Review of Business and Economics Published quarterly Volume LIII number 3 July-September 2008

Maat: px
Weergave met pagina beginnen:

Download "Review of Business and Economics Published quarterly Volume LIII number 3 July-September 2008"

Transcriptie

1 Review of Business and Economics Published quarterly Volume LIII number 3 July-September 2008 CONTENTS Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 218 Th.S. Ulen The Role of SMEs in Innovation in the EU: A Case for Policy Intervention? 239 R. Veugelers Corporate Governance and Earnings Management: Evidence from Europe 263 A. Renders & S. Vandenbogaerde The Business Failure Process: An Integrative Model of the Literature 288 N. Crutzen & D. Van Caillie Innovatief kosten/baten model voor optimalisatie van beslissingen aangaande veiligheidsinvesteringen in een chemische onderneming 317 G.L.L. Reniers & A. Audenaert Book Reviews 347 Editor-in-Chief: C. Crombez Naamsestraat Leuven ISSN PB BC P Afgiftekantoor: LEUVEN MAIL Cover design: Danny Juchtmans 2008 by Acco No part of this review may be produced in any form, by mimeograph, film or any other means without permission in writing from the publisher.

2 Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice Th.S. Ulen 1 ABSTRACT Law and economics has become the dominant style of legal scholarship in the United States. This Article considers and illustrates the ways in which law and economics has affected and will affect legal scholarship, education, and practice. After first defining law and economics as a method by which to predict and measure law s impact on behavior, the Article makes the claim that the central, lasting impact of law and economics on the field of law is through its importation of the scientific method into legal inquiry. The Article illustrates this claim through theoretical and empirical examples. EL CODES KEY WORDS RESEARCH FUNDING I. Introduction A2, B4, K00 Law and Economics Swanlund Chair Fund, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Let me begin with my warmest thanks to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven for the honor they bestowed on me on October 5, 2007 in awarding me the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa. This means the world to me. I have a very deep nearly religious reverence for the power of reason to help us understand this world and make it better. And I have the greatest imaginable respect for those who have used their gifts of reason and creativity to advance human understanding and wellbeing, as has been going on in this great university since the 1420s. Great research universities are to me among the most precious institutions in our societies, the institutions of which we should be the most proud and the most reverential. So, when a great institution such as the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven chooses to honor me in this fashion, I feel that I, too, have contributed my small grain of sand

3 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 219 to the wonderful, enlightening, ongoing, and collaborative work of the scholarly community. In this essay I seek to use my nearly 30 years of experience in legal scholarship to speculate on the role that the field of law and economics will play in the future of legal scholarship, legal education, and the practice of law. Inevitably I shall focus on the contribution that law and economics has made to the academic study of law. But as my title indicates and as I deeply believe, what we do in the legal academy eventually has great effects on the practice of law and lawmaking. I hope that the connection between what I shall describe in the legal academy and the practice of law and of lawmaking will be evident. II. The Impact of Law and Economics Over the past 30 years I have had the great good luck to have participated in an intellectual revolution. That revolution is, of course, the one being effected in the legal academy and beyond by law and economics. That revolution is not complete. Indeed, in important senses it has just begun. And it is helpful, in assessing where we are and where we might go, to bear this relative youth in mind. When I was a graduate student in economics in the mid-1970s, no one in the Department of Economics at Stanford University seemed to know or care about the economic analysis of law. We had a classmate, Abbott B. Tad Lipsky, Jr., who was simultaneously doing a Ph.D. in economics and a J.D. That seemed to us to be faintly odd. It certainly necessitated his being absent from economics for long periods of time. On the rare occasions that we asked ourselves why someone would pursue joint degrees in law and economics, we contented ourselves with the thought that Tad must have a deep interest in antitrust issues. To my knowledge, Tad was the only joint J.D.-Ph.D. degree student in the several cohorts of economics graduate students at Stanford of whom I was aware. 2 The first time I heard of the new intersection between law and economics (beyond the obvious ones in taxation, antitrust, and government regulation of natural monopolies) was at a reception for new professors at the University of Illinois. A new Assistant Professor of Law, Dan Farber, who has since gone on to a marvelous scholarly career and is currently the Sho Sato Professor of Law and Director of the Environmental Law Program at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, told me at that reception that I might be interested in a new book by Professor Richard A. Posner of the University of Chicago Law School entitled Economic Analysis of Law. I found the book in the University of Illinois Library and used it in some research that I was doing on the origins and effects of the Interstate Commerce Commission. I was so taken by the insights of the chapters on regulation that I read other parts of the book and was enchanted. Shortly thereafter, in Sum / 3 Review of Business and Economics

4 220 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 mer 1980, I had the good fortune to be invited to a two-week seminar on law for economists put on by Professor Henry Manne, then of the Center for Law and Economics at the University of Miami Law School and later Dean of the George Mason University School of Law, and I was hooked. Upon returning from the law-and-economics boot camp, I put in a proposal to the Department of Economics at Illinois to teach an undergraduate course in this new field. Over the next several years I continued to teach the course (to an enthusiastic group of economics students), to develop a graduate course in law-andeconomics, to visit the University of California-Davis and teach both undergraduates and law students in the new field, and then to join the faculty of the University of Illinois College of Law in 1982 to teach law and economics to law students. 3 Over the course of the ensuing nearly 30 years, law and economics has become one of the great success stories in modern legal scholarship. 4 In this essay I seek to demonstrate the profound manner in which law and economics has altered legal scholarship, the more profound changes that are on the horizon, and the challenges that this particular revolution will present to the legal academy in the future. Even though this innovation has been, to this point, largely, although not exclusively, of interest within the legal academy and among legal scholars, I believe that it will eventually have important effects on the practice of law and on other areas of lawmaking. I further believe very deeply that this intellectual revolution will eventually have as profound an effect in other countries as it has had over the past 30 years in North America. Indeed, there are signs that that is already happening. 5 Let me foreshadow my main conclusion. I do not think that the most important contribution of law and economics to law has to do with particular results (such as clarification of the distinction between the negligence and strict liability standards for determining liability in tort) or particular analyses of areas of law (such as the economic analysis of contract law) or doctrines within areas of law (such as the true meaning or real consequences of vicarious liability). 6 Rather, I think that the most lasting effect of the revolution wrought or being wrought by law and economics on legal scholarship is methodological: its importation into law of the scientific method of inquiry. It is that alteration in the process by which we reach legal conclusions that is the most profound change going on in almost every law school today in the United States and, increasingly, around the world. What is law and economics all about? Law to use economic jargon creates incentives for people to behave in particular ways so as to realize their own and society s goals. Economics is one of the fields of scholarly inquiry that investigates how people are likely to respond to incentives, and so, economics seems a natural place to look to examine whether the incentives created by law have their intended effects on targeted behavior. Suppose, for example, that the law instructs people that if they fail to take reasonable precaution and if there is an accident, then they will be held financially liable for the accident s costs. It is not simply enough to announce the law in order for it to be obeyed. There may have been a day when an-

5 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 221 nouncing a law was sufficient to induce compliance, but I very much doubt it. And yet traditional legal scholarship frequently seems to believe that the principal task of an academic lawyer is the coherent articulation of the law once that is achieved, compliance seems to be presumed. Economics recognizes that coherent articulation is not enough. Human beings are extremely complex creatures, and a significant part of their complexity consists in confounding simple predictions about their behavior. So, simply because the law demands some action or inaction does not mean that real people will comply. Law certainly ought to be concerned with the question of whether people will comply with the law s commands. This is where law and economics comes in. It does so in two steps, First, borrowing from economics, law and economics begins with a theory of how human beings make decisions how, for instance, they learn about the law and decide whether to obey the law. How, that is, would they respond to the incentives that the law creates? Second, having made a prediction about how people, including those in groups and formal organizations, will respond to the law, law and economics, again borrowing from economics, provides methods for investigating empirically the extent to which the law has achieved its desired social objectives. This view of the role of law and economics brings into clear focus the connection between this modern field and the earlier scholarly innovation of legal realism. That phrase may have unfortunate meanings in European jurisprudence in that it is redolent of Nazism. But in American jurisprudence legal realism refers to an extremely influential development of the 1920s and 1930s. The American proponents of that new view were reacting to what they considered the stultifying aspects of legal formalism and particularly to the fact that formalism seemed to place doctrinal coherence far above actual social effects in legal analysis. The legal realists, for example, famously argued that the formalists concern with whether statutes limiting the hours that women could work in bakeries in Oregon were impermissible violations of the doctrine of freedom of contract inappropriately ignored the potentially adverse social consequences of having women (and children) working outside the home for a full workday. 7 The point was not so much that the social effects of law were the only criterion by which to judge a law s worth but that these effects deserved consideration every bit as much as (and sometimes more than) did doctrinal coherence. This concern with law s actual effects on real behavior has become a standard part of North American legal analysis. In a real sense, all law professors in North America are (and have long been) legal realists. Nonetheless, from the beginnings of legal realism in the 1920s till the 1980s, there were no standard tools by which students of law judged the social effects of law. One of the most important contributions of law and economics to the study of law is the fulfillment of the legal realist goal of having a standardized set of tools to judge law s actual effects. There is another important but unintended consequence of the fact that lawand-economics has provided a methodology for gauging law s actual effects in the 2008 / 3 Review of Business and Economics

6 222 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 real world: that methodology is not tied to any one national or regional legal jurisdiction. Rather, that methodology is applicable to any legal system. This fact makes possible a cross-jurisdictional conversation about the law that was heretofore difficult, if not impossible. Doctrinal legal scholarship seems to be tied to particular state, regional, or national legal systems. German legal academics write almost exclusively about German legal issues; Vietnamese legal scholars write almost exclusively about Vietnamese legal matters. The result is that a doctrinal scholar in Moldova who is studying some legal subject in Moldova has very little of interest to say to a doctrinal scholar studying that same legal subject in New South Wales, Australia. Doctrinal legal scholars do not have a commonality of scholarly interest with other doctrinalists around the world. It is generally (although not exclusively) the particularities of time and place that interest doctrinal legal scholarship. It is not the generalities that span time and space that are of central interest to them. 8 Contrast this state of affairs with that in almost any other academic discipline within the modern university. 9 Scholars in the same subject areas such as political science, medicine, anthropology, physics, and fine art communicate frequently and to productive effect across national boundaries. Indeed, to academics in most of the modern university the notion of a jurisdictionally bound academic discipline would seem puzzling. There could, of course, be several good reasons for this difference between law and other academic disciplines. First, it might be the case that the study of law is so closely tied to the vocation of the practice of law that in every country the principal constituency for legal scholarship is the local practitioner community. Two pieces of casual empiricism support this contention. The first is the obvious fact that the vast majority of students of law in every country are going to be practitioners, not academics. Thus, those students demand and their professors supply very practical instruction that furthers the students desires to become gainfully employed as lawyers upon graduation. The second piece of casual empiricism in support of the proposition that law is different from other areas within the university is the practice common in many, if not most, countries of law professors simultaneously working as lawyers. If, for example, a law professor in Country A spends half of each workday at the law school (teaching, attending committee meetings, advising students, and the like) and the other half practicing law (meeting and counseling clients in his or her office, appearing in legal fora on behalf of clients, writing briefs, instructing associates, and the like), there is precious little time to left to devote to scholarship (although it is a remarkable fact that a few who do both of these jobs produce elegant and copious scholarship). It may well be the case that this dual-career aspect is motivated by a deep belief that legal education is and should be vocational education the imparting of a set of skilled tools by master craftsmen to young applicants who want to join the mas-

7 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 223 ters guild. One can imagine that a few other disciplines within the university academic medical doctors, professors of education, social work professors, and academic veterinarians, among others have a similar principled view about the inherently vocational aspect of their disciplines. There is, no doubt, in each of these areas, including law, a scholarly aspect of what professors do. Nonetheless, the vocational-education concerns seem to dominate the scholarly concerns. An additional explanation for the dual-career proposition one that works with, not against, the prior point regarding the principled focus on the imparting of skills might be that law professors salaries are low compared to what a practitioner can earn. One might argue that this difference in pay leads to either a separating equilibrium in which one of two things is true: (1) the less talented or productive teach while the more talented and productive practice or (2) those who prefer the life of a professor teach while those who prefer the life of a lawyer, practice. Alternatively, there might be a mixed equilibrium in which some teach exclusively, some practice exclusively, and some both teach and practice. 10 One reason for a mixed equilibrium might be that even if it does not generate a substantial income, being a professor may generate great prestige, and people place a high value on prestige. People desire to be esteemed, and being a member of the professoriate frequently confers esteem. 11 If, however, that is all that the title of Professor provides, 12 then the title-holders must seek other, supplemental employment to generate income. Presumably, they find employment as practicing lawyers. And it is probably the case that the dual-careers are mutually enhancing: the professor s prestige is enhanced by his or her being a prominent practitioner, and the lawyer s attractiveness as an advocate is enhanced by his or her also having the prestigious title of Professor. One might speculate that there comes a time when the remuneration as a professor, while not exceeding that available in practice, becomes sufficiently high that more and more lawyers choose to abandon the dual-career track, practice less or not at all, and devote their energies entirely to being a professor. I do not know why it should happen that the relative income of the professoriate should rise in comparison to that of practitioners. Perhaps that happens because the nation recognizes that education is a tremendously important aspect of economic development and devotes more resources to higher education; perhaps it happens because professors are so poorly compensated that they are leaving the university, and the authorities of the universities must raise professorial incomes in order to attract talented faculty; or perhaps it happens because the domestic market for legal advice has become so competitive that the average earnings of practicing lawyers fall. 13 Whatever the reason for rising relative incomes of professors, the result may well be the slow creation of a full-time legal professoriate. And once there is not the close relationship between the academy and practice that characterized the earlier mixed equilibrium phase, then what professors of law do and what practitioners do may begin to drift apart. 14 It is well beyond the scope of the current article 2008 / 3 Review of Business and Economics

8 224 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 to explain the dynamics of the relationship between theory and practice in professional education, but I have little doubt that there is a fascinating study to be done on these matters. For the purposes of the present article, let us simply leave the matter in this unsatisfactory state: there are some countries in which there is a separating equilibrium between law professors and law practitioners (with the two occupations not overlapping very much) and others in which there is a mixed equilibrium (in which some practitioners are sometime professors and almost all professors are sometime practitioners). The clear implication is that in countries with a separating equilibrium between the academy and practice, law professors will be more free to consider subjects not obviously related to the practice of law. Whether they will in fact do that depends on a host of other factors, such as the presence of competition among law schools within the country and across national borders for productive and novel professional output. I have been suggesting some plausible reasons why the academic aspects of law should be so geographically specific and not transcend state, regional, and national boundaries. Ultimately, I do not believe that these reasons describe an immutable situation. That is, as I shall shortly explain in more depth, I do not believe that there is anything inherent in the field of law that prevents it from being a cross-national academic subject like any other academic discipline. 15 Rather, I believe that the localism of much doctrinal legal scholarship may be viewed as an early stage in the life cycle of many academic disciplines. Let me illustrate this point by describing an international academic discipline and thereby contrasting it with the localism of doctrinal legal scholarship. Consider the field of economics. No one today believes that there is an economics of Belgium and a different economics of Russia and yet another economics of Argentina. Economic theory is the same all over this globe. Moreover, the economics of today are not only for explaining today s economies. They can also help to explain historical episodes. In a nutshell, the tools of economics are global, not local, and timeless, not bound by a particular era or context. Students who study economics anywhere on the planet learn exactly the same subject, much as do students of physics. One result of this universality of the subject matter is that scholars who profess economics can communicate on any topic within the discipline across national boundaries. Most obviously, a specialist on macroeconomics is studying and writing about the same general topic whether he or she is in Canada, China, South Africa, or Scotland. Even where the economist is studying a particularly country say, the efficiency of the health care system of Ukraine, her analysis is perfectly intelligible (and, indeed, of interest) to economists who focus on the efficiency of health care in Paraguay or Japan. One possible explanation for this difference between economics (and other academic disciplines) and law (and the other vocation-oriented academic disciplines) may be historical. Specifically, it may be the case that academic disciplines always

9 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 225 or almost always begin as geographically localized studies and that only as they mature do they become more global and less context-dependent. If so, then it might be the case that the global and timeless aspect of economics is relatively new. In fact, about 100 years ago the field of economics was going through the same sort of debate about global versus local that seems to characterize the debate in law between law and economics and traditional doctrinalists. Here s a true story that illustrates this. Around 1900 two economists Gustav von Schmoller, a German scholar and the leading proponent of what was called the German Historical School of economics, and Vilfredo Pareto, a Swiss-Italian scholar and the leading proponent of the axiomatic-deductive Austrian School of economics were famous in Europe for their contrasting views of the appropriate basis for the study of economics. Schmoller held that to understand a nation s or region s economy, one had to know its history, its institutions, its political arrangements, and many other details of its current context. He held, in a famous phrase, that there are no universal truths in economics; only local truths. 16 In contrast, Pareto (who was trained as a lawyer and an economist) held that although the local details might help to explain the particularities of an economy, there were general properties that every economy shared, such as that factors of production that were in abundance and, therefore, inexpensive, would be more widely used. 17 Here is how Pareto recalled one of their encounters: Giving a lecture before a convention of scientists at Geneva, Pareto was interrupted from the audience by a patronizing call from Gustav von Schmoller, an economist of the then German Strassburg [sic]. But are there laws in economics? Schmoller had no personal acquaintance with Pareto at the time. After the lecture Pareto recognized the heckler on the street and sidled up to him in his shabby clothes and in guise of a beggar: Please, sir, can you direct me to a restaurant where one can eat for nothing? Not where you can eat for nothing, my good man, the German replied, but there is a place where you can eat for very little! So, there are laws in economics! laughed Pareto as he turned away. 18 I think that in the modern legal academy, law and economics is playing the role of Pareto and traditional doctrinal scholars are playing the role of Schmoller. And I am confident that the role of Pareto will triumph in law, just as it has in economics. III. Theory in the Law My central assertion is that the principal influence that law and economics is and will have on the academic study of law is the importation into the field of the scientific method of inquiry. There is an entire field of inquiry into the philosophy of science that wrestles with issues of just what the scientific method is. 19 For my purposes here, I want to summarize the complexities of this matter by simply as / 3 Review of Business and Economics

10 226 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 serting that the scientific method consists of two steps: first, the articulation by the investigator of a coherent hypothesis derived from an overarching theory (to take a legal example, increasing the money damages for breaching an enforceable contract will lead to fewer breaches and fewer consensual agreements), and second, gathering data (from actual behavior, questionnaires, experiments, and the like) designed to see whether the hypothesis is correct. I shall contend in this section that this method of inquiry has not been common in legal analysis until recently and that the principal reason that this method of inquiry into legal matters has become increasingly common is that those who profess law and economics have imported this method into their legal analyses. The first aspect of the scientific method that law and economics has brought to the study of law is theory specifically, a theory of human decisionmaking. Let me illustrate how this commitment to theory and empirical work in law and economics has contributed to our understanding of the law. One of the most famous early theories in law and economics was the Coase Theorem. 20 That theorem holds that where transaction costs the costs of searching for someone with whom to bargain, negotiating with them once you have found them, and then monitoring and enforcing the deal that has been agreed upon are zero, law is ineffectual and superfluous. An efficient result will occur, regardless of the law. The theory of this prediction was straightforward and not much contested. But there were relatively few examples of the theorem to be found in the legal context. In the early 1980s Professor Robert Ellickson, then at Stanford Law School, sought to test the Coase Theorem by investigating the practices of cattle ranchers and farmers in Shasta County, California, with respect to liability for damage done to farm property by unsupervised cattle. 21 Shasta County presented ideal conditions for a natural experiment of the Coase Theorem because the law of liability for damage done by unsupervised cattle was different in the eastern and western parts of Shasta County. In the western half, cattle ranchers were liable for damage done to farm property by their cattle. In the eastern half, cattle ranchers were not liable. Ellickson theorized that if the costs of bargaining between ranchers and farmers were equally low in the two halves of the county, then the actual practices in the two halves of the county would not be different even though the law on the books was different. Moreover, the resulting practices hypothesized to be the same in the two different parts of the county would be efficient. When he went to investigate, Ellickson was amazed at what he found. Neither ranchers nor farmers throughout the county knew the law regarding legal obligations for stray cattle; more surprising still, attorneys in private practice in Shasta County did not know or were mistaken about the law. Apparently, ranchers and farmers in the county did not know the law because they were not seeking to conform their behavior to the law s requirements. Rather, they strove to comply with the widely shared social norm of neighborliness. Good neighbors, that norm di-

11 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 227 rected, did not sue one another; they helped each other. So, when a farmer found stray cattle on his property, the farmer typically telephoned the rancher, informed him that he had his cattle and would feed and shelter them until the rancher could come to pick them up. If the straying cattle had caused damage, the person who had suffered the damage typically incurred the costs of repair herself and never asked for indemnification from the cattle owner. Ranchers typically responded with thanks and a promise to come to pick up their cattle soon. If a rancher offered to compensate the farmer for damage or the costs of tending his cattle, the farmer frequently refused that offer, writing down those expenses to the costs of being neighborly. There were, nonetheless, law suits between aggrieved farmers and the ranchers whose cattle caused damage. In most instances, these law suits occurred for one of two reasons: first, one of the two parties was new to the area and did not know or follow the prevailing social norms, or second, one of the parties was a notoriously contentious person who was simply difficult to deal with. But these law suits were rare. People were not, as a famous phrase had it, bargaining in the shadow of the law that is, settling their disputes through bargaining in full knowledge of what the law was likely to do if they were to litigate. Rather, farmers and ranchers were both striving to comply with what they took to be the prevailing social norms. They were ignorant of the law, and its prospective liability assignments had no impact on their behavior. The unavoidable implication was that law was not the central governance mechanism for farmers, ranchers, and others in Shasta County, California. Social norms were. The law was not the first resort when potential disputes arose. It was the last resort. 22 The response among legal scholars (mostly law-and-economics specialists) to Ellickson s article was to alter their contention that individuals assiduously sought to conform their behavior to the dictates of the law or to bargain around the law. Rather, it appeared to be the case that Ellickson s work suggested that social norms, not law, were the central guiding principle of most people s behavior. And that finding created an entire new body of scholarly inquiry. Now, in looking at many legal issues, we need to ask the extent to which it is social norms, not law, that are governing human behavior. I began this section by pointing out that the first step in the scientific method of inquiry is the framing of a hypothesis or theory about some legal matter. Ellickson s investigation of the applicability of the Coase Theorem to the affairs of farmers and ranchers in Shasta County, California, began with the articulation of a hypothesis about what he might find in his investigation. And note well that in carrying through his investigation, Ellickson discovered something new not at all what he expected to find or what he sought to investigate. The scientific method often has this felicitous unexpected result / 3 Review of Business and Economics

12 228 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 IV. Empiricism in Law The second aspect of the scientific method that law and economics has brought to the study of law (and ultimately, I hope, to the practice of law) is a deep concern for empirical information about the law. As I have said, the central reason for that concern is a concern to see whether the law is having the effects or consequences for which it was designed. Those effects cannot merely be presumed or hoped for on the basis of a coherent theory of what will happen. We vitally need to know what, in fact, they are. There is no better way in which to show the profound importance of empirical work than by considering two illustrations. A. Litigation Versus Settlement Many observers believe that the U.S. is a highly litigious society, that Americans are swift to resort to litigation for resolving the most trivial of disagreements. There are frequent stories in the press that seem to illustrate this over-litigiousness. The most famous of those is the instance of the elderly woman burned by spilling Mc- Donald s coffee on herself as she drove away from that restaurant s drive-through window. 24 Motivated by this picture, some Americans are frightened to provide the most common services, such as consultation on financial matters, without extensive waivers of liability from those to whom they are providing advice. City governments are said to be afraid to put play structures in public parks or public swimming pools because of fears of liability if children are injured while playing. This frightened and frightening view of litigation (without much systematic empirical support) has had important effects on public policy. There are annual bills in Congress and state legislatures to limit liability generally or for particular professions or products. For example, Congress has limited liability for nuclear-power generators in the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act. 25 And almost annually there is a proposal introduced in Congress to give regulated industries a regulatory compliance defense. 26 Excessive litigation and the costs that that imposes on American business have been recurrent themes in state and federal politics in the U.S. over the past 30 years. But is the allegation correct? Is the U.S. in some sense overly litigious? Has litigation exploded, creating economic hardship for some professions, such as physicians, and some industries, such as consumer product manufacturers? Law and economics has contributed a rich theoretical literature to this debate and this literature should make one skeptical of the excessive litigation claim. That theoretical literature seeks to understand why people litigate rather than settle, given that litigation is expensive and unpleasant and that there is often a cooperative surplus between injurer and victim that can be divided relatively easily. 27

13 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 229 There are three fundamental conclusions of that theoretical literature. First, litigation should be relatively rare: the vast majority of disputes should settle, precisely because the costs of litigation may exceed the stakes of the controversy and because the controversy is unlikely to present novel or contested views of fact or law. Second, the theoretical literature predicts that litigation is unlikely to occur in cases in which it is obvious which party has the stronger claim. Where the law is clear and the facts are more obviously or uncontestedly favorable for one of the parties, there is not much to be gained from litigation. Settlement is cheaper and far more likely. An important implication of this theoretical point is that in the disputes that do result in litigation the law and the facts are contested. That is, litigation is more likely in instances in which each party has close to a chance of prevailing at trial. This prediction is referred to as the selective litigation hypothesis. 28 Third, litigation is likely to occur also when both parties are unrealistically optimistic about their chances of winning. Because most law-and-economics scholars view litigation as wasteful, by comparison to settlement, this theoretical explanation for litigation argues in favor of policies that discourage overoptimism. For instance, professional lawyers can play a significant role in deterring wasteful litigation by counseling their clients out of their unrealistic optimism. Additionally, expansive pre-trial discovery might make the true strength of the other side s case more evident, making overoptimism more difficult to maintain. Note that this discussion has been entirely theoretical. The theory of when to litigate and when to settle is consistent and coherent. But as I argued in the last section, consistency and coherency are hallmarks of theory but not necessarily of the world in which we live. Or, better put, a different consistency and coherence from that in our theory may characterize the part of the world we are exploring. An absolute necessity is to perform careful empirical work to see the extent to which the world supports our theoretical explanation. That empirical work has been done with increasing vigor in the last 10 years. And the results are sometimes startling. A recent empirical study of litigation by Professor Marc Galanter of the University of Wisconsin Law School argues that litigation is rare and becoming even more rare. 29 In that article Galanter studied all filings in all federal courts in the United States between 1962 and 2002 and reported two remarkable findings. First, less than five percent of all disputes in which a claim is filed actually go to trial. This is consistent with the predictions of the law-and-economics theory of litigation versus settlement. And second, the absolute number of trials in all federal and state courts in the U.S. has declined significantly since the early 1960s. 30 For example, the average federal judge in the early 1960s presided over 39 trials per year. Today the average federal judge presides over 13 trials per year two-thirds fewer than was the case one generation ago. Why has there been a decline in the number of trials? Galanter considered some obvious explanations for example, that litigation has grown more expensive 2008 / 3 Review of Business and Economics

14 230 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 (making settlement far more attractive) and that cheaper methods of alternative dispute resolution (mediation and arbitration) have supplanted litigation. He found that neither of these fully explained the significant decline in the number of trials. I have an alternative theory: there is less litigation because the legal profession is doing a far better job of lawyering than it did before. Recognize the fact that the better job that a lawyer does in his or her counseling for a client (particularly in civil matters), the less likely that there will be a dispute that requires litigation to resolve. 31 So, I hypothesize that there may be less litigation because lawyers are more adept at anticipating and heading off disputes than they used to be. Why should lawyering have become so much more effective? Here s a sketch of a reason. More than 20 years ago, Professor Ron Gilson described commercial lawyers as transaction cost engineers. 32 By that wonderful phrase I think that he meant that just as a civil engineer anticipates the structural problems that might cause a bridge to sway or collapse and designs the bridge to be immune to those adverse outcomes, so commercial lawyers recognize the costs of concluding agreements, monitoring those agreements, and bringing them to a mutually satisfactory end. As a result, they counsel and write agreements so as to make sure that unanticipated transaction costs cause no swaying or collapsing in those agreements. Note the process of scholarly inquiry that this example illustrates. We began with an observation about the adverse social effects of litigation and then briefly reviewed the law-and-economics theories of litigation. We confronted the theory with data. The data supported the theory but, as in the Ellickson example on social norms, with an unexpected twist. And so, we have to come up with a different theory that supports the empirical findings. This is a new way of studying law. B. Variations in the Rate of Crime The second example of the importance of empirical work comes from the study of crime. As I did in the previous illustration, let me begin with an observation about crime in the U.S., give a brief review of the law-and-economics theoretical literature designed to address the issue of crime, and then show how empirical work on the causes of variations in the incidence of crime have thrown fascinating light on the matter. Crime has gone in long cycles in the U.S. For example, in the 1920s and 1930s crime increased sharply; during the 1940s and 1950s crime declined; it rose again beginning in the late 1960s and through the 1970s and 1980s; and then in the 1990s crime began to decline again. What explains these cycles? Are they related to demographic changes, to political changes, to alterations in the vigor with which society deters crime, or to something else? One insight into why this may have happened was the Nobel Laureate Gary Becker s new theory of the decision to commit a crime. 33 Becker hypothesized that

15 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 231 potential criminals make decisions in the same rational manner that most people make decisions about other actions. Specifically, a potential criminal calculates the benefits of the crime (both monetary and nonmonetary) and the expected costs of the crime (the probability of detection, arrest, and conviction times the sanctions again, both monetary and nonmonetary imposed if convicted). If the expected costs exceed the benefits, then the rational potential criminal does not commit the crime. If the benefits exceed the expected costs, then he or she commits the crime. Becker also related these individual optimizing decisions about whether to commit a crime to the social concerns about crime. Presumably, society s concern is to minimize the social costs of crime. Becker hypothesized that crime could be deterred by manipulation of the expected costs of crime that individuals perceive and that this could be done in several different ways. First, the authorities could decrease the amount of crime by increasing the expected cost of crime through policies designed to increase the probability of detection or arrest or conviction. For example, greater use of closed-circuit TV might heighten the probability of detection; an increase in the number of police might increase the probability of arrest; and an increase in the number of prosecutors might increase the probability of conviction. Becker noted that any of these policies would cost real resources. Second, the authorities might deter crime by increasing the expected cost of crime through raising the sanction imposed on those guilty of a crime. For this policy to work without unintended consequences, the sanctions on all crimes ought to be increased so that there is no deflection away from one set or class of crimes to another. Becker pointed out that there would be no particular cost to deterring crime in this fashion. 34 Third, the authorities could seek to deter crime by raising its opportunity cost. This would be the case if legal and gainful employment were to become more likely and more rewarding. Under those circumstances, the expected cost of crime would indirectly increase in that time spent in prison would be more costly. To the extent that potential criminals consider these opportunity costs, a full-employment policy and one designed to guarantee competitive compensation are effective anticrime policies. Finally, the authorities could use a combination of the preceding three policies. Note that there are testable implications from this model regarding variations in the rate of crime within a nation and differences in the amount of crime across national borders. So, for example, one such testable implication is to suggest that if crime has increased, then perhaps the expected cost of crime has fallen. That might happen if there are changes in the probabilities of detection, arrest, and conviction or if legal employment opportunities have become less available or less rewarding. We might apply these theoretical insights to the recent pattern of crime in the U.S. The rate of both non-violent and violent crime in the United States began to decline in the early 1990s. In the course of that decade, property crimes fell 30 per / 3 Review of Business and Economics

16 232 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 cent, and violent crimes declined by 40 percent. Those declines have continued, though at a decreasing rate, through 2007, the latest year for which we have figures. Why did these changes occur? There have been plenty of theories the economy has been robust; we have increased the number of prisoners by four-fold since 1980 (to over 2 million), and so on. 35 In 2001 John Donohue, then of Stanford Law School, now at Yale Law School, and Steve Levitt of the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago published a startling alternative explanation for the decline in crime the legalization of abortion in the early 1970s. 36 What s the connection between the legalization of abortion and crime levels? Donohue and Levitt find two connections. First, legalized abortion may reduce the number of year old males, a group that accounts for almost 50 percent of crime in every society in the world. And that is, in fact, what Donohue and Levitt showed. Beginning in 1991, there was a much smaller cohort of 18-year-old males, and that decline, they calculated, accounted for about 25 percent of the decline in crime since the early 1990s. Second, they hypothesized that the quality of the children who were born after Roev.Wadein 1973 was higher than was the case before The reason is that women who have abortions are those most at risk to give birth to children who will engage in criminal activity teenagers, unmarried women, and the economically disadvantaged. 37 The legalization of abortion allowed those women to choose a more propitious time at which to have their children. As a result, after January, 1972, more children grew up in better circumstances, making them less likely to commit crime. They calculated that this cohort quality effect accounted for another 25 percent of the decline in crime in the 1990s. I recognize that these are highly controversial results, and I am not at all recommending the legalization of abortion as a crime-control strategy. But can anyone deny that this is a startlingly original insight of great importance? I commend this Donohue and Levitt article as a spectacular example of the bright light that careful empirical work can throw on important legal issues. V. Conclusion My crystal ball is small and clouded; so, I cannot be sure what the future of legal scholarship, education, and practice holds. But I have to say this: I think that the legal profession is one of the most important forces for good in civilized society. I do not and will never join the chorus that seeks to criticize lawyers generally. And I also believe that even though the relationship between the legal academy and the practicing bench and bar are today not congenial, at least in the U.S., that situation

17 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 233 will not last. I am confident that the new insights into law that come from law and economics are not only inherently interesting but are also of great practical value and will, therefore, find their ways into the practice of law, the art of judging, and the work of legislators and legal administrators. My central point has been that the greatest change that law and economics has brought to the study of law is the scientific method of inquiry. That method requires articulating a theory or hypothesis that is coherent and consistent and novel. And then the method requires confronting the theory with carefully designed empirical work. I want to end on an optimistic note. I have already mentioned the deep reverence that I have for reason and for the commitment to the scholarly life that characterizes the great research universities. But what about the future? What about the many difficult questions of human governance with which we must grapple? Can we deal with those? Are we equipped to understand the legal and other challenges before us? In the early 1930s, near the end of his life, the great German mathematician David Hilbert addressed an audience in his native Konigsberg about the optimism that every scholar must bring to even the hardest problems. He concluded with six famous words that are carved upon his tombstone and that I love and that I commend to you as words by which every scholar should live: Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen. We must know. We shall know. NOTES 1. Swanlund Chair, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Professor of Law, University of Illinois College of Law; and Director of the Illinois Program in Law and Economics. This is a revised version of the talk that I gave on Friday, October 5, 2007, at the University Hall on the occasion of being awarded a Doctorate honoris causa by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. I want to thank the Rector of KUL, the Faculties of Law and of Economics of KUL, and my dear friends Professor Dirk Heremans, Professor Herman Cousy, and Professor Stef Proost and their wives, Rea, Christiane, and Marjan, for their many kindnesses to me over the years. There are several other people whom I must thank for their help in my getting to Leuven on October 5, First and foremost, I want to thank my Mother and Father. They are both gone now, but in the hope that somehow they can know that this marvelous ceremony took place and that I didn t turn out as badly as many would have confidently predicted, I want to acknowledge them. We carry not only the genetic material of our parents; we are, more importantly, the product of their love and affection. The love and nurturing that my Mother and Father lavished on my sisters and me was extraordinary. Another thank you that I want to extend is to faculty assistant at Illinois, Sally Cook. She is not here, but everyone in this business knows how important our support staff is. Sally has been not only the best assistant that I ve ever had; she s the best imaginable. The greatest thank you that I have to give is to my family to my dear wife, Julia, and to our wonderful sons, Ted and Tim. Let me speak first of our sons. Both of our boys are training to be lawyers. My father was a lawyer; my great uncle, who was a great inspira / 3 Review of Business and Economics

18 234 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 tion to me, was also a lawyer. It s clear that by not becoming a lawyer, I went dreadfully wrong. But that error will only last one generation. Julia has invariably supported and encouraged me over the past 34 years. She really is a co-recipient of this honor. 2. Tad went on to a distinguished career as an attorney for the Coca-Cola Company and then in private practice in Washington, DC. 3. I cannot resist recounting some aspects of the first several classes that I taught at the University of Illinois College of Law. There was some concern on the part of the law school administration that because I did not have a law degree, I might not teach the law students the material in an appropriate manner or with content that was sufficiently legal. (Since the founding of the University of Illinois College of Law in 1897 there had only been one non-lawyer who had taught law students the distinguished sociologist Rita Simon and then only in a research seminar with limited enrolment.) So, a young assistant professor of law was assigned to co-teach with me. He and I became great friends and taught very effectively together. I do not tell this story to illustrate anything other than the great distances that law-and-economics and legal education have traveled since the 1980s. Today nearly half of the full-time faculty at the University of Illinois has a graduate degree in some subject other than law in addition to a law degree. 4. For an account of the rise of law and economics and hypotheses about the reasons for its success in North America and its slow reception elsewhere, see Nuno Garoupa & Thomas S. Ulen, The Market for Legal Innovation: Law and Economics in Europe and the United States, ALA. L.REV. (forthcoming, 2008). 5. One sign of that spreading interest is the fact that a text on law and economics that Professor Robert D. Cooter and I have written Law and Economics (5th ed. 2007) has been translated into Polish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Italian, and Slovenian. In addition, there are regional and national associations of law-and-economics scholars around the globe. 6. I should make clear that by the word law I mean all the governance structures, public and private, that society uses to put itself in order and to secure the good things in life for all its citizens. Law is, I truly believe, one of civilization s greatest inventions one that has long guided us toward a better life and holds out the promise of an even better life. 7. See Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908). That case is famous for, among other things, the Brandeis brief. That was an amicus curiae brief submitted by Louis Brandeis, then in private practice in Boston and later an Associate Justice of the United State Supreme Court, in which Brandeis focused on the real aspects of hours-limitations laws by, for example, enumerating the other states and nations that had enacted such limitations and citing literature on the social effects of long work hours. 8. Naturally I exempt jurisprudence from this characterization. The philosophy of law has long had a concern with generalities in the law and not with specific jurisdictional concerns. 9. I develop this notion in A Nobel Prize in Legal Science: Theory, Empirical Work, and the Scientific Method in the Study of Law, 2002U.ILL. L.REV The phrases separating equilibrium and mixed equilibrium come from the game theoretical analysis of situations of asymmetric information. Asymmetric information describes a situation in which two sides of a potential transaction have different information about some central aspect of the impending transaction but find it difficult to communicate that information truthfully. Imagine, for example, that some workers are very energetic and others are not but that it is difficult for workers to signal credibly to potential employers that they belong to the energetic group and difficult for employers to distinguish the two groups. (All potential employees would try to signal that they are energetic workers.) If a credible characteristic or signal for distinguishing energetic from nonenergetic workers could be found such that it could not be faked by nonenergetic

19 Law and Economics in the Future of Legal Scholarship, Education, and Practice 235 workers, then the resulting employment situation will be a separating equilibrium, in which energetic workers get jobs and nonenergetic workers do not. However, if no clear distinguishing characteristic or signal between the two types of workers can be found, the resulting employment situation will be a mixed equilibrium, in which employers hire some energetic workers and some nonenergetic workers (and some energetic and some nonenergetic workers are unemployed). 11. An old joke says that a low-paid job as a professor provides all the prestige one can eat. 12. See Richard H. McAdams, The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms, 96MICH, L. REV. 338 (1997), and GEOFFREY BRENNAN &PHILIP PETTIT, THE ECONOMY OF ESTEEM: AN ESSAY ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL SOCIETY (2004). 13. Of course, if the average earnings for practicing lawyers fall, then the demand for legal education may also fall, reducing the demand for law professors services. 14. Judge Harry T. Edwards of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, a former law professor at the University of Michigan, wrote of this drift in The Growing Disjunction Between Legal Education and the Legal Profession, 91 MICH. L. REV. 34 (1992). A subsequent issue of the same volume of the Michigan Law Review contained numerous commentaries on Judge Edwards article. See particularly George L. Priest, The Growth of Interdisciplinary Research and the Industrial Structure of Legal Ideas: A Reply to Judge Edwards, 91MICH. L.REV (1993). The disjunction has been the cause of continuing commentary since the article appeared. See also ANTHONY KRON- MAN, THE LOST LAWYER: FAILING IDEALS OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION (1993). 15. Indeed, the fact that I, an American, had the great honor of recognition from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven testifies to the fact that law and economics, in its study of the law, transcends the particularities of legal topic and of place that so occupy traditional legal scholarship. 16. See generally YUICHI SHIONOYA, THE SOUL OF THE GERMAN HISTORICAL SCHOOL: METHOD- OLOGICAL ESSAYS ON SCHMOLLER, WEBER, AND SCHUMPETER (2005). 17. See generally VILFREDO PARETO, THE MIND AND SOCIETY: ATREATISE ON GENERAL SOCIOL- OGY (Arthur Livingston ed., 1935). 18. Id. at xviii. 19. See, for example, SAMIR OKASHA, THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: AVERY SHORT INTRODUC- TION (2002) and PETER GODFREY-SMITH, THEORY AND REALITY: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (2003). 20. Ronald A. Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, 3J.L.&ECON. 1 (1960). For a modern treatment of the theorem, see ROBERT D. COOTER &THOMAS S. ULEN, LAW AND ECONO- MICS (5th ed. 2007). 21. See Ellickson, Of Coase and Cattle: Dispute Resolution Among Neighbors in Shasta County, 38STAN. L.REV. 623 (1986). Ellickson elaborated on these findings and gave many other examples and an overarching theory of these matters in ORDER WITHOUT LAW:HOW NEIGHBORS SETTLE DISPUTES (1991). 22. Note, too, that Ellickson s original plan to investigate the predictions of the Coase Theorem in a natural experiment had given way to other concerns. 23. The history of science is full of examples of unexpected discoveries that have resulted from the careful attempt to investigate a natural phenomenon. One of the most famous is the unexpected discovery that the Earth orbits the Sun and not the other way around. See THOMAS S. KUHN, THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION: PLANETARY ASTRONOMY IN THE DE- VELOPMENT OF WESTERN THOUGHT (1965). 24. Liebeck v. McDonald s Rest., P.T.S., Inc., No. CV , 1995-WL (N.M. Dist. Ct. Aug. 18, 1994). Ms. Stella Liebeck purchased hot coffee, in a take-away cup from a McDonald s restaurant in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Her grandson, who was driving, 2008 / 3 Review of Business and Economics

20 236 Th.S. Ulen Review of Business and Economics 2008 / 3 pulled over and stopped the car to allow Ms. Liebeck to put condiments in the coffee. During that attempt to fix her coffee. Ms. Liebeck spilled coffee onto herself, burning her thighs, groin area, and buttocks painfully. Ms. Liebeck went to a hospital suffering from what were diagnosed to be third-degree burns over six percent of her body. She was in the hospital for eight days, received skin grafts as treatment, and went through two years of additional care. After she was released from the hospital, her daughter, a nurse, took time off from work to minister to her mother at home. Ms. Liebeck approached Mc- Donald s for compensation for her medical expenses (approximately $10,000) and for her daughter s lost income from her job. She sought a total of about $20,000 from Mc- Donald s. McDonald s offered to pay $800. Ms. Liebeck brought an action against the restaurant and was successful. The jury, on a theory of comparative negligence, determined that McDonald s was 80 percent responsible for Ms. Liebeck s injuries and that Ms. Liebeck was 20 percent responsible for her injuries. The jury awarded her $2.86 million in compensatory and punitive damages ($200,000 in compensatory damages and almost $2.7 in punitive damages; the jury is said to have computed the punitive damages by determining one or two days worth of McDonald s national coffee revenues). Mc- Donald s compensatory damages were 80 percent of $200,000 or $160,000. The trial judge reduced the punitive damages to $480,000, three times the compensatory damages. So, the total amount of damages was $640,000. Both parties appealed but then settled the dispute for an undisclosed amount. 25. The Act, first passed and renewed periodically since most recently in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 limits the liability for all non-military nuclear facilities constructed in the U.S. before 2026 to $10 billion. 26. Under that defense, a firm subject to federal regulation, such as a pharmaceutical manufacturer, could assert and demonstrate, as a complete defense, that their product, which had allegedly caused consumer injury, complied with all relevant regulations. For an e- conomic analysis, see Alan Schwartz, Statutory Interpretation, Capture, and Tort Law: The Regulatory Compliance Defense, 2AM. L.&ECON. REV. 1 (2000). 27. There is also an interesting theoretical literature on frivolous lawsuits. The puzzle to be explained is why actions that have negative expected value are pursued and sometimes succeed. See also Robert Bone, Modeling Frivolous Suits, 145 U. PA. L.REV. 519 (1997). 28. For the original statement of the hypothesis, see George Priest & Benjamin Klein, The Selection of Disputes for Litigation, 13J.LEGAL STUD. 1 (1984). See also Cooter & Ulen, supra n. 5, at , for a summary discussion of the empirical literature on the predictions of the selective litigation hypothesis. 29. The Vanishing Trial: An Examination of Trials and Related Matters in Federal and State Courts, 1J.EMP. LEGAL STUD. 459 (2004). 30. The decline was not slow and steady over the entire forty-year period. Rather, the absolute number of trials rose slowly from the early 1960s through the mid-1980s and then declined precipitously since the mid-1980s. 31. One of the few articles to stress this point is Robert E. Scott & George G. Triantis, Anticipating Litigation in Contract Design, 115YALE L.J. 814 (2006). 32. Ronald J. Gilson, Value Creation by Business Lawyers: Legal Skills and Asset Pricing, 94 YALE L.J. 239, 255 (1984). 33. Gary S. Becker, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Analysis, 76J.POL. ECON. 169 (1969). 34. Some point out that if the sanctions take the form of longer prison sentences, then more prisons might have to be built. That, obviously, would cost real resources. But if the greater sanctions are deterring, there will be less crime and, therefore, less demand for incarceration.

Ius Commune Training Programme 2015-2016 Amsterdam Masterclass 16 June 2016

Ius Commune Training Programme 2015-2016 Amsterdam Masterclass 16 June 2016 www.iuscommune.eu Dear Ius Commune PhD researchers, You are kindly invited to attend the Ius Commune Amsterdam Masterclass for PhD researchers, which will take place on Thursday 16 June 2016. During this

Nadere informatie

Understanding and being understood begins with speaking Dutch

Understanding and being understood begins with speaking Dutch Understanding and being understood begins with speaking Dutch Begrijpen en begrepen worden begint met het spreken van de Nederlandse taal The Dutch language links us all Wat leest u in deze folder? 1.

Nadere informatie

Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2

Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2 167 Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2 Task clarity 1. I understand exactly what the task is 2. I understand exactly what is required of

Nadere informatie

Grammatica uitleg voor de toets van Hoofdstuk 1

Grammatica uitleg voor de toets van Hoofdstuk 1 Grammatica uitleg voor de toets van Hoofdstuk 1 Vraagzinnen: Je kunt in het Engels vraagzinnen maken door vaak het werkwoord vooraan de zin te zetten. Bijv. She is nice. Bijv. I am late. Bijv. They are

Nadere informatie

2 Are you insured elsewhere against this damage or loss? o yes o no If so, Company:

2 Are you insured elsewhere against this damage or loss? o yes o no If so, Company: GENERAL CLAIM FORM ACE European Group Limited, attn. Claims Department, PO Box 8664, 3009 AR Rotterdam. Tel. +31 010 289 4150 Email: beneluxclaims@acegroup.com Important: - fill in all applicable questions

Nadere informatie

Researchcentrum voor Onderwijs en Arbeidsmarkt The role of mobility in higher education for future employability

Researchcentrum voor Onderwijs en Arbeidsmarkt The role of mobility in higher education for future employability The role of mobility in higher education for future employability Jim Allen Overview Results of REFLEX/HEGESCO surveys, supplemented by Dutch HBO-Monitor Study migration Mobility during and after HE Effects

Nadere informatie

IDENTITEIT IN DE METHODE?

IDENTITEIT IN DE METHODE? 74 IDENTITEIT IN DE METHODE? ONDERZOEK DOOR EEN LERAAR IN OPLEIDING Bram de Muynck en Esther Langerak 75 Van lectoraten wordt gevraagd om ook studenten te betrekken bij onderzoek. Dit gebeurt bij het lectoraat

Nadere informatie

S e v e n P h o t o s f o r O A S E. K r i j n d e K o n i n g

S e v e n P h o t o s f o r O A S E. K r i j n d e K o n i n g S e v e n P h o t o s f o r O A S E K r i j n d e K o n i n g Even with the most fundamental of truths, we can have big questions. And especially truths that at first sight are concrete, tangible and proven

Nadere informatie

Invloed van het aantal kinderen op de seksdrive en relatievoorkeur

Invloed van het aantal kinderen op de seksdrive en relatievoorkeur Invloed van het aantal kinderen op de seksdrive en relatievoorkeur M. Zander MSc. Eerste begeleider: Tweede begeleider: dr. W. Waterink drs. J. Eshuis Oktober 2014 Faculteit Psychologie en Onderwijswetenschappen

Nadere informatie

Opgave 2 Geef een korte uitleg van elk van de volgende concepten: De Yield-to-Maturity of a coupon bond.

Opgave 2 Geef een korte uitleg van elk van de volgende concepten: De Yield-to-Maturity of a coupon bond. Opgaven in Nederlands. Alle opgaven hebben gelijk gewicht. Opgave 1 Gegeven is een kasstroom x = (x 0, x 1,, x n ). Veronderstel dat de contante waarde van deze kasstroom gegeven wordt door P. De bijbehorende

Nadere informatie

Usage guidelines. About Google Book Search

Usage guidelines. About Google Book Search This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world s books discoverable online. It has

Nadere informatie

Over dit boek. Richtlijnen voor gebruik

Over dit boek. Richtlijnen voor gebruik Over dit boek Dit is een digitale kopie van een boek dat al generaties lang op bibliotheekplanken heeft gestaan, maar nu zorgvuldig is gescand door Google. Dat doen we omdat we alle boeken ter wereld online

Nadere informatie

Comics FILE 4 COMICS BK 2

Comics FILE 4 COMICS BK 2 Comics FILE 4 COMICS BK 2 The funny characters in comic books or animation films can put smiles on people s faces all over the world. Wouldn t it be great to create your own funny character that will give

Nadere informatie

Pesten onder Leerlingen met Autisme Spectrum Stoornissen op de Middelbare School: de Participantrollen en het Verband met de Theory of Mind.

Pesten onder Leerlingen met Autisme Spectrum Stoornissen op de Middelbare School: de Participantrollen en het Verband met de Theory of Mind. Pesten onder Leerlingen met Autisme Spectrum Stoornissen op de Middelbare School: de Participantrollen en het Verband met de Theory of Mind. Bullying among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Secondary

Nadere informatie

Intercultural Mediation through the Internet Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit

Intercultural Mediation through the Internet Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit 1 Intercultural Mediation through the Internet Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit 2 Structure of the presentation - What is intercultural mediation through the internet? - Why

Nadere informatie

Meet your mentor and coach

Meet your mentor and coach Young Professional Program The importance of having a mentor in business Meet your mentor and coach What do Larry Page, and Steve Jobs have in common? They ve all received guidance from mentors. Yes even

Nadere informatie

Process Mining and audit support within financial services. KPMG IT Advisory 18 June 2014

Process Mining and audit support within financial services. KPMG IT Advisory 18 June 2014 Process Mining and audit support within financial services KPMG IT Advisory 18 June 2014 Agenda INTRODUCTION APPROACH 3 CASE STUDIES LEASONS LEARNED 1 APPROACH Process Mining Approach Five step program

Nadere informatie

Buy Me! FILE 5 BUY ME KGT 2

Buy Me! FILE 5 BUY ME KGT 2 Buy Me! FILE 5 BUY ME KGT 2 Every day we see them during the commercial break: the best products in the world. Whether they are a pair of sneakers, new mascara or the latest smartphone, they all seem to

Nadere informatie

Leading in Learning -> studiesucces. Ellen Bastiaens Programmamanager Leading in Learning 13 juni 2012

Leading in Learning -> studiesucces. Ellen Bastiaens Programmamanager Leading in Learning 13 juni 2012 Leading in Learning -> studiesucces Ellen Bastiaens Programmamanager Leading in Learning 13 juni 2012 Implementatie van matchingsinstrument Matching na de poort wordt aan de poort Vooropleiding Bachelor

Nadere informatie

Educational Design as Conversation

Educational Design as Conversation 1 Educational Design as Conversation Inter-professional dialogue about the teaching of academic communications skills EATAW 2011 - Jacqueline van Kruiningen, University of Groningen Grading papers collaboratively

Nadere informatie

The Dutch mortgage market at a cross road? The problematic relationship between supply of and demand for residential mortgages

The Dutch mortgage market at a cross road? The problematic relationship between supply of and demand for residential mortgages The Dutch mortgage market at a cross road? The problematic relationship between supply of and demand for residential mortgages 22/03/2013 Housing market in crisis House prices down Number of transactions

Nadere informatie

Digital municipal services for entrepreneurs

Digital municipal services for entrepreneurs Digital municipal services for entrepreneurs Smart Cities Meeting Amsterdam October 20th 2009 Business Contact Centres Project frame Mystery Shopper Research 2006: Assessment services and information for

Nadere informatie

Alcohol policy in Belgium: recent developments

Alcohol policy in Belgium: recent developments 1 Alcohol policy in Belgium: recent developments Kurt Doms, Head Drug Unit DG Health Care FPS Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment www.health.belgium.be/drugs Meeting Alcohol Policy Network 26th November

Nadere informatie

1. In welk deel van de wereld ligt Nederland? 2. Wat betekent Nederland?

1. In welk deel van de wereld ligt Nederland? 2. Wat betekent Nederland? First part of the Inburgering examination - the KNS-test Of course, the questions in this exam you will hear in Dutch and you have to answer in Dutch. Solutions and English version on last page 1. In welk

Nadere informatie

De Relatie tussen Betrokkenheid bij Pesten en Welbevinden en de Invloed van Sociale Steun en. Discrepantie

De Relatie tussen Betrokkenheid bij Pesten en Welbevinden en de Invloed van Sociale Steun en. Discrepantie De Relatie tussen Betrokkenheid bij Pesten en Welbevinden en de Invloed van Sociale Steun en Discrepantie The Relationship between Involvement in Bullying and Well-Being and the Influence of Social Support

Nadere informatie

Aim of this presentation. Give inside information about our commercial comparison website and our role in the Dutch and Spanish energy market

Aim of this presentation. Give inside information about our commercial comparison website and our role in the Dutch and Spanish energy market Aim of this presentation Give inside information about our commercial comparison website and our role in the Dutch and Spanish energy market Energieleveranciers.nl (Energysuppliers.nl) Founded in 2004

Nadere informatie

Examenreglement Opleidingen/ Examination Regulations

Examenreglement Opleidingen/ Examination Regulations Examenreglement Opleidingen/ Examination Regulations Wilde Wijze Vrouw, Klara Adalena August 2015 For English translation of our Examination rules, please scroll down. Please note that the Dutch version

Nadere informatie

Media en creativiteit. Winter jaar vier Werkcollege 7

Media en creativiteit. Winter jaar vier Werkcollege 7 Media en creativiteit Winter jaar vier Werkcollege 7 Kwartaaloverzicht winter Les 1 Les 2 Les 3 Les 4 Les 5 Les 6 Les 7 Les 8 Opbouw scriptie Keuze onderwerp Onderzoeksvraag en deelvragen Bespreken onderzoeksvragen

Nadere informatie

een kopie van je paspoort, een kopie van je diploma voortgezet onderwijs (hoogst genoten opleiding), twee pasfoto s, naam op de achterkant

een kopie van je paspoort, een kopie van je diploma voortgezet onderwijs (hoogst genoten opleiding), twee pasfoto s, naam op de achterkant Vragenlijst in te vullen en op te sturen voor de meeloopochtend, KABK afdeling fotografie Questionnaire to be filled in and send in before the introduction morning, KABK department of Photography Stuur

Nadere informatie

COGNITIEVE DISSONANTIE EN ROKERS COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AND SMOKERS

COGNITIEVE DISSONANTIE EN ROKERS COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AND SMOKERS COGNITIEVE DISSONANTIE EN ROKERS Gezondheidsgedrag als compensatie voor de schadelijke gevolgen van roken COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AND SMOKERS Health behaviour as compensation for the harmful effects of smoking

Nadere informatie

De bijsluiter in beeld

De bijsluiter in beeld De bijsluiter in beeld Een onderzoek naar de inhoud van een visuele bijsluiter voor zelfzorggeneesmiddelen Oktober 2011 Mariëtte van der Velde De bijsluiter in beeld Een onderzoek naar de inhoud van een

Nadere informatie

Working with Authorities

Working with Authorities Working with Authorities Finding the balance in the force field of MUSTs, SHOULDs, CANs, SHOULD-NEVERs, CANNOTs Jacques Schuurman SURFnet-CERT Amsterdam, 24 February 2006 Hoogwaardig internet voor hoger

Nadere informatie

Ontwikkeling, Strategieën en Veerkracht van Jongeren van Ouders met Psychische Problemen. Een Kwalitatief Onderzoek op Basis van Chats.

Ontwikkeling, Strategieën en Veerkracht van Jongeren van Ouders met Psychische Problemen. Een Kwalitatief Onderzoek op Basis van Chats. Ontwikkeling, Strategieën en Veerkracht van Jongeren van Ouders met Psychische Problemen. Een Kwalitatief Onderzoek op Basis van Chats. Development, Strategies and Resilience of Young People with a Mentally

Nadere informatie

Creating a marketplace where expertise is made available through videoconferencing. Roland Staring Community Support Manager roland.staring@surfnet.

Creating a marketplace where expertise is made available through videoconferencing. Roland Staring Community Support Manager roland.staring@surfnet. Expert at a distance Creating a marketplace where expertise is made available through videoconferencing Roland Staring Community Support Manager roland.staring@surfnet.nl Working together for education

Nadere informatie

ETS 4.1 Beveiliging & ETS app concept

ETS 4.1 Beveiliging & ETS app concept ETS 4.1 Beveiliging & ETS app concept 7 juni 2012 KNX Professionals bijeenkomst Nieuwegein Annemieke van Dorland KNX trainingscentrum ABB Ede (in collaboration with KNX Association) 12/06/12 Folie 1 ETS

Nadere informatie

CREATING VALUE THROUGH AN INNOVATIVE HRM DESIGN CONFERENCE 20 NOVEMBER 2012 DE ORGANISATIE VAN DE HRM AFDELING IN WOELIGE TIJDEN

CREATING VALUE THROUGH AN INNOVATIVE HRM DESIGN CONFERENCE 20 NOVEMBER 2012 DE ORGANISATIE VAN DE HRM AFDELING IN WOELIGE TIJDEN CREATING VALUE THROUGH AN INNOVATIVE HRM DESIGN CONFERENCE 20 NOVEMBER 2012 DE ORGANISATIE VAN DE HRM AFDELING IN WOELIGE TIJDEN Mieke Audenaert 2010-2011 1 HISTORY The HRM department or manager was born

Nadere informatie

Disclosure belangen spreker

Disclosure belangen spreker Disclosure belangen spreker (potentiële) belangenverstrengeling Voor bijeenkomst mogelijk relevante relaties met bedrijven Sponsoring of onderzoeksgeld Honorarium of andere (financiële) vergoeding Aandeelhouder

Nadere informatie

Synergia - Individueel rapport

Synergia - Individueel rapport DOELSTELLING : Ensuring sufficient funding for projects in cost-generating departments of 16.04.2014 16.04.2014 13:53 1. Inleiding Deze inleiding is vrij te bepalen bij de aanmaak van het rapport. 16.04.2014

Nadere informatie

Melding Loonbelasting en premies Aanmelding werkgever. Registration for loonbelasting en premies Registration as an employer

Melding Loonbelasting en premies Aanmelding werkgever. Registration for loonbelasting en premies Registration as an employer Melding Loonbelasting en premies Aanmelding werkgever Registration for loonbelasting en premies Registration as an employer Over dit formulier About this form Waarom dit formulier? Dit formulier is bestemd

Nadere informatie

TOELICHTING OP FUSIEVOORSTEL/

TOELICHTING OP FUSIEVOORSTEL/ TOELICHTING OP FUSIEVOORSTEL/ EXPLANATORY NOTES TO THE LEGAL MERGER PROPOSAL Het bestuur van: The management board of: Playhouse Group N.V., een naamloze Vennootschap, statutair gevestigd te Amsterdam,

Nadere informatie

Identiteit in de methode

Identiteit in de methode Identiteit in de methode Bram de Muynck Dit materiaal is onderdeel van het compendium over christelijk leraarschap, van het lectoraat Christelijk leraarschap van Driestar hogeschool. Zie ook www.christelijkleraarschap.nl.

Nadere informatie

De Relatie tussen Werkdruk, Pesten op het Werk, Gezondheidsklachten en Verzuim

De Relatie tussen Werkdruk, Pesten op het Werk, Gezondheidsklachten en Verzuim De Relatie tussen Werkdruk, Pesten op het Werk, Gezondheidsklachten en Verzuim The Relationship between Work Pressure, Mobbing at Work, Health Complaints and Absenteeism Agnes van der Schuur Eerste begeleider:

Nadere informatie

The role of local municipalities and labor market regions in adult education: monitoring quality

The role of local municipalities and labor market regions in adult education: monitoring quality Deze dia-indeling is zo gemaakt dat zelf een afbeelding kan worden geplaatst. Klik met de rechtermuisknop in de achtergrond en kies Achtergrond opmaken. Klik op Opvulling met figuur of bitmappatroon en

Nadere informatie

LES 10. Naar onze buurt verhuisd. Sabbat Doe Lees Johannes 1 en Hebreeën 2.

LES 10. Naar onze buurt verhuisd. Sabbat Doe Lees Johannes 1 en Hebreeën 2. LES Naar onze buurt verhuisd Ben je ooit verhuisd naar eenn nieuw huis? Vroeg je je af of je in de nieuwe buurt zou passen? Misschien is er een nieuw persoon in jouw buurt komen wonen. Wat heb je gedaan

Nadere informatie

Nederlands programma in de PYP! Maandag 2 september 2013

Nederlands programma in de PYP! Maandag 2 september 2013 Nederlands programma in de PYP! Maandag 2 september 2013 Rode Leeuw missie!!de Rode Leeuw biedt een moedertaalprogramma aan voor kinderen vanaf 4 tot 16 jaar bestaande uit kwalitatief goed NTC-onderwijs

Nadere informatie

Memo Academic Skills; the basis for better writers

Memo Academic Skills; the basis for better writers Memo Academic Skills; the basis for better writers With the rise of broader bachelor degrees and the University College, Dutch universities are paying more attention to essays and other written assignments.

Nadere informatie

04/11/2013. Sluitersnelheid: 1/50 sec = 0.02 sec. Frameduur= 2 x sluitersnelheid= 2/50 = 1/25 = 0.04 sec. Framerate= 1/0.

04/11/2013. Sluitersnelheid: 1/50 sec = 0.02 sec. Frameduur= 2 x sluitersnelheid= 2/50 = 1/25 = 0.04 sec. Framerate= 1/0. Onderwerpen: Scherpstelling - Focusering Sluitersnelheid en framerate Sluitersnelheid en belichting Driedimensionale Arthrokinematische Mobilisatie Cursus Klinische Video/Foto-Analyse Avond 3: Scherpte

Nadere informatie

- werkwoord + ed ( bij regelmatige werkwoorden ) - bij onregelmatige werkwoorden de 2 e rij ( deze moet je dus uit je hoofd leren )

- werkwoord + ed ( bij regelmatige werkwoorden ) - bij onregelmatige werkwoorden de 2 e rij ( deze moet je dus uit je hoofd leren ) PAST SIMPLE TENSE ( onvoltooid verleden tijd ) Hoe? vervoeging - werkwoord + ed ( bij regelmatige werkwoorden ) - bij onregelmatige werkwoorden de 2 e rij ( deze moet je dus uit je hoofd leren ) van bijv,

Nadere informatie

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0535502859* DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2010 No Additional

Nadere informatie

Firewall van de Speedtouch 789wl volledig uitschakelen?

Firewall van de Speedtouch 789wl volledig uitschakelen? Firewall van de Speedtouch 789wl volledig uitschakelen? De firewall van de Speedtouch 789 (wl) kan niet volledig uitgeschakeld worden via de Web interface: De firewall blijft namelijk op stateful staan

Nadere informatie

Ontpopping. ORGACOM Thuis in het Museum

Ontpopping. ORGACOM Thuis in het Museum Ontpopping Veel deelnemende bezoekers zijn dit jaar nog maar één keer in het Van Abbemuseum geweest. De vragenlijst van deze mensen hangt Orgacom in een honingraatpatroon. Bezoekers die vaker komen worden

Nadere informatie

Nieuwsbrief NRGD. Editie 11 Newsletter NRGD. Edition 11. pagina 1 van 5. http://nieuwsbrieven.nrgd.nl/newsletter/email/47

Nieuwsbrief NRGD. Editie 11 Newsletter NRGD. Edition 11. pagina 1 van 5. http://nieuwsbrieven.nrgd.nl/newsletter/email/47 pagina 1 van 5 Kunt u deze nieuwsbrief niet goed lezen? Bekijk dan de online versie Nieuwsbrief NRGD Editie 11 Newsletter NRGD Edition 11 17 MAART 2010 Het register is nu opengesteld! Het Nederlands Register

Nadere informatie

Socio-economic situation of long-term flexworkers

Socio-economic situation of long-term flexworkers Socio-economic situation of long-term flexworkers CBS Microdatagebruikersmiddag The Hague, 16 May 2013 Siemen van der Werff www.seo.nl - secretariaat@seo.nl - +31 20 525 1630 Discussion topics and conclusions

Nadere informatie

Consumer survey on personal current accounts

Consumer survey on personal current accounts Consumer survey on personal current accounts April 24 GfK 24 Consumer survey on personal current accounts April 24 Table of contents. Management Summary 2. Research design. Research findings GfK 24 Consumer

Nadere informatie

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *7261263430* DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2011 No Additional

Nadere informatie

Next Generation Poultry Health Redt Innovatie de Vleeskuikenhouder?

Next Generation Poultry Health Redt Innovatie de Vleeskuikenhouder? Next Generation Poultry Health Redt Innovatie de Vleeskuikenhouder? Paul Louis Iske Professor Open Innovation & Business Venturing, Maastricht University De wereld wordt steeds complexer Dit vraagt om

Nadere informatie

Running head: BREAKFAST, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS AND MENTAL HEALTH 1. The Role of Breakfast Diversity and Conscientiousness in Depression and Anxiety

Running head: BREAKFAST, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS AND MENTAL HEALTH 1. The Role of Breakfast Diversity and Conscientiousness in Depression and Anxiety Running head: BREAKFAST, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS AND MENTAL HEALTH 1 The Role of Breakfast Diversity and Conscientiousness in Depression and Anxiety De Rol van Gevarieerd Ontbijten en Consciëntieusheid in Angst

Nadere informatie

OVERGANGSREGELS / TRANSITION RULES 2007/2008

OVERGANGSREGELS / TRANSITION RULES 2007/2008 OVERGANGSREGELS / TRANSITION RULES 2007/2008 Instructie Met als doel het studiecurriculum te verbeteren of verduidelijken heeft de faculteit FEB besloten tot aanpassingen in enkele programma s die nu van

Nadere informatie

Монгол page 1 and 2, Nederlands blz 3 en 4 English page 5 and 6. Jaarverslag / Auditor s report 2011

Монгол page 1 and 2, Nederlands blz 3 en 4 English page 5 and 6. Jaarverslag / Auditor s report 2011 Монгол page 1 and 2, Nederlands blz 3 en 4 English page 5 and 6 Jaarverslag / Auditor s report 2011 1 2 Het bestuur van de NGO All for Children heeft op 26 mei 2012 het volgende jaarverslag vastgesteld

Nadere informatie

Dutch survival kit. Vragen hoe het gaat en reactie Asking how it s going and reaction. Met elkaar kennismaken Getting to know each other

Dutch survival kit. Vragen hoe het gaat en reactie Asking how it s going and reaction. Met elkaar kennismaken Getting to know each other Dutch survival kit This Dutch survival kit contains phrases that can be helpful when living and working in the Netherlands. There is an overview of useful sentences and phrases in Dutch with an English

Nadere informatie

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *3745107457* Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2015 Approx. 15 minutes

Nadere informatie

The downside up? A study of factors associated with a successful course of treatment for adolescents in secure residential care

The downside up? A study of factors associated with a successful course of treatment for adolescents in secure residential care The downside up? A study of factors associated with a successful course of treatment for adolescents in secure residential care Annemiek T. Harder Studies presented in this thesis and the printing of this

Nadere informatie

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *2942209982* UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30 April 2012 15 minutes

Nadere informatie

Interaction Design for the Semantic Web

Interaction Design for the Semantic Web Interaction Design for the Semantic Web Lynda Hardman http://www.cwi.nl/~lynda/courses/usi08/ CWI, Semantic Media Interfaces Presentation of Google results: text 2 1 Presentation of Google results: image

Nadere informatie

Competencies atlas. Self service instrument to support jobsearch. Naam auteur 19-9-2008

Competencies atlas. Self service instrument to support jobsearch. Naam auteur 19-9-2008 Competencies atlas Self service instrument to support jobsearch Naam auteur 19-9-2008 Definitie competency The aggregate of knowledge, skills, qualities and personal characteristics needed to successfully

Nadere informatie

Instruction project completion report

Instruction project completion report Instruction project completion report The project completion report is in fact a final progress report providing a comparison between the start of the project and the situation at the end of the project.

Nadere informatie

Overview of the presentation

Overview of the presentation 1 Intercultural mediation in health care in the EU: theory and practice Hans Verrept Intercultural mediation and policy support unit 2 Overview of the presentation 1. Policy issues 2. Why do we need medical

Nadere informatie

Main language Dit is de basiswoordenschat. Deze woorden moeten de leerlingen zowel passief als actief kennen.

Main language Dit is de basiswoordenschat. Deze woorden moeten de leerlingen zowel passief als actief kennen. Lesbrief Les 1.1: On my way Main language Dit is de basiswoordenschat. Deze woorden moeten de leerlingen zowel passief als actief kennen. Nouns: train, tram, bus, car, bike, plane, boat, underground, stop,

Nadere informatie

Work to Work mediation

Work to Work mediation Work to Work mediation Mobility Centre Automotive Theo Keulen 19-9-2008 Policy Context Flexibility,mobility and sustainable employability are key words in modern labour market policy Work to work arrangements

Nadere informatie

Determinanten en Barrières van Seksuele Patiëntenvoorlichting. aan Kankerpatiënten door Oncologieverpleegkundigen

Determinanten en Barrières van Seksuele Patiëntenvoorlichting. aan Kankerpatiënten door Oncologieverpleegkundigen Determinanten en Barrières van Seksuele Patiëntenvoorlichting aan Kankerpatiënten door Oncologieverpleegkundigen Determinants and Barriers of Providing Sexual Health Care to Cancer Patients by Oncology

Nadere informatie

PERSOONLIJKHEID EN OUTPLACEMENT. Onderzoekspracticum scriptieplan Eerste begeleider: Mw. Dr. T. Bipp Tweede begeleider: Mw. Prof Dr. K.

PERSOONLIJKHEID EN OUTPLACEMENT. Onderzoekspracticum scriptieplan Eerste begeleider: Mw. Dr. T. Bipp Tweede begeleider: Mw. Prof Dr. K. Persoonlijkheid & Outplacement: Wat is de Rol van Core Self- Evaluation (CSE) op Werkhervatting na Ontslag? Personality & Outplacement: What is the Impact of Core Self- Evaluation (CSE) on Reemployment

Nadere informatie

Danica Jiernes Madrid, 17 years

Danica Jiernes Madrid, 17 years Danica Jiernes Madrid, 17 years City of Malabon University (CMU) Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics Mother s Occupation: Housewife (huisvrouw) Welder (lasser) I choose mathematics as

Nadere informatie

Spaarloon-, Levensloopregeling en de plannen rond het vitaliteitssparen

Spaarloon-, Levensloopregeling en de plannen rond het vitaliteitssparen Spaarloon-, Levensloopregeling en de plannen rond het vitaliteitssparen Zoals u wellicht al in de media heeft vernomen, is de overheid voornemens de spaarloonregeling en de levensloopregeling te laten

Nadere informatie

Free Electives (15 ects)

Free Electives (15 ects) Free Electives (15 ects) Information about the Master RE&H (and the free electives) can be found at the following page: http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/en/about-faculty/departments/real-estate-and-housing/education/masterreh/free-electives/

Nadere informatie

The Effect of Gender, Sex Drive and Autonomy. on Sociosexuality. Invloed van Sekse, Seksdrive en Autonomie. op Sociosexualiteit

The Effect of Gender, Sex Drive and Autonomy. on Sociosexuality. Invloed van Sekse, Seksdrive en Autonomie. op Sociosexualiteit The Effect of Gender, Sex Drive and Autonomy on Sociosexuality Invloed van Sekse, Seksdrive en Autonomie op Sociosexualiteit Filiz Bozkurt First supervisor: Second supervisor drs. J. Eshuis dr. W. Waterink

Nadere informatie

CHROMA STANDAARDREEKS

CHROMA STANDAARDREEKS CHROMA STANDAARDREEKS Chroma-onderzoeken Een chroma geeft een beeld over de kwaliteit van bijvoorbeeld een bodem of compost. Een chroma bestaat uit 4 zones. Uit elke zone is een bepaald kwaliteitsaspect

Nadere informatie

Healthy people want everything, sick people want only one thing. would love to see a Hospital Teacher

Healthy people want everything, sick people want only one thing. would love to see a Hospital Teacher Healthy people want everything, sick people want only one thing. would love to see a Hospital Teacher Consultant Education Sick Pupils Educational Service Centre University Medical Centre The Netherlands

Nadere informatie

From Padua to Groningen

From Padua to Groningen From Padua to Groningen The effects of the CercleS Seminar in Padua in 2009 on writing Nederlands in gang (0-A2) Berna de Boer Benvenuti a tutti! Contents I. State of affairs in September 2009 II. The

Nadere informatie

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education DUTCH 0515/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN ROLE PLAY Approx.

Nadere informatie

Dutch Research Council: women in scientific careers

Dutch Research Council: women in scientific careers Dutch Research Council: women in scientific careers Dr. Wilma van Donselaar Paris 2005 What is NWO? NWO is the Dutch Research Council and consists of 8 councils: Humanities, Social Sciences, Medical Sciences,

Nadere informatie

vooropleiding international Dutch as a second Nederlands Tweede Taal

vooropleiding international Dutch as a second Nederlands Tweede Taal INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS WITH AN international PRE- UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOUNDATION YEAR FOR international STUDENTS VU UNIVERSITY () Dutch as a second Language () INFORMATIE VOOR STUDENTEN MET EEN BUITENLANDSE

Nadere informatie

Knelpunten in Zelfstandig Leren: Zelfregulerend leren, Stress en Uitstelgedrag bij HRM- Studenten van Avans Hogeschool s-hertogenbosch

Knelpunten in Zelfstandig Leren: Zelfregulerend leren, Stress en Uitstelgedrag bij HRM- Studenten van Avans Hogeschool s-hertogenbosch Knelpunten in Zelfstandig Leren: Zelfregulerend leren, Stress en Uitstelgedrag bij HRM- Studenten van Avans Hogeschool s-hertogenbosch Bottlenecks in Independent Learning: Self-Regulated Learning, Stress

Nadere informatie

Verschillen in het Gebruik van Geheugenstrategieën en Leerstijlen. Differences in the Use of Memory Strategies and Learning Styles

Verschillen in het Gebruik van Geheugenstrategieën en Leerstijlen. Differences in the Use of Memory Strategies and Learning Styles Verschillen in het Gebruik van Geheugenstrategieën en Leerstijlen tussen Leeftijdsgroepen Differences in the Use of Memory Strategies and Learning Styles between Age Groups Rik Hazeu Eerste begeleider:

Nadere informatie

DE VERLEDEN TOEKOMENDE TIJD

DE VERLEDEN TOEKOMENDE TIJD 1 Grammatica les 12 THE FUTURE PAST TENSE DE VERLEDEN TOEKOMENDE TIJD 12.1 FUTURE PAST Als je over het verleden praat, maar iets wilt vertellen over wat toen in de toekomst was, gebruik je ook de Future,

Nadere informatie

De Invloed van Perceived Severity op Condoomgebruik en HIV-Testgedrag. The Influence of Perceived Severity on Condom Use and HIV-Testing Behavior

De Invloed van Perceived Severity op Condoomgebruik en HIV-Testgedrag. The Influence of Perceived Severity on Condom Use and HIV-Testing Behavior De Invloed van Perceived Severity op Condoomgebruik en HIV-Testgedrag The Influence of Perceived Severity on Condom Use and HIV-Testing Behavior Martin. W. van Duijn Student: 838797266 Eerste begeleider:

Nadere informatie

Resultaten. Harm Hospers

Resultaten. Harm Hospers Resultaten Harm Hospers Doelen? Gemotiveerde en getalenteerde internationale studenten interesseren en selecteren voor LAS Studenten een breed, open curriculum bieden, met bijzondere aandacht voor academische

Nadere informatie

De Samenhang tussen Dagelijkse Stress en Depressieve Symptomen en de Mediërende Invloed van Controle en Zelfwaardering

De Samenhang tussen Dagelijkse Stress en Depressieve Symptomen en de Mediërende Invloed van Controle en Zelfwaardering De Samenhang tussen Dagelijkse Stress en Depressieve Symptomen en de Mediërende Invloed van Controle en Zelfwaardering The Relationship between Daily Hassles and Depressive Symptoms and the Mediating Influence

Nadere informatie

Verschil in Perceptie over Opvoeding tussen Ouders en Adolescenten en Alcoholgebruik van Adolescenten

Verschil in Perceptie over Opvoeding tussen Ouders en Adolescenten en Alcoholgebruik van Adolescenten Verschil in Perceptie over Opvoeding tussen Ouders en Adolescenten en Alcoholgebruik van Adolescenten Difference in Perception about Parenting between Parents and Adolescents and Alcohol Use of Adolescents

Nadere informatie

Settings for the C100BRS4 MAC Address Spoofing with cable Internet.

Settings for the C100BRS4 MAC Address Spoofing with cable Internet. Settings for the C100BRS4 MAC Address Spoofing with cable Internet. General: Please use the latest firmware for the router. The firmware is available on http://www.conceptronic.net! Use Firmware version

Nadere informatie

ESOMAR PAPER: Four simple strategies: 25% more ROI for newspaper advertisement

ESOMAR PAPER: Four simple strategies: 25% more ROI for newspaper advertisement ESOMAR PAPER: Four simple strategies: 25% more ROI for newspaper advertisement Learnings from 2011 case for: Erdee Media Group Cebuco, Amsterdam BY Martin Leeflang (Validators) Esomar Paper Augustus 2011

Nadere informatie

Analyse van de Mechanical Turk data: 4 Belangrijke Thema s

Analyse van de Mechanical Turk data: 4 Belangrijke Thema s Analyse van de Mechanical Turk data: 4 Belangrijke Thema s Doel analyse Panos Ipeirotis beschikt over een collectie aan antwoorden waarmee de motivatie achter deelname aan taken (zogenaamde HITs) op Mechanical

Nadere informatie

Het project en de doelstellingen:

Het project en de doelstellingen: Het project en de doelstellingen: Wit.h heeft al heel wat ervaring met sociaal artistieke projecten als deze. De Erasmus studenten daarentegen hebben elk een andere achtergrond en voor sommige onder hen

Nadere informatie

De Levende Gevel. Een richting voor innovatie en de ontwikkeling van de toekomst

De Levende Gevel. Een richting voor innovatie en de ontwikkeling van de toekomst De Levende Gevel Een richting voor innovatie en de ontwikkeling van de toekomst A letter from nature Dear., Our life knows no boundaries, we live together. You live in me and I live in you! I not only

Nadere informatie

Fans talking about Martin

Fans talking about Martin Fans about Martin Wat vind jij van Martin Garrix? 1 read Fans talking about Martin Martin Garrix is a world famous DJ from Holland. Yesterday we interviewed two of Martin s fans. This is what they said.

Nadere informatie

Mentaal Weerbaar Blauw

Mentaal Weerbaar Blauw Mentaal Weerbaar Blauw de invloed van stereotypen over etnische minderheden cynisme en negatieve emoties op de mentale weerbaarheid van politieagenten begeleiders: dr. Anita Eerland & dr. Arjan Bos dr.

Nadere informatie

How to install and use dictionaries on the ICARUS Illumina HD (E652BK)

How to install and use dictionaries on the ICARUS Illumina HD (E652BK) (for Dutch go to page 4) How to install and use dictionaries on the ICARUS Illumina HD (E652BK) The Illumina HD offers dictionary support for StarDict dictionaries.this is a (free) open source dictionary

Nadere informatie

Het beheren van mijn Tungsten Network Portal account NL 1 Manage my Tungsten Network Portal account EN 14

Het beheren van mijn Tungsten Network Portal account NL 1 Manage my Tungsten Network Portal account EN 14 QUICK GUIDE C Het beheren van mijn Tungsten Network Portal account NL 1 Manage my Tungsten Network Portal account EN 14 Version 0.9 (June 2014) Per May 2014 OB10 has changed its name to Tungsten Network

Nadere informatie

Uw bedrijf. 19 nov - 23 nov. 11 mar - 15 mar. 1 mei - 3 mei. Wat hebben wij u te bieden? Wie zijn wij?

Uw bedrijf. 19 nov - 23 nov. 11 mar - 15 mar. 1 mei - 3 mei. Wat hebben wij u te bieden? Wie zijn wij? Wie zijn wij? Studievereniging i.d is de studievereniging van Industrieel Ontwerpen aan de TU Delft. Met 2700 leden is zij een van de grootste en actiefste studieverenigingen van Delft. Studievereniging

Nadere informatie

Lichamelijke factoren als voorspeller voor psychisch. en lichamelijk herstel bij anorexia nervosa. Physical factors as predictors of psychological and

Lichamelijke factoren als voorspeller voor psychisch. en lichamelijk herstel bij anorexia nervosa. Physical factors as predictors of psychological and Lichamelijke factoren als voorspeller voor psychisch en lichamelijk herstel bij anorexia nervosa Physical factors as predictors of psychological and physical recovery of anorexia nervosa Liesbeth Libbers

Nadere informatie