# Provenance in Databases

Save this PDF as:

Maat: px
Weergave met pagina beginnen:

## Transcriptie

1 Provenance in Databases Maxime Debosschere Master Thesis School of Information Technology Hasselt University / transnational University Limburg Abstract An overview of the concept of provenance across various disciplines is followed by an analysis of the different facets related to provenance in databases. Two important models for exchanging provenance information, OPM and PROV, are discussed and compared with an emphasis on their temporal aspects. A reasoning tool for PROV instances is presented.

2 Contents Introduction 3 1 What is Provenance? Art and antiques Achival Science Archaeology Geology Databases Types of Provenance Importance Complications OPM and PROV OPM Model Description Formal Account PROV Model Description Inferences and Constraints OPM vs. PROV Reasoning Application Front-end Back-end A Summary in Dutch 31 A.1 Wat is Provenance? A.1.1 Provenance in Databanken A.2 OPM en PROV A.2.1 OPM A.2.2 PROV A.2.3 OPM vs. PROV A.3 Redeneertool A.3.1 Front-end A.3.2 Back-end References 42 2

3 Introduction The subject of this thesis is Provenance in Databases, an interesting and useful topic which deservedly receives a lot of research attention. Provenance, in essence, deals with the storage and retrieval of data about data (metadata) which helps to explain its origin. This, in turn, has many useful applications, ranging from data quality and trustworthiness assessment to license verification. The research question is In what ways can provenance information be represented and reasoned about? It is deliberately open to allow for a domain study which encompasses the various aspects related to this subject, both from a theoretical as from a practical point of view. The thesis consists of three chapters, the first of which explores the notion of provenance across various fields (art and antiques, archival science, archaeology, geology) before arriving at databases. Different definitions and types of provenance in the context of databases are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of this subject is illustrated by means of examples and usage benefits, without neglecting possible downsides. The second chapter is devoted to two popular models for the storage of provenance information: OPM and PROV. These models are analysed and compared in detail, with an emphasis on their temporal aspects. A part of this thesis was putting the theory into practice by building a reasoning tool which, given a PROV instance, is able to reflect on its temporal properties. The final chapter provides insights on how this tool was developed. A summary in Dutch is included as an appendix. I wish to thank my family, promotor prof. dr. Jan Van den Bussche, and assessors prof. dr. Bart Kuijpers and dr. Tom Ameloot for their support and advice. Maxime Debosschere Diepenbeek, June

4 Chapter 1 What is Provenance? The word provenance stems from the Middle French provenir, meaning come forth, arise. Its modern meaning is (1) origin, source; (2) the history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the different interpretations of provenance across those fields in which it is a prominent concept. 1.1 Art and antiques The roots of provenance research lie in the world of art and antiques. Relevant information may vary from purchase receipts, exhibition catalogues and private correspondence to expert certifications and the chemical composition of paint. 1 A large number of art institutes, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art 2 (New York) and The Cleveland Museum of Art, 3 have research groups devoted to the investigation of ownership history. The International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR) defines provenance as follows: 4 The provenance of a work of art is a historical record of its ownership, although a work s provenance comprehends far more than its pedigree. The provenance is also an account of changing artistic tastes and collecting priorities, a record of social and political alliances, and an indicator of economic and market conditions influencing the sale or transfer of the work of art. A detailed history of a work of art yields several significant benefits: Evidence of authenticity. Provenance information should be seen as a contributing factor rather than solid proof. Forgers might falsify the provenance of a work by reproducing accompanying documents such as receipts of sale. The infamous counterfeiter John Drewe, for example, managed to 1 [Retrieved February ] 2 [Retrieved January ] 3 [Retrieved January ] 4 [Retrieved January ] 4

5 sell numerous forged paintings to various high-profile art connoisseurs by creating false accompanying provenance documents (Landesman, 1999). Verified additional information. Accurate documentation may shed light on the artist, creation date or portrayed subject. Increased value. Art collectors are willing to pay considerably more for art items of which the history is confirmed (Sullivan, 2005). Proof of legitimate ownership. The declassification of World War II records in the 1990 s sparked a sudden increase in public awareness regarding stolen art in Europe during the Nazi era ( ) and consequently many restitution claims by rightful owners emerged. This newfound awareness was further augmented by The Washington Conference on Holocaust- Era Assets, 5 in which a desire was stated for widespread efforts to identify unrestituted Nazi-confiscated art and to make relevant provenance records and archives accessible to researchers (Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, 1998). Database portals related to this issue are The Project for the Study of Collecting and Provenance (PSCP) 6 by The Getty Research Institute, Nazi-Era Provenance Internet Portal, 7 The Central Registry on Information on Looted Cultural Property , 8 and The Art Loss Register. 9 Several detailed examples of resolved Nazi-era restitution claims on the Museum of Fine Arts 10 (Boston) website demonstrate how a complete history of a work of art can help to determine its legitimate owner. Provenance enjoys a widespread attention in the world of music instruments. For, inter alia, the benefits given above, classical music aficionados are interested in knowing previous owners and players of particular instruments. Research has also been conducted to determine the age and geographical origin of wood from stringed instruments (Bernabei and Bontadi, 2011). 1.2 Achival Science In its Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, the Society of American Archivists (SAA) defines provenance as 1. The origin or source of something Information regarding the origins, custody, and ownership of an item or collection. 11 Clearly, only the second meaning is tailored to the archival community. The glossary further states: Provenance is a fundamental principle of archives, referring to the individual, family, or organization that created or received the items 5 [Retrieved January ] 6 [Retrieved January ] 7 [Retrieved February ] 8 [Retrieved January ] 9 [Retrieved January ] 10 [Retrieved February ] 11 [Retrieved February ] 5

6 in a collection. The principle of provenance or respect des fonds dictates that records of different origins (provenance) be kept separate to preserve their context. The following fragment (Gilliland-Swetland, 2000) makes clear that the concepts of principle of provenance and respect des fonds are similar but not identical: The principle of respect des fonds was first codified in 1839 in regulations issued by the French minister of public instruction. The principle stated that records should be grouped according to the nature of the institution that accumulated them. In 1881, the Prussian State Archives issued more precise regulations on arrangement that defined Provenienzprinzip, or the principle of provenance. The principle of provenance has two components: records of the same provenance should not be mixed with those of a different provenance, and the archivist should maintain the original order in which the records were created and kept. 1.3 Archaeology In the field of Archaeology the words provenance and provenience are seemingly used interchangeably. The Program on Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials (ATAM), a division of the Illinois State Archaeological Survey (ISAS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, mentions three published definitions: 12 Provenience: the place of origin of a specimen (Jolly and White, Physical Anthropology and Archaeology 1995:468) Provenience (provenance): the geographical or geological origin or source of an artifact (Rice, Pottery Analysis 1987:480) Provenience: archaeological context, or the horizontal and vertical position within the surrounding sediments in an excavation (Renfrew and Bahn, Archaeology: Theories Method and Practice 1996:46) There are various discussions on public debate platforms about the difference of context between both words. 13 Some archaeologists suggest that the words can be used completely interchangeably and that the difference is merely linguistic between Americans and Europeans. Others claim that provenience specifically refers to the location and conditions in which an artifact was found whereas provenance relates to the history of an object in terms of ownership. More interpretations exist and it appears that there will be no consensus on this matter soon. 12 ceramicsprovenance.html [Retrieved April ] 13 htm [Retrieved April ] 6

7 1.4 Geology The Encyclopedia of Science & Technology entry for provenance in the field of (sedimentary) geology is as follows (Ingersoll, 2007): (... ) all characteristics of the source area from which clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks are derived, including relief, weathering, and source rocks. A review on novel sedimentary provenance techniques contains a more extensive definition (Haughton et al., 1991): The study of sedimentary provenance interfaces several of the mainstream geological disciplines (mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology, sedimentology, igneous and metamorphic petrology). Its remit includes the location and nature of sediment source areas, the pathways by which sediment is transferred from source to basin of deposition, and the factors that influence the composition of sedimentary rocks (e.g. relief, climate, tectonic setting). 1.5 Databases The most recent contextualization of the word provenance occurred in the field of databases. When retrieving information from a database it might be interesting to know exactly where the data came from, what changes it underwent and what processes caused those changes. Provenance aims to answer those questions, which in turn aids the user in assessing the quality and reliability of the data. Synonyms for database provenance are lineage or pedigree, although the former is often exclusively used in the context of why-provenance (which is discussed later). The first publication on provenance dates back from 1986, but research didn t really take off until the early 2000 s (Moreau, 2010). The first provenance workshop took place in 2002 and today it is a trending topic which enjoys a considerable research interest. This is not surprising as the need for reliable information has never been higher. It is important to note that the term database should be seen in a bigger context than the traditional closed systems: it encompasses all known data storage facilities, whether they are open or closed, structured or unstructured. In a way the entire World Wide Web could be regarded as a giant database. Some literature solely focuses on provenance technology in function of traditional databases, the Web or e-science, but this distinction is not made in this thesis Types of Provenance Multiple descriptions or definitions for provenance have been proposed, some of which are more detailed than others. Below are just a few of many interpretations. Data provenance sometimes called lineage or pedigree is the description of the origins of a piece of data and the process by which it arrived in a database. (Buneman et al., 2001) 7

8 Information concerning the origin of data. (Buneman et al., 2007) The details regarding the sources and origins of information (e.g., author, publisher, citations, etc.) are referred to as provenance, and they serve as a means to evaluate trust. (Artz and Gil, 2007) Provenance information describes the origins and the history of data in its life cycle. Such information (also called lineage) is important to many data management tasks. (Cheney et al., 2009a) The provenance of digital objects represents their origins. (Gil et al., 2013) The W3C PROV Incubator Group acknowledges that there can t be allencompassing definition of provenance and developed an application-specific working definition instead (Gil et al., 2010): Provenance of a resource is a record that describes entities and processes involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing that resource. Provenance provides a critical foundation for assessing authenticity, enabling trust, and allowing reproducibility. Provenance assertions are a form of contextual metadata and can themselves become important records with their own provenance. Several specific types of provenance exist. A first important distinction, that between where- and why-provenance, was made in The former kind asks where a given piece originated from and is important for understanding the source of errors in the data, and for carrying annotations through database queries (Buneman et al., 2001). Why-provenance, on the other hand, provides an explanation for the existence of a piece of data in a database. A third notion, how-provenance, was devised later and allows for a mathematical approach to determine how source tuples contributed to a result (Green et al., 2007). It has been shown that why-provenance can be extracted from how-provenance (Cheney et al., 2009a). Depending on which data is considered useful, a few perspectives emerge. One such perspective is process-based, in which the history of a piece of data is viewed in terms of the process that led to that piece of data (Moreau, 2010). It captures the actions and steps taken to generate the information in question (Gil et al., 2013). This definition is very broad as it may encompass many different aspects, ranging from the executed software, input data and interacting users to the electricity used in running the system (Moreau, 2010). Other perspectives focus on agents (entities involved in creating or manipulating data) or objects (the source artifacts from which a combined artifact was made) (Gil et al., 2013). A lesser known provenance mechanism is storage in annotations. In some ontologies, for example Dublin Core, provenance-related information, such as author, creation date and version, can be saved (Moreau, 2010). Efforts are being made in establishing a mapping between the Dublin Core terms vocabulary and the PROV-O ontology. 14, [Retrieved April ] 15 [Retrieved April ] 8

9 1.5.2 Importance Some of the definitions above already touched upon the advantages of provenance. Its usefulness has also been demonstrated by means of 33 use cases (Gil et al., 2010). They cover a broad range of different topics and were reviewed and assembled into three flagship scenarios. These illustrate several of the possibilities which provenance has to offer: A news blog gathering news from various information sources: checking license policies, integrating and versioning unstructured content such as documents and media, aggregating and tracking content usage, checking authority, verifying original sources,... Disease outbreak analysis: integrating data from different sources (which may use different representations), archiving and reusing data, justifying decisions made based on data, allowing for analysis repeatability,... Business contract: comparing realisations to obligations, understanding object derivations, verifying authority,... Besides these case-specific utilities there are numerous global benefits. One of the key advantages provided by provenance information is that it enables the evaluation of data trustworthiness. Although trust is a multifaceted notion, it often revolves around the reliability of the information source (Artz and Gil, 2007). Knowledge of the data origin and subsequent processing enables users to place the data in context, which in turn provides the user with the means to make a trust judgment (Jagadish and Olken, 2004). In the specific case of the Semantic Web, provenance establishes a relation between people and information, while the web contains social network data to infer trust between people (Artz and Gil, 2007). Hence, provenance can be regarded as a platform for trust algorithms on the web (Groth et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2005). Very closely related to examining data trustworthiness is data quality assessment: the former focuses on the origin and processing of data while the latter has more to do with the information itself. Quality, as with trust, is no univocal notion. One publication vaguely describes it as fitness for use (Tayi and Ballou, 1998), but another study defines several quality dimensions: syntactic and semantic accuracy, completeness, timeliness, consistency, and dimension trade-offs (Scannapieco et al., 2005). Another investigation identifies 16 different data quality dimensions (Pipino et al., 2002), which illustrates the ambiguity surrounding the concept of data quality. Datasets in the public domain are prone to errors and this can have grave consequences. In genome databases, for example, faulty data can cause a considerable economic and medical impact (Müller and Naumann, 2003). It is therefore important to develop techniques to determine the level of quality, and provenance has been proposed as a data quality metric (Simmhan et al., 2006). Its potential utility in the quality assessment process is well-defined (Simmhan et al., 2005): Data quality of source data is important since errors introduced by faulty data tend to inflate as they propagate to data derived from 9

11 Chapter 2 OPM and PROV The first chapter outlined the basic types and benefits of provenance in databases. The remainder of this thesis focuses on the practical aspects of provenance storage and retrieval. This chapter is an analysis of two popular models for provenance information. 2.1 OPM Model Description OPM, which stands for Open Provenance Model, was conceived and developed during a series of public challenges and workshops. The first Provenance Challenge aimed to understand the expressiveness and potential of different systems (Moreau et al., 2008). The succeeding challenge was an attempt at reaching system interoperability. 1 First drafts of the OPM specification were developed during workshops in August 2007 and June 2008, and a third challenge focused on testing these new blueprints (Simmhan et al., 2011). Based on the findings of these tests a new version (v1.1 ) of the model was released. The fourth and last challenge was to apply OPM to broad end-to-end scenarios. 2 Note that, unless otherwise indicated, all information in this subsection is extracted from v1.1 of the Open Provenance Model Core Specification (Moreau et al., 2011). OPM aims to address the following needs: To allow provenance information to be exchanged between systems, by means of a compatibility layer based on a shared provenance model. To allow developers to build and share tools that operate on such provenance model. To define provenance in a precise, technology-agnostic manner. 1 [Retrieved May ] 2 [Retrieved May ] 11

12 To support a digital representation of provenance for any thing, whether produced by computer systems or not. To allow multiple levels of description to coexist. To define a core set of rules that identify the valid inferences that can be made on provenance representation. The primary purpose of OPM is data exchange and there are no guidelines on how provenance should internally be stored in systems. Furthermore no particular digital representations are endorsed, although implementations in various formats, including XML, 3 exist. An OPM instance can be regarded as a directed graph which depicts causal dependencies (arrows) between the various things (nodes). Each node is one of three types: Artifacts (denoted with ellipses): Immutable piece of state, which may have a physical embodiment in a physical object, or a digital representation in a computer system. A keyword here is immutable: while it is recognised that an artifact can have multiple states, the model only captures one specific snapshot from the past. Hence, multiple states require multiple artifacts. The definition further implies that OPM can be employed to represent real-world things (e.g., a car). Processes (denoted with rectangles): Action or series of actions performed on or caused by artifacts, and resulting in new artifacts. As with artifacts, these need not be digital (e.g., driving). Agents (denoted with octagons): Contextual entity acting as a catalyst of a process, enabling, facilitating, controlling, or affecting its execution. People can be agents (e.g., a race pilot). Edges between the nodes defined above depict the causal dependencies. Source nodes are effects and target nodes are causes. Depending on the types of nodes it connects, several dependencies are possible (see Figure 2.1): A used edge from a process P to an artifact A depicts a causal relationship in which P required the availability of A. A wasgeneratedby edge from an artifact A to a process P depicts a causal relationship in which A required the availability of P. This implies that A was generated after the begin of P. A wastriggeredby edge between two processes depicts a causal relationship in which a process P 2 required the availability of another process P 1. This implies that P 1 began before P 2 was able to complete. A wasderivedfrom edge from an artifact A 2 to an artifact A 1 depicts a causal relationship in which A 2 required the availability of A 1. This implies that A 1 was generated before A 2. A wascontrolledby edge between a process P and an agent Ag depicts a causal relationship in which Ag required the availability of P. 12

13 Figure 2.1: Different dependencies in OPM. The wastriggeredby and wasderivedfrom edges are actually summaries that enable process-based and an artifact-based views, respectively. The following derivations, referred to as completion rules, can be applied. The occurrence of a wastriggeredby edge from a process P 2 to another process P 1 implies the existence of an artifact A which is used by P 2 and generated by P 1. Hence, it is always legal to introduce an artifact between two directly connected processes. The reverse action, that of eliminating an artifact, is allowed as well. In the case of wasderivedfrom edges only one operation is allowed: process introduction. This is because an artifact A 2 derived from another artifact A 1 implies the existence of a process P which generated A 2 and used A 1. The removal of a process in between two artifacts, however, is not always justified: a process might have connected two artifacts in different contexts, which means that a causal dependency between them might lack. In order to find out if an object indirectly contributed to a future result, i.e., indirect causes, multi-step inferences can be constructed. These inferred edges may be depicted in graphs by dashed lines. A multi-step wasderivedfrom edge a 1 a 2 is a transitive closure of wasderivedfrom edges and expresses that artifact a 2 had a direct or an indirect effect on artifact a 1. A multi-step used edge p a expresses that process p used artifact a or an artifact derived from a. A multi-step wasgeneratedby edge a p expresses that artifact a, or an artifact from which a was derived, was generated by process p. A multi-step wastriggeredby edge p 1 p 2 expresses that process p 1 used an artifact which was directly or indirectly generated by process p [Retrieved May ] 13

14 It is mandatory to define a role for each used, wasgeneratedby, and was- ControlledBy edge. This is because more than one of these edges might be connected to a process (e.g., three used edges between a process and an artifact indicate that the process required the availability of the same artifact three times). These roles, which are tags attached to the dependency arrows, help to distinguish multiple edges between the same components. They do not have semantic meanings, nor do they exist outside their local scopes. When a role is unknown the reserved value undefined can be used. Both in the real and digital world, time-related information is ubiquitous: a document was created at x, a train arrived at y, someone launched a computer program at z,... It is only logical that OPM offers the ability to include this information into the graph as well. This is possible by creating optional timestamps indicating the creation and use times of artifacts, and the begin and end times of processes. All the different dependencies can be extended with their time of occurrence, except for wascontrolledby which holds both begin and end times. Based on available time observations it is possible to perform some basic reasoning: an artifact must exist before being used, a process must begin before generating an artifact,... Note, however, that this temporal information cannot be utilized to determine causality, as it s perfectly possible to model impossible scenarios which conflict with the basic reasoning assumptions. OPM allows multiple instances, of different granularities, to overlap. Such descriptions are called accounts and their members are those components which refer to their unique account identifiers. Every OPM component can be a member of zero, one or multiple accounts. The OPM annotation framework permits the addition of extra information, such as subtypes or descriptions, to graphs, nodes, edges, accounts, roles, or annotations. Virtual collections of OPM instances can be created by attaching the graphs to profiles. These facilitate the enforcement of community-specific best practices and usage guidelines Formal Account The lack of a formal semantics in OPM was addressed with the development of a formalized notion of an OPM graph and the addition of a temporal theory. Only a subset of OPM without agents was considered. The information in this section was extracted from A Formal Account of the Open Provenance Model (Kwasnikowska et al., 2010). Edges with roles are now referred to as precise edges, denoted as x r y, with r being the role. This r can be replaced by a! in case the role itself is irrelevant. Edges without a role are imprecise edges. OPM graphs are legal if they meet two conditions. First, every artifact is involved in at most one precise wasgeneratedby edge. Second, for every precise wasderivedfrom edge A r B, a process P exists such that A! P and P r B. Note that the role from the derivation equals the one from the use. This construction is called a use-generate-derive triangle (see Figure 2.2) and it allows 14

15 Figure 2.2: A use-generate-derive triangle (A, B, P, r). for ascertaining that A was directly influenced by B. Its notation is (A, B, P, r). In the formalized notion, the different timepoints (the start time of a process, the end time of a process, the creation time of an artifact, the usage time of an artifact) are written as begin(p ), end(p ), create(a), and use(p, r, A), respectively, where A is an artifact, P a process and r a role. They are referred to as temporal variables. A temporal interpretation of an OPM instance is a triple (T,, τ) in which: T is a set of OPM timepoints, is a partial order on T, τ maps the set of all temporal variables to T, i.e., it contains every implied time constraint. Recall that time information is optional. If every time placeholder in an instance contains a value, only one temporal interpretation for that instance exists. The number of possible interpretations goes up as the number of omitted timestamps increases. It is perfectly possible for a legal OPM graph with a nonsensical temporal interpretation to occur. Before being able to verify the validity of a specific interpretation, several more aspects of OPM need to be formalized. An expression of the form u v, where u and v are both temporal variables, is called an inequality. A temporal interpretation (T,, τ) satisfies an inequality u v if τ(u) τ(v). The temporal theory of an OPM instance is the set of inequalities expressed by 8 axioms: AX 1: For every process: begin(p ) end(p ). AX 2: For every precise wasgeneratedby edge A create(a) end(p ).! P : begin(p ) AX 3: For every precise used edge P r A: begin(p ) use(p, r, A) end(p ) and create(a) use(p, r, A). AX 4: For every imprecise wasderivedfrom edge A B: create(b) create(a). AX 5: For every imprecise wasgeneratedby edge A P : begin(p ) create(a). AX 6: For every imprecise used edge P A: create(a) end(p ). 15

16 AX 7: For every wasinformedby edge P Q: begin(q) end(p ). AX 8 (triangle axiom): For every use-generate-derive triangle (A, B, P, r): use(p, r, B) create(a). A temporal interpretation (T,, τ) of an instance which satisfies every inequality from the temporal theory is called a temporal model of that instance: the ordering of timepoints is completely valid. The inequalities which make up the temporal theory all apply to direct (single-step) edges. However, new inequalities can be inferred from this. As an example, consider an imprecise used edge P A and an imprecise wasgeneratedby edge A Q. From axiom 6 follows that create(a) end(p ) and from axiom 5 follows that begin(q) create(a). From these two inequalities a new inequality can be inferred: begin(q) end(p ). In general, when an inequality u v is satisfied in every temporal model of an instance, it is called a logical consequence of that instance. An inequality can be inferred by repeatedly applying transitivity, but a much more effective way is to simply look at graph patterns. Indeed, a fixed set of rules (inequalities that make up graph patterns) allows to graphically determine whether or not an inequality belongs to the temporal theory. The building blocks which make up the graph patterns are discussed first: edge-inference rules. These rules create new inferences based on existing inequalities. They are defined as multi-step edges in the OPM core specification and express a direct or indirect influence of one object over another. Four edgeinference rules are trivial: existing wasderivedfrom, wasgeneratedby, used and wasinformedby edges in the OPM graph (regardless of the presence of roles) are also inferred edges. Four other, non-trivial, edge-inference rules are listed. (Fig. 2.3a): A B and B C infers A C (wasderivedfrom). (Fig. 2.3b): A B and (B P or B! P ) infers A P (wasgeneratedby). (Fig. 2.3c,d): A B and (P A or P (used).! A or A! P ) infers P B (Fig. 2.3e,f): A Q and (P A or A! P ) infers P Q (wasinformedby). Figure 2.3: Non-trivial edge-inference rules. From (Kwasnikowska et al., 2010). 16

17 It is now possible to define graph patterns to perform temporal inferences. Formally, an inequality u v over the temporal variables of a legal OPM graph, where u v, is a logical consequence of that graph if and only if (i) it already belongs to the temporal theory, i.e., the axioms, or (ii) if it matches one of the following inequalities: 1. create(b) create(a), for an inferred wasderivedfrom edge A B. This incorporates AX begin(p ) create(a), for an inferred wasgeneratedby edge A P. This incorporates AX create(a) end(p ), for an inferred used edge P A. This incorporates AX begin(q) end(p ), for an inferred wastriggeredby edge P Q. This incorporates AX create(b) use(p, r, A), for a used edge P r A and an inferred wasderivedfrom edge A B. 6. begin(q) use(p, r, A), for a used edge P r A and an inferred wasgeneratedby edge A Q. 7. use(p, r, C) create(a), for a use-derive-generate triangle (B, C, P, r) and an inferred wasderivedfrom edge A B. 8. use(p, r, B) end(q), for a use-derive-generate triangle (A, B, P, r) and an inferred used edge Q A. 9. use(p, r, B) use(q, s, A), for a use-derive-generate triangle (C, B, P, r) and a used edge Q s A, where (i) A = C or (ii) A C. These rules have been proven to be both sound (they represent valid inferences) and complete (every inequality that is a logical consequence of the axioms, but which is not included in the axioms, can be inferred by one of the patterns). Axioms 4 to 7 no longer have to be considered when deriving temporal inferences since this list incorporates them. Figure 2.4 presents a visual representation of the graph patterns. 17

18 Figure 2.4: Graph patterns for deriving temporal inferences. From (Kwasnikowska et al., 2010). 18

19 Figure 2.5: Core structures in PROV. 2.2 PROV PROV is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification for storing provenance data. The information in this section was extracted from several W3C reports: the W3C Incubator Group XG Final Report (Gil et al., 2010) and the W3C Working Group PROV Model Primer (Gil et al., 2013), PROV Data Model (Moreau et al., 2013) and PROV Data Model Constraints (Cheney et al., 2013) Model Description The PROV Data Model comprises six components, all dealing with specific aspects of provenance. However, only the first three components contain core structures: structures which capture the essence of provenance (refer to Figure 2.5 for a graphical overview). The remaining components consist of extended structures which improve expressibility. PROV information can be modelled as a graph where nodes express base types (entities, activities and agents) and edges express relations (generation, usage, derivation,... ). In the following summary, mandatory parameters are denoted with dotted underlines Entities and activities. This is the only component which captures time-related information. An entity is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary. Every entity contains an identifier and a set of attribute-value pairs. The time between its generation and invalidation is called the lifetime. Entities are a part of the PROV core and are graphically represented by means of yellow ovals. An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, or generating entities. Every activity contains an identifier, timestamps for start and end times, and a set of attribute-value pairs. Activities are a part of the PROV core and are graphically represented by means of blue rectangles. 19

20 Generation is the completion of production of a new entity by an activity. This entity did not exist before generation and becomes available for usage after this generation. Every generation is represented by a wasgeneratedby edge which contains an identifier, an identifier of... the.... generated entity, an identifier of the activity involved in the generation, a timestamp, and a set of attribute-value pairs. At least one of the optional attributes must be present. Generation is a part of the PROV core. Usage is the beginning of utilizing an entity by an activity. Before usage, the activity had not begun to utilize this entity and could not have been affected by the entity. Every usage is represented by a used edge which contains an identifier, an identifier of.. the..... activity involved in... the.... usage,..... an identifier of the entity being used, a timestamp, and a set of attribute-value pairs. At least one of the optional attributes must be present. Usage is a part of the PROV core. Communication is the exchange of some unspecified entity by two activities, one activity using some entity generated by the other. All communication is represented by wasinformedby edges which contain an identifier,. identifiers of... the.... sending and.... receiving activities, and a set of attribute-value pairs. Communication is a part of the PROV core. Start/End is when an activity is deemed to have been started/ended by an entity, known as trigger. The activity did not exist/no longer exists before its start/end. (... ) A start/end may refer to a trigger entity that set off/terminated the activity, or to an activity, known as starter/ ender, that generated the trigger. Every start/end is represented by a wasstartedby/wasendedby edge which contains an identifier, an identifier of.. the.... started/ended activity, identifiers of the trigger and starter/ender, a timestamp, and a set of attribute-value pairs. At least one of the optional attributes must be present. Invalidation is the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry of an existing entity by an activity. The entity is no longer available for use (or further invalidation) after invalidation. (... ) Every invalidation is represented by a wasinvalidatedby edge which contains an identifier, an identifier of.. the.... invalidated entity, an identifier of the invalidator activity, a timestamp and a set of attribute-value pairs. At least one of the optional attributes must be present. 2. Derivations. A derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity. Every derivation is represented by a wasderivedfrom edge which contains an identifier, identifiers of... the..... generated and..... used..... entities by.... the.... derivation, an identifier of the involved activity, identifiers of the generation and the usage which the derivation expresses, and a set of attribute-value pairs. Derivation is a part of the PROV core. 20

### Introductie in flowcharts

Introductie in flowcharts Flow Charts Een flow chart kan gebruikt worden om: Processen definieren en analyseren. Een beeld vormen van een proces voor analyse, discussie of communicatie. Het definieren,

### Process Mining and audit support within financial services. KPMG IT Advisory 18 June 2014

Process Mining and audit support within financial services KPMG IT Advisory 18 June 2014 Agenda INTRODUCTION APPROACH 3 CASE STUDIES LEASONS LEARNED 1 APPROACH Process Mining Approach Five step program

### Impact en disseminatie. Saskia Verhagen Franka vd Wijdeven

Impact en disseminatie Saskia Verhagen Franka vd Wijdeven Wie is wie? Voorstel rondje Wat hoop je te leren? Heb je iets te delen? Wat zegt de Programma Gids? WHAT DO IMPACT AND SUSTAINABILITY MEAN? Impact

### Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2

167 Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2 Task clarity 1. I understand exactly what the task is 2. I understand exactly what is required of

### 2010 Integrated reporting

2010 Integrated reporting Source: Discussion Paper, IIRC, September 2011 1 20/80 2 Source: The International framework, IIRC, December 2013 3 Integrated reporting in eight questions Organizational

- In dit essay/werkstuk/deze scriptie zal ik nagaan/onderzoeken/evalueren/analyseren Algemene inleiding van het werkstuk In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze Om deze

### FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE. Toets Inleiding Kansrekening 1 8 februari 2010

FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE Toets Inleiding Kansrekening 1 8 februari 2010 Voeg aan het antwoord van een opgave altijd het bewijs, de berekening of de argumentatie toe. Als je een onderdeel

Handleiding Installatie ADS Versie: 1.0 Versiedatum: 19-03-2014 Inleiding Deze handleiding helpt u met de installatie van Advantage Database Server. Zorg ervoor dat u bij de aanvang van de installatie

### The first line of the input contains an integer $t \in \mathbb{n}$. This is followed by $t$ lines of text. This text consists of:

Document properties Most word processors show some properties of the text in a document, such as the number of words or the number of letters in that document. Write a program that can determine some of

### General info on using shopping carts with Ingenico epayments

Inhoudsopgave 1. Disclaimer 2. What is a PSPID? 3. What is an API user? How is it different from other users? 4. What is an operation code? And should I choose "Authorisation" or "Sale"? 5. What is an

### De grondbeginselen der Nederlandsche spelling / Regeling der spelling voor het woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal (Dutch Edition)

De grondbeginselen der Nederlandsche spelling / Regeling der spelling voor het woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal (Dutch Edition) L. A. te Winkel Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically

### Working with Authorities

Working with Authorities Finding the balance in the force field of MUSTs, SHOULDs, CANs, SHOULD-NEVERs, CANNOTs Jacques Schuurman SURFnet-CERT Amsterdam, 24 February 2006 Hoogwaardig internet voor hoger

### Ius Commune Training Programme 2015-2016 Amsterdam Masterclass 16 June 2016

www.iuscommune.eu Dear Ius Commune PhD researchers, You are kindly invited to attend the Ius Commune Amsterdam Masterclass for PhD researchers, which will take place on Thursday 16 June 2016. During this

### Intercultural Mediation through the Internet Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit

1 Intercultural Mediation through the Internet Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit 2 Structure of the presentation - What is intercultural mediation through the internet? - Why

### ETS 4.1 Beveiliging & ETS app concept

ETS 4.1 Beveiliging & ETS app concept 7 juni 2012 KNX Professionals bijeenkomst Nieuwegein Annemieke van Dorland KNX trainingscentrum ABB Ede (in collaboration with KNX Association) 12/06/12 Folie 1 ETS

### VOORSTEL TOT STATUTENWIJZIGING UNIQURE NV. Voorgesteld wordt om de artikelen 7.7.1, 8.6.1, en te wijzigen als volgt: Toelichting:

VOORSTEL TOT STATUTENWIJZIGING UNIQURE NV Voorgesteld wordt om de artikelen 7.7.1, 8.6.1, 9.1.2 en 9.1.3 te wijzigen als volgt: Huidige tekst: 7.7.1. Het Bestuur, zomede twee (2) gezamenlijk handelende

### LONDEN MET 21 GEVARIEERDE STADSWANDELINGEN 480 PAGINAS WAARDEVOLE INFORMATIE RUIM 300 FOTOS KAARTEN EN PLATTEGRONDEN

LONDEN MET 21 GEVARIEERDE STADSWANDELINGEN 480 PAGINAS WAARDEVOLE INFORMATIE RUIM 300 FOTOS KAARTEN EN PLATTEGRONDEN LM2GS4PWIR3FKEP-58-WWET11-PDF File Size 6,444 KB 117 Pages 27 Aug, 2016 TABLE OF CONTENT

### Understanding the role of health literacy in self-management and health behaviors among older adults Geboers, Bas

University of Groningen Understanding the role of health literacy in self-management and health behaviors among older adults Geboers, Bas IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version

### Chromosomal crossover

Chromosomal crossover As one of the last steps of genetic recombination two homologous chromosomes can exchange genetic material during meiosis in a process that is referred to as synapsis. Because of

### BABOK meets BiSL. Marcel Schaar, IIBA Dutch Chapter Mark Smalley, ASL BiSL Foundation Jan de Vries, ASL BiSL Foundation. Kennissessie, 19 januari 2016

BABOK meets BiSL Kennissessie, 19 januari 2016 Marcel Schaar, IIBA Dutch Chapter Mark Smalley, ASL BiSL Foundation Jan de Vries, ASL BiSL Foundation 1 Agenda 1. Presentatie white paper hoofdlijnen 2. Intro

### University of Groningen. Who cares? Kamstra, Aafke

University of Groningen Who cares? Kamstra, Aafke IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please check the document version below.

### Ius Commune Training Programme Amsterdam Masterclass 22 June 2017

www.iuscommune.eu INVITATION Ius Commune Masterclass 22 June 2017 Amsterdam Dear Ius Commune PhD researchers, You are kindly invited to participate in the Ius Commune Amsterdam Masterclass for PhD researchers,

### S e v e n P h o t o s f o r O A S E. K r i j n d e K o n i n g

S e v e n P h o t o s f o r O A S E K r i j n d e K o n i n g Even with the most fundamental of truths, we can have big questions. And especially truths that at first sight are concrete, tangible and proven

### After that, the digits are written after each other: first the row numbers, followed by the column numbers.

Bifid cipher The bifid cipher is one of the classical cipher techniques that can also easily be executed by hand. The technique was invented around 1901 by amateur cryptographer Felix Delastelle. The cipher

### Classification of triangles

Classification of triangles A triangle is a geometrical shape that is formed when 3 non-collinear points are joined. The joining line segments are the sides of the triangle. The angles in between the sides

### Media en creativiteit. Winter jaar vier Werkcollege 7

Media en creativiteit Winter jaar vier Werkcollege 7 Kwartaaloverzicht winter Les 1 Les 2 Les 3 Les 4 Les 5 Les 6 Les 7 Les 8 Opbouw scriptie Keuze onderwerp Onderzoeksvraag en deelvragen Bespreken onderzoeksvragen

### Over dit boek. Richtlijnen voor gebruik

Over dit boek Dit is een digitale kopie van een boek dat al generaties lang op bibliotheekplanken heeft gestaan, maar nu zorgvuldig is gescand door Google. Dat doen we omdat we alle boeken ter wereld online

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world s books discoverable online. It has

### Het Effect van Verschil in Sociale Invloed van Ouders en Vrienden op het Alcoholgebruik van Adolescenten.

Het Effect van Verschil in Sociale Invloed van Ouders en Vrienden op het Alcoholgebruik van Adolescenten. The Effect of Difference in Peer and Parent Social Influences on Adolescent Alcohol Use. Nadine

### B1 Woordkennis: Spelling

B1 Woordkennis: Spelling Bestuderen Inleiding Op B1 niveau gaan we wat meer aandacht schenken aan spelling. Je mag niet meer zoveel fouten maken als op A1 en A2 niveau. We bespreken een aantal belangrijke

### CTI SUITE TSP DETAILS

CTI SUITE TSP DETAILS TAPI allows an application to access telephony services provided by a telecom PABX. In order to implement its access to ETRADEAL, a TAPI interface has been developed by Etrali. As

### Stichting NIOC en de NIOC kennisbank

Stichting NIOC Stichting NIOC en de NIOC kennisbank Stichting NIOC (www.nioc.nl) stelt zich conform zijn statuten tot doel: het realiseren van congressen over informatica onderwijs en voorts al hetgeen

### Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition)

Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition) D.J. Peek Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition) D.J. Peek Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch

### Integratie van Due Diligence in bestaande risicomanagementsystemen volgens NPR 9036

Integratie van Due Diligence in bestaande risicomanagementsystemen volgens NPR 9036 NCP contactdag, 19 april 2016 Thamar Zijlstra, Dick Hortensius NEN Milieu en Maatschappij Agenda Achtergrond NPR 9036

### Digital municipal services for entrepreneurs

Digital municipal services for entrepreneurs Smart Cities Meeting Amsterdam October 20th 2009 Business Contact Centres Project frame Mystery Shopper Research 2006: Assessment services and information for

### University of Groningen

University of Groningen De ontwikkeling van prikkelverwerking bij mensen met een Autisme Spectrum Stoornis en de invloed van hulp en begeleiding gedurende het leven. Fortuin, Marret; Landsman-Dijkstra,

### Usability evaluation of a guideline implementation systym for cardiac rehabilitation: Think aloud study

Usability evaluation of a guideline implementation systym for cardiac rehabilitation: Think aloud study Mariëtte VAN ENGEN-VERHEUL, Linda PEUTE, Ellen KILSDONK, Niels PEEK, Monique JASPERS Mariëtte van

### (Big) Data in het sociaal domein

(Big) Data in het sociaal domein Congres Sociaal: sturen op gemeentelijke ambities 03-11-2016 Even voorstellen Laudy Konings Lkonings@deloitte.nl 06 1100 3917 Romain Dohmen rdohmen@deloitte.nl 06 2078

### NMOZTMKUDLVDKECVLKBVESBKHWIDKPDF-WWUS Page File Size 9,952 KB 29 May, 2016

NAVIJVEN MINILAMPJES OM ZELF TE MAKEN KERSTFIGUREN UIT DE LAPPENMAND VOOR DE KINDERSSALOON EN COWBOYS VAN LOLLYSTOKJES KAMERBREED BOEKENREK VOOR EEN SMAL BUDGETGEBAKKEN KOEKFIGUURTJES HANGEN WE IN DE KERSTBOOM

ARTIST Assessment and Review Tool for Innovation Systems of Technologies Koen Schoots, Michiel Hekkenberg, Bert Daniëls, Ton van Dril Agentschap NL: Joost Koch, Dick Both Petten 24 September 2012 www.ecn.nl

### FOD VOLKSGEZONDHEID, VEILIGHEID VAN DE VOEDSELKETEN EN LEEFMILIEU 25/2/2016. Biocide CLOSED CIRCUIT

1 25/2/2016 Biocide CLOSED CIRCUIT 2 Regulatory background and scope Biocidal products regulation (EU) nr. 528/2012 (BPR), art. 19 (4): A biocidal product shall not be authorised for making available on

### AN URBAN PLAYGROUND AFSTUDEERPROJECT

AN URBAN PLAYGROUND 2005 Het vraagstuk van de openbare ruimte in naoorlogse stadsuitbreidingen, in dit geval Van Eesteren s Amsterdam West, is speels benaderd door het opknippen van een traditioneel stadsplein

### BE Nanoregistry Annual Public Report

1 BE Nanoregistry Annual Public Report Carine Gorrebeeck FPS Health, Food Chain Safety & Environment 2 WHY? The objectives of the registry (a.o.): - Traceability: allow competent authorities to intervene

### Nieuwsbrief NRGD. Editie 11 Newsletter NRGD. Edition 11. pagina 1 van 5. http://nieuwsbrieven.nrgd.nl/newsletter/email/47

pagina 1 van 5 Kunt u deze nieuwsbrief niet goed lezen? Bekijk dan de online versie Nieuwsbrief NRGD Editie 11 Newsletter NRGD Edition 11 17 MAART 2010 Het register is nu opengesteld! Het Nederlands Register

### IDENTITEIT IN DE METHODE?

74 IDENTITEIT IN DE METHODE? ONDERZOEK DOOR EEN LERAAR IN OPLEIDING Bram de Muynck en Esther Langerak 75 Van lectoraten wordt gevraagd om ook studenten te betrekken bij onderzoek. Dit gebeurt bij het lectoraat

### STICHTING LIGHTREC NEDERLAND MANAGER LIGHTREC

STICHTING LIGHTREC NEDERLAND MANAGER LIGHTREC LIGHTREC Energiezuinige lampen zijn goed voor het milieu, maar mogen niet worden afgedankt bij het gewone huisvuil. De materialen uit energiezuinige verlichting

### 3e Mirror meeting pren April :00 Session T, NVvA Symposium

3e Mirror meeting pren 689 13 April 2017 14:00 Session T, NVvA Symposium steps since April 2016 The enquiry (June to August 2016) performed by the national bodies. Resulting in 550 comments. Three/Four

### Travel Survey Questionnaires

Travel Survey Questionnaires Prot of Rotterdam and TU Delft, 16 June, 2009 Introduction To improve the accessibility to the Rotterdam Port and the efficiency of the public transport systems at the Rotterdam

### Prove Everything or Die. Presentatie meetbaarheid Woensdag 9 mei 2012 Robin den Hoed

Prove Everything or Die Presentatie meetbaarheid Woensdag 9 mei 2012 Robin den Hoed Een stelling Met een PR- budget van 20.000 hebben we een mediawaarde gerealiseerd van 60.000 en 500 nieuwe fans op Facebook

### Invloed van het aantal kinderen op de seksdrive en relatievoorkeur

Invloed van het aantal kinderen op de seksdrive en relatievoorkeur M. Zander MSc. Eerste begeleider: Tweede begeleider: dr. W. Waterink drs. J. Eshuis Oktober 2014 Faculteit Psychologie en Onderwijswetenschappen

### University of Groningen. Structured diabetes care in general practice Fokkens, Sudara Andrea

University of Groningen Structured diabetes care in general practice Fokkens, Sudara Andrea IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from

### Wat is Interaction Design?

Wat is Interaction Design? Wat is interaction design? Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives. Preece, Sharp and Rogers (2015)

### Interaction Design for the Semantic Web

Interaction Design for the Semantic Web Lynda Hardman http://www.cwi.nl/~lynda/courses/usi08/ CWI, Semantic Media Interfaces Presentation of Google results: text 2 1 Presentation of Google results: image

### CHROMA STANDAARDREEKS

CHROMA STANDAARDREEKS Chroma-onderzoeken Een chroma geeft een beeld over de kwaliteit van bijvoorbeeld een bodem of compost. Een chroma bestaat uit 4 zones. Uit elke zone is een bepaald kwaliteitsaspect

### Learning from Videos in Open Online Education

Learning from Videos in Open Online Education Tim van der Zee Email: t.van.der.zee@iclon.leidenuniv.nl Twitter: @Research_Tim Website & Blog: www.timvanderzee.com Videos in online education Videos

### L.Net s88sd16-n aansluitingen en programmering.

De L.Net s88sd16-n wordt via één van de L.Net aansluitingen aangesloten op de LocoNet aansluiting van de centrale, bij een Intellibox of Twin-Center is dat de LocoNet-T aansluiting. L.Net s88sd16-n aansluitingen

### Settings for the C100BRS4 MAC Address Spoofing with cable Internet.

Settings for the C100BRS4 MAC Address Spoofing with cable Internet. General: Please use the latest firmware for the router. The firmware is available on http://www.conceptronic.net! Use Firmware version

### Opgave 2 Geef een korte uitleg van elk van de volgende concepten: De Yield-to-Maturity of a coupon bond.

Opgaven in Nederlands. Alle opgaven hebben gelijk gewicht. Opgave 1 Gegeven is een kasstroom x = (x 0, x 1,, x n ). Veronderstel dat de contante waarde van deze kasstroom gegeven wordt door P. De bijbehorende

### Engels op Niveau A2 Workshops Woordkennis 1

A2 Workshops Woordkennis 1 A2 Workshops Woordkennis 1 A2 Woordkennis 1 Bestuderen Hoe leer je 2000 woorden? Als je een nieuwe taal wilt spreken en schrijven, heb je vooral veel nieuwe woorden nodig. Je

### Firewall van de Speedtouch 789wl volledig uitschakelen?

Firewall van de Speedtouch 789wl volledig uitschakelen? De firewall van de Speedtouch 789 (wl) kan niet volledig uitgeschakeld worden via de Web interface: De firewall blijft namelijk op stateful staan

### Intermax backup exclusion files

Intermax backup exclusion files Document type: Referentienummer: Versienummer : Documentatie 1.0 Datum publicatie: Datum laatste wijziging: Auteur: 24-2-2011 24-2-2011 Anton van der Linden Onderwerp: Documentclassificatie:

### ALGORITMIEK: answers exercise class 7

Problem 1. See slides 2 4 of lecture 8. Problem 2. See slides 4 6 of lecture 8. ALGORITMIEK: answers exercise class 7 Problem 5. a. Als we twee negatieve (< 0) getallen bij elkaar optellen is het antwoord

### LDA Topic Modeling. Informa5ekunde als hulpwetenschap. 9 maart 2015

LDA Topic Modeling Informa5ekunde als hulpwetenschap 9 maart 2015 LDA Voor de pauze: Wat is LDA? Wat kan je er mee? Hoe werkt het (Gibbs sampling)? Na de pauze Achterliggende concepten à Dirichlet distribu5e

### 150 ECG-problemen (Dutch Edition)

150 ECG-problemen (Dutch Edition) John R. Hampton, Piet Machielse Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically 150 ECG-problemen (Dutch Edition) John R. Hampton, Piet Machielse 150 ECG-problemen

### Citation for published version (APA): Jambroes, M. (2015). The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands

UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands Jambroes, M. Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Jambroes, M. (2015). The public

### Informatiefolder. Het afschaffen van kinderbijschrijvingen in paspoorten en andere reisdocumenten met ingang van 26 juni 2012

Informatiefolder Het afschaffen van kinderbijschrijvingen in paspoorten en andere reisdocumenten met ingang van 26 juni 2012 Kinderbijschrijvingen worden afgeschaft Met ingang van 26 juni 2012 kunnen kinderen

### Privacy in de zorg. Een primer over de wettelijke kaders rondom persoonsgegevens. Christiaan Hillen. Security consultant bij Madison Gurkha

Privacy in de zorg Een primer over de wettelijke kaders rondom persoonsgegevens. Christiaan Hillen Security consultant bij Madison Gurkha Waarom deze presentatie: Duidelijkheid scheppen Allemaal dezelfde

### Het beheren van mijn Tungsten Network Portal account NL 1 Manage my Tungsten Network Portal account EN 14

QUICK GUIDE C Het beheren van mijn Tungsten Network Portal account NL 1 Manage my Tungsten Network Portal account EN 14 Version 0.9 (June 2014) Per May 2014 OB10 has changed its name to Tungsten Network

### Question-Driven Sentence Fusion is a Well-Defined Task. But the Real Issue is: Does it matter?

Question-Driven Sentence Fusion is a Well-Defined Task. But the Real Issue is: Does it matter? Emiel Krahmer, Erwin Marsi & Paul van Pelt Site visit, Tilburg, November 8, 2007 Plan 1. Introduction: A short

### Developing an adaptive, diagnostic test of. English writing skills

Developing an adaptive, diagnostic test of English writing skills Development of the DET Objectives Consultation IT Student model Consultation External committee Research Student models Psychometric Automatic

### Interaction Design for the Semantic Web

Interaction Design for the Semantic Web Lynda Hardman http://www.cwi.nl/~lynda/courses/usi08/ CWI, Interactive Information Access UvA, Institute for Informatics Presentation of Google results: text 2 1

### FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE

FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE Tentamen Bewijzen en Technieken 1 7 januari 211, duur 3 uur. Voeg aan het antwoord van een opgave altijd het bewijs, de berekening of de argumentatie toe.

### De bijsluiter in beeld

De bijsluiter in beeld Een onderzoek naar de inhoud van een visuele bijsluiter voor zelfzorggeneesmiddelen Oktober 2011 Mariëtte van der Velde De bijsluiter in beeld Een onderzoek naar de inhoud van een

### Melding Loonbelasting en premies Aanmelding werkgever. Registration for loonbelasting en premies Registration as an employer

Melding Loonbelasting en premies Aanmelding werkgever Registration for loonbelasting en premies Registration as an employer Over dit formulier About this form Waarom dit formulier? Dit formulier is bestemd

### Unit 14: Brand Development & Promotion

Unit 14: Brand Development & Promotion Complete unit Task 1: Definition about Marketing Communications Kotler: 1 Task 1: Branding Mix: Task 1: Kotler & Armstrong 2012: 2 Task 1: Nieuwe denken anno 2015:

### Nederlands programma in de PYP! Maandag 2 september 2013

Nederlands programma in de PYP! Maandag 2 september 2013 Rode Leeuw missie!!de Rode Leeuw biedt een moedertaalprogramma aan voor kinderen vanaf 4 tot 16 jaar bestaande uit kwalitatief goed NTC-onderwijs

### University of Groningen

University of Groningen Moving towards independence? Evaluation of the 'Mobility Opportunities Via Education' curriculum with children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities van der Putten,

### UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0535502859* DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2010 No Additional

### FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE

FOR DUTCH STUDENTS! ENGLISH VERSION NEXT PAGE Tentamen Analyse 8 december 203, duur 3 uur. Voeg aan het antwoord van een opgave altijd het bewijs, de berekening of de argumentatie toe. Als jeeen onderdeel

### Het meten van de kwaliteit van leven bij kinderen met JIA

Het meten van de kwaliteit van leven bij kinderen met JIA Measuring quality of life in children with JIA Masterthese Klinische Psychologie Onderzoeksverslag Marlot Schuurman 1642138 mei 2011 Afdeling Psychologie

### Enterprise Portfolio Management

Enterprise Portfolio Management Strategische besluitvorming vanuit integraal overzicht op alle portfolio s 22 Mei 2014 Jan-Willem Boere Vind goud in uw organisatie met Enterprise Portfolio Management 2

### Instruction project completion report

Instruction project completion report The project completion report is in fact a final progress report providing a comparison between the start of the project and the situation at the end of the project.

### Assignment. Example. is surrounded by exactly 3 coloured cells.

Game of Life The Game of Life, is a game devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. The game made its first public appearance in the October 1970 issue of Scientific American, in

International Leiden Leadership Programme Information Evening 1 November 2016 Universiteit Leiden.. LLP Programme team Menno Mennes Lucille Brakefield Janna van Helden Ratna Lachmansingh Programme Bij

### Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition)

Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition) D.J. Peek Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch Edition) D.J. Peek Een vrouw, een kind en azijn (Dutch

### Pesten onder Leerlingen met Autisme Spectrum Stoornissen op de Middelbare School: de Participantrollen en het Verband met de Theory of Mind.

Pesten onder Leerlingen met Autisme Spectrum Stoornissen op de Middelbare School: de Participantrollen en het Verband met de Theory of Mind. Bullying among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Secondary

### Overview of the presentation

1 Intercultural mediation in health care in the EU: theory and practice Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit 2 Overview of the presentation 1. Policy issues 2. Why do we need medical

### The genesis of the game is unclear. Possibly, dominoes originates from China and the stones were brought here by Marco Polo, but this is uncertain.

Domino tiles Dominoes is a game played with rectangular domino 'tiles'. Today the tiles are often made of plastic or wood, but in the past, they were made of real stone or ivory. They have a rectangle

### Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*3745107457* Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2015 Approx. 15 minutes

### UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Keeping youth in play Spruit, A. Link to publication

UvA-DARE (Digital Academic Repository) Keeping youth in play Spruit, A. Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Spruit, A. (2017). Keeping youth in play: The effects of sports-based interventions

### Examenreglement Opleidingen/ Examination Regulations

Examenreglement Opleidingen/ Examination Regulations Wilde Wijze Vrouw, Klara Adalena August 2015 For English translation of our Examination rules, please scroll down. Please note that the Dutch version

### Assessing writing through objectively scored tests: a study on validity. Hiske Feenstra Cito, The Netherlands

Assessing writing through objectively scored tests: a study on validity Hiske Feenstra Cito, The Netherlands Outline Research project Objective writing tests Evaluation of objective writing tests Research