as painted surfaces, corrosion protective coatings, thermal barrier coatings); - products, such as aircraft and spacecraft, where reliable use, even in the case of overload or unforeseen modes of loading is of crucial importance; this also applies to completely different application areas such as the long-term storage of nuclear waste; - products with extremely long life-cycles, such as in major infrastructural applications, e.g. flood barriers, tunnels, piping networks, storage facilities for harmful species etc.; - high-tech equipment for the production of high-quality products, machines that are usually operated the clock around, and where down-time due to repair should be 9

10 CHAPTER 2 SELF HEALING MATERIALS AND THE DUTCH INDUSTRY kept to the minimum; - products where major repair actions cause a lot of disturbance to the public, such as road surfaces and energy supply systems. The Scenario Committee is a newly developed tool within this IOP and it will help to introduce newly developed knowledge faster to industrial parties and the market. All such applications are in principle covered in this IOP. While Self Healing Materials could also find application in the medical field, no dedicated action in this direction is foreseen within the context of this IOP as the medical field requires different expertises and networks. However, self healing processes that occur in biological systems will be used as a source of inspiration in the development of man-made Self Healing Materials. To guide the field of Self Healing Materials, in this IOP a special Scenario Committee will be established. This Scenario Committee will initiate and conduct studies about which role Self Healing Materials might play in society. Apart from designating new application areas that could profit from the research outcome of this IOP, they will also identify which new tools should be developed for a successful introduction of these new materials. Here one could think of intrinsically new approaches to designing structures with Self Healing Materials, new philosophies towards risk assessment etc. It is foreseen that the Scenario Committee will produce a number of vision documents for specific areas. Special funds will be set aside for such studies. In this Scenario Committee we will invite leading (industrial) designers, architects, technology watchers etc. It should be mentioned that TNO Environment and Geosciences (TNO Bouw), in consultation with the Delft Centre for Materials, has already launched such a study into the future application of Self Healing Materials in buildings. Discussions with ESA are ongoing to initiate a similar study for the field of space technology. 2.3 Absorption of the IOP generated knowledge in the Dutch industry The IOP instrument, which celebrates its 25th anniversary this year, has been successful in the dissemination of knowledge to the Dutch industry and SenterNovem has developed a range of tools for this purpose. These IOP tools will also be used in an IOP Self Healing Materials. In addition to these tools we also use the industrial network of the knowledge partners (universities, DPI, NIMR, CUR and TNO) as well as the network of experts provided by a.o. the Bond voor Materialenkennis and the Vereniging voor Productietechnologie and related branch organisations. Other networks may be enlisted as the programme develops. A series of national conferences and workshops will be organised during the course of the IOP Self Healing Materials, the national conference on Self Healing Materials of October 26th 2005 being the first of them. To share newly developed knowledge and expertise effectively to smaller sized companies, SME s, a new tool will be developed: IOP-SME workshops. At these yearly one-day workshops, SME s are invited to consult the specialists working within the framework of the IOP programme on all aspects of Self Healing Materials. Together they can assess the possibilities of applying the new knowledge to the benefit of the SME s products and processes. As we will primarily employ experienced researchers (post-docs) during the first years of the IOP programme, we have the expertise and experience to provide such a service. To facilitate the communication at these workshops between SME representatives and researchers within the IOP, every postdoc will follow a 10

11 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 2 dedicated communication training (arranged by SenterNovem). Furthermore, the Delft Centre for Materials in collaboration with the TU Delft Library and the ENF Foundation is developing a tool for Advanced Networking. Within the Delft Centre for Materials a pilot project is being started up to streamline the Advanced Networking concept for Self Healing Materials. In a later stage this Advanced Network will be made available to the IOP Self Healing Materials community as well as to interested industries. Once the Advanced Networking is operational it will lead to a sharing of knowledge between research institutes and industry on an unprecedented scale. Finally, based on the existing industrialacademic collaborations in the field of metals, polymers, cement based materials, composites and laminates, we are convinced that the Dutch materials industry is capable in absorbing the new concepts to be developed and to translate them into new products, thus strengthening their competitive edge on the international markets. 11

12 3 KNOWLEDGE INFRASTRUCTURE 3.1 Participating Partners The academic partnership was established starting with the Delft Centre for Materials (DCMat). The DCMat represents one of the 13 key university research themes selected by the Board (CvB) of the TU Delft, because of its proven quality and strategic relevance. The DCMat brings together the expertise of 22 academic chairs in the field of structural materials, their production, their technology and their applications. The chairs belong to different faculties such as Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Architecture, Industrial Design Engineering, Applied Physics and Chemical Engineering. In the summer of 2004 the DCMat chose Self Healing Materials as its focal research theme. This topic was chosen unanimously after a wide search of suitable materials science topics relevant to a consortium of this size and magnitude and with a high academic as well as industrial relevance. The TU Delft supports this new research line with an annual contribution of approximately 800 k, for a period of up to 6 years. The actual research within this framework is to start in the autumn of Meanwhile, projects on self healing polymers, self healing metallic coatings, self healing concrete and self healing asphalt are already ongoing at the TU Delft. 12

13 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 3 In the preparation of this national IOP proposal the network of academic partners was widened to include TU/e, RUG and UT to expand our collective expertise of polymer synthesis, polymer coatings and surface treatment in general. The contacts were established in consultation with representatives from the existing materials networks DPI, NIMR and PTN. During the course of the programme, partners from other universities are expected to join the programme depending on the research proposals granted. 3.2 International Scope As indicated before, with this initiative and its timing, the Netherlands have an excellent opportunity to establish a leading position in this emerging field. The research on Self Healing Materials was started in 1996 as a result of an initiative of NASA s which contacted a number of high ranking universities (Princeton, Virginia Tech, Harvard) in the USA to explore the possibilities of creating a self healing functionality in man-made materials. The first publications on Self Healing Materials in the academic and technical literature date from The field is emerging rapidly in the USA amongst the top universities. Flagship programme in this field. Currently about 20 researchers are already active in the field, focusing primarily on polymers and metals. The DCMat, in preparation of the launch of its Self Healing Materials initiative, has organised an exclusive international workshop in which the international key researchers in this field shared their views and expertise (Noordwijk, 4-5 April 2005). In the workshop the contours of the IOP programme as proposed here were presented and the international experts expressed their admiration for the scope and internal cohesion of the programme as proposed and also expressed a strong interest to become involved. Even before its launch the DCMat-IOP initiative has attracted a lot of international attention already, with invitations to present the contours of the programme in France, Germany, USA, Norway and the UK. In Europe the field has not yet been widely explored and no initiatives on the scale as proposed in this IOP are known. In Germany a big academic-industrial consortium on Self Healing Materials, but dedicated to coatings only, has been formed under the supervision of the Max Planck Institute, Düsseldorf. In this surface coatings project major industrial players such as Bosch, Siemens, Corus, Airbus, Hydro and Bayer participate. We are in good contact with the principal players in the German consortium. In Australia, the topic of Self Healing Materials has been introduced during a visit in 2004 by a DCMat-TNO delegation to CSIRO, the national Australian research organisation. CSIRO has been quick to realise the strategic value of Self Healing Materials and has launched a so-called 13

14 4 THE SELF HEALING RESEARCH PROGRAMME After several consultation sessions with industrial and academic parties involved, and final input from the members of the proposed Programme Committee, the following matrix approach to the research is being proposed. In this table also the fractional effort per material class and per type of activity is indicated. Given the nature of the rapidly developing field and the wish to be able to respond adequately to successful developments, rather than specifying the planned research effort in each cell of the matrix, only the planned cumulative fractional effort in each column and row is indicated. The actual effort in each cell will depend on the quality of the proposals, the coherency of the pertinent research lines and the degree of success and industrial applicability. It was perceived as undesirable to quantify the effort in each cell a priori. As can be seen the research is organised along the natural material lines of polymers, metals, concrete and related civil engineering materials, and composites and laminates. The latter group of materials was chosen as a separate line as composites and laminates offer additional degrees of freedom to develop self healing behaviour not offered by monolithic materials. Further more multi-material composites and laminates have a special position in the high tech systems industry. The distribution of the fractional effort in each of the material classes is the weighted balance between the (relatively intrinsic) potential of a material class to introduce self healing behaviour, the industrial and economical relevance and the perceived potential to initiate new business. In addition, the availability of local technical and industrial expertise at an internationally recognized high level has been taken into account. Per material class the research activities are grouped in: material development and property appraisal, theory and application. It should be 14

15 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 4 pointed out that all research in this IOP is to be conducted with a broader field of application in mind and is therefore ultimately application oriented. The research in the application column aims at more dedicated research up to the level of simple demonstrator products showing the potential of Self Healing Materials. While coatings offer extra degrees of freedom in realising self healing behaviour due to the presence of a free surface, research on coatings will receive special attention. Notwithstanding this, coating or surface related research will not be set apart formally but is to be included in the appropriate material class to maximise coherency. The materials class that serves as substrate for the coating is the natural choice for positioning coating related research in the research matrix presented in table 2. By organising the cross material interactions in only three domains, high levels of synergy and cohesion can be arranged and safeguarded during the course of the IOP. In consultation with industry about focal points in the research programme it was made very clear that the consortium should focus, especially during the first four years of its existence, on the design and realisation of such new materials as well as the underlying new theory. Application related research should be kept at a minimum level at this stage. The industrial advice and recommendation is implemented in the proposed distribution of cumulative research effort. The organigram of the Self Healing Materials, shown in chapter 6 of this report, provides additional information on how the research in the various fields is monitored. It should be pointed out that notwithstanding the restriction of the research to structural materials in this IOP programme, the total amount of research required to build a strong position is very large, requiring an appropriate budget. As indicated in chapter 7, adequate funding of the research via an IOP programme is crucial for the rapid launch of this research. Additional lines of research funding via universities (1st money stream), research organisations such as DPI, NIMR, CUR, STW and TNO and ultimately industry will be required and are Material class Research focus Material development and property appraisal Theoretical framework Application Fractional effort Polymers 40% Metals 20% Concrete and related materials 25% Composites and hybrid materials 15% Table 2 Organisation of Fractional effort 60% 20% 20% 100% the research programme Self Healing Materials 15

16 CHAPTER 4 THE SELF HEALING RESEARCH PROGRAMME likely to be forthcoming quickly once the IOP programme has started. 4.1 Selection of research themes During this IOP all research fields listed in the table above will be addressed to the degree indicated. However, the order of filling the total research portfolio will be chosen in such a way that we can maximise the creativity and breakthrough potential of the research. As indicated in table 2 the research in the IOP programme is to be divided into clearly defined entities. In the following paragraphs the objectives for each of the entities will be formulated and the industrial context and consequences will be indicated. Following this inventory the concepts behind the allocation of projects will be presented. The aim of the polymer research branch is to provide a fully developed research line from polymer synthesis, via model supported evaluation of the properties, to one or more polymer based demonstrator applications where the added value of self healing behaviour is capitalised. Special focus will be given to polymer design, both at a molecular and supramolecular level. The research at the molecular level will focus on the intrinsic self healing potential of novel polymers based on hydrogen bond networks, ionomers and self assembly. The research at the larger length scale will focus on the encapsulation of reactive substances capable of repairing damage. In this programme approximately equal attention will be paid to self healing in engineering polymers and to self healing in organic coatings. The research in the field of theory will focus both on network formation mechanisms, molecular mobility and on micromechanical studies of intrinsically self healing polymers and polymers employing particle encapsulation. Research on improving the durability of natural materials such as wood by controlled release of reactive agents may also be included in this research line provided the proposals meet the set quality standards. Industrial partners to be involved in this research are the polymer industry in general, with major players such as DSM, DOW, Teijin and AKZO. Also the coatings industry, AKZO Coatings, DSM and others will be heavily involved in this sub-programme. The research in the metals branch is centred along two major lines: the introduction of self healing in protective surfaces (wet corrosion, oxidation and wear protection) and the introduction of damage management in structural materials. Special attention will be given to the realisation of self healing behaviour in aluminium alloys to improve fatigue life and in steels and other metallic systems to improve strength and reliability in non-standard conditions such as fires, earthquakes and impact. The theoretical research in this field is likely to focus on thermodynamic modelling of self healing in metals via controlled precipitation and phase transformations as well as the micromechanical analysis of the effect of self healing on overall properties. At later stages of the first period of the IOP programme some demonstrator project will be encouraged to demonstrate the increased reliability of self healing metals under chemical or mechanical loading. Industrial partners to be involved in the research activities are the metals industry (CORUS, Nedal, Boal etc) and industries that apply metals in critical installations (Stork, Shell, DAF, ASML etc). The research in concrete and related civil engineering materials such as asphalt and bituminous materials, as well as inorganic materials in general, will focus on the development of crack stopping and or crack filling mechanisms during early and later stages of material usage. To this aim routes of adding reactive encapsulation and routes of changing the chemical composition of the cement to enable controlled matrix dissolution and re-precipitation, will be explored. The theoretical work will focus on the crack formation and crack healing in intrinsically brittle materials. In the field of self healing asphalt 16

17 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 4 modification of the binder and fillers to enhance crack recovery is to be explored. There will be a natural link to the research on self healing engineering plastics. Again, the potential of self healing behaviour is to be demonstrated in a small demonstrator project. Industrial partners in this research programme are major companies in the building industry (BAM, ENCI, ATB) as well as companies and organisations involved in road maintenance and road pavement. The research in the field of composites and laminates is to focus on the development of self healing structures making use of the freedom to arrange long distance material transport through the modular structure of these materials. The theoretical research in this domain is likely to focus on the structure optimisation taking the self healing potential as one of the optimisation parameters. The key industrial partners in this research are the fibre producing companies (Teijin, Dyneema), the producers of composite prepregs (Ten Cate) and the aerospace industry working on fibre metal laminates (Stork). While all topics indicated above are bound to appear in the final research programme, a fraction of the research can not be foreseen right now as it is the intention of this IOP to stimulate the participating research groups to propose radically new, but physically justifiable new approaches. A certain fraction of unpredictable research is intrinsic to the nature of an IOP in a new developing field. The allocation of projects will be based on whether they fit within the overall ambition of the IOP programme on Self Healing Materials as well as within in the programme per material class. Duplication of comparable research is to be avoided, but proposals with radically different approaches to the same goals may be granted. In granting the proposals the PC will make sure that ultimately the proposals together will constitute a coherent programme. Stand-alone projects are to be avoided, unless it is clear that these projects explore potential successful routes and can be integrated into other research programmes. It should be stressed that the external and industrial input obtained during the programme definition phase indicated that the potential of the IOP programme is to be used in the best possible manner by favouring breakthrough projects with radically new concepts and approaches over projects building in an incremental way on existing knowledge. 4.2 Project selection procedure and selection criteria Project proposals within the framework of the IOP Self Healing Materials will be collected through an open call for proposals that will be advertised in the appropriate media as well on the IOP website. The IOP secretariat will be responsible for the administrative processing of the applications. To create a coherent research program and to reduce the time spent on formulating research proposal with a lower likelihood of being approved recent IOPs have introduced the instrument of project pre-selection on the basis of pre-proposals. In the pre-proposal stage a number of pre-proposals were selected for further detailing. The number of pre-proposals approved for further detailing being larger than the number of positions to grant. In the final evaluation the best extended proposals were selected and the search for suitable candidates could start. In certain cases it took a long time to find the desired researcher and valuable research time was lost or researchers possibly with lower qualifications were appointed. While in the IOP Self Healing Program such a procedure could be used, we prefer to follow a modification of the current pre-proposal procedure, in which the quality of the researcher and his/her availability plays a substantial role in 17

18 CHAPTER 4 THE SELF HEALING RESEARCH PROGRAMME granting the projects too. By making the project selection not only on the basis of the project proposal itself but on the qualifications of the researcher short listed for the project as well, a major step forwards in the quality of the programme can be obtained. This is also substantiated in the successful NWO VENI-VIDI-VICI program. Furthermore, using the new protocol, the likelihood of projects staying idle for a long time after being granted, is minimised. This new procedure is detailed below. Decision 1 phase Up to a publicly announced final submission date project pre-proposals of maximum three A4 pages long (and of a predefined format) can be submitted to the IOP secretariat. Out of the pre-proposals received the Programme Committee will select those project proposals for further detailing which individually and collectively best meet the selection criteria detailed below and fit within the research matrix given in table 2. Projects with a positive decision will go to the next step in the procedure. Projects with a negative decision will not be handled in later stages of the procedure. The number of selected pre-proposals will not exceed the final number of positions to be granted in that element of the research matrix by a factor 1.5. Each approved pre-proposal is allocated to one of the Advisory Committees. The validity of a positive decision is limited to a period of 12 months, or until the total number of projects to be granted in the pertinent element in the matrix is reached, whichever comes first. Finally, all applicants and the AC s are informed about the decision by the PC. Definition and search phase In the definition and search phase the project applicants start simultaneously with the detailed formulation of the project proposal (max. 10 pages) as well as the search for a suitable researcher. The costs for finding a suitable candidate (travel expenses, hotel, paperwork etc.) are financed from the Research Budget of the IOP Self Healing Materials. By advertising the vacant positions collectively the impact of the IOP program on the international research community will be enhanced. The final research proposal together with the CV and relevant details of the candidate researcher for the project are sent to the IOP secretariat. On a monthly basis the combined proposals and CV s are sent to appropriate Advisory Committee for final review. Decision phase The Advisory Committee advises the chairman of the Programme Committee within four weeks after receiving the final proposal and CV of the proposed researcher on granting the project using the criteria described below. The PC informs the IOP secretariat about its decisions and projects approved can start immediately. The IOP secretariat informs the applicants of approved projects and the applicants of pending project proposals on the number of project positions still available. The procedure proposed here combines the benefits of a rigid time-structured procedure as well as an opportunity driven procedure. Projects will ultimately be filled within a known context, but at the same time competition Figure 1 The tender procedure within the IOP Pre-proposal Pre screening phase Programme yes Committee Start search for candidates and write extended proposal Project approval Advisory Committee yes Project can start immediately Self Healing no no Materials 18

19 IOP SELF HEALING MATERIALS CHAPTER 4 between the applicants to search for ideal candidates to strengthen the proposal is stimulated. The criteria for assessment of pre-proposals are to be refined in further discussions within the PC but should contain the following elements: a. Quality and innovativeness of the proposal in relation to its self healing content. In judging the self healing content of the proposed research, a derivative of the scale minimal ideal self healing, indicated in table 1 is to be used. Initially, proposals with a break-through approach will be favoured over projects which increase our knowledge in an incremental way. In the second call for proposals more attention will be given to chances of technical realisation. b. Contribution of the proposal to the formation of a coherent research line on Self Healing Materials, within the context of the IOP, given the constraints imposed by the planned fractional effort per material class and per activity group. c. Relevance for Dutch industry and the perspectives on application of the results in the near future. Secured commitment of an industrial partner is an advantage at this stage, but not a prerequisite. should be consistent in the approach and based on a sound analysis of the current knowledge and a defendable hypothesis for it innovative component. The projects should be realistic in the progress to be reached. The track record of the applicant in innovative research will be taken into account as well. The projects proposals should also indicate which type of additional research to be performed by other parties would be desirable to make the rate of progress higher. Collaboration with foreign institutes already working on self healing materials is stimulated, but a major part of the work is to be done in the Netherlands b. Relevance for Dutch industry and the perspectives on application of the results in the future. Secured commitment of an industrial partner is an advantage, but not a prerequisite. c. Professional expertise and qualifications of the proposed researcher in terms of skills, competences and productivity manifested by the number and level of publications or similar works, and other signs of quality, relevant to the research proposed. Candidates with a demonstrable expertise in creating radically new research lines should receive priority. As Self Healing Materials are intrinsically aimed at improving both durability and reliability, these criteria are not named explicitly here, as they will play a major role in all and every Self Healing Material proposal. The criteria for assessment of the combination of a final project proposal and the CV of the proposed researcher are to be refined in further discussions within the PC and the AC s, but should contain the following elements: a. Scientific and technological quality and innovativeness of the proposal in relation to its self healing content. The projects Finally, it should be mentioned that we propose to nominate some of the leading Dutch scientist in the field as well as representatives of industrial parties with major interest in the development of these materials in the PC and the various AC s. This will enable us to make the best possible strategic decisions in this rapidly emerging field in which many important decisions are to be made at the right time. The conflicts of interests which may occur in voting on project selection will be solved by carefully detailing the voting procedures in separate documents. 19

20 5 KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER, NETWORK FORMATION, EMBEDDING AND CONCENTRATION Launching an IOP on Self Healing Materials will lead to the rapid establishment of the field of Self Healing Materials as an important area within the Dutch research community. In order to maximise the start-up rate of the programme, and to have increased flexibility in readjusting the programme, to terminate unsuccessful project routes in a natural way and to explore as many different approaches as possible, we intend to start the programme by hiring post-doctoral researchers on 2 year contracts. At later stages of the IOP programme (in particular during the second 4 year period) a shift towards 4-year PhD projects is foreseen. The knowledge transfer and embedding of the topic will not only be achieved by reports etc. but also by making a new generation of well-trained researchers and students available to the industry. 20

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