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1 Vrije Universiteit Brussel vakgroep ARCH architectonische ingenieurswetenschappen JAARBOEK

2 Academiejaar IA Dit academiejaar zal de eerste lichting studenten met een diploma Master of Science in Architectural Engineering afstuderen. Dit is een primeur voor de vakgroep Architectonische Ingenieurswetenschappen, de Vrije Universiteit Brussel én het Belgisch onderwijslandschap. 2IA 3IA 4IA Lichting 2013 volgde zijn master in het Engels aan de Brussels Faculty of Engineering (BruFacE), de Engelstalige ingenieursfaculteit ontstaan door de samenwerking van de Faculteiten Ingenieurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en de Université Libre de Bruxelles. De eerste lichting is dus een feit, maar de volledige versmelting is nog een traject waaraan voortdurend gewerkt wordt. Gesteund door het enthousiasme van de studenten, die voor de tweede keer massaal voor de Engelstalige master kozen, zetten we het traject verder en blijven we onze grenzen verleggen. We kijken uit naar de samenwerking met STeR*. Deze master in de Stedenbouw en Ruimtelijke Planning, die nu nog georganiseerd wordt aan de Erasmus Hogeschool Brussel zal vanaf academiejaar integreren in de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Tweehonderd ontwerpers zullen dan het ontwerpatelier gebruiken. Dit kan niet anders dan leiden tot een explosie van creatieve activiteiten, inspirerende lezingen en boeiende debatten. Ine Wouters Vakgroepvoorzitter Academiejaar INLEIDING Vakgroepvoorzitter 2 5IA 3

3 02/03 INLEIDING Ine Wouters 04/05 INHOUDSTAFEL Architectonische ingenieurswetenschappen 06/07 æ-lab Ine Wouters ARCHITECTUURACTUALIA 62/63 Architectuuractualia in een kritisch en historisch perspectief Inge Bertels BOUWTECHNIEK 64/65 Skeletbouw Hera Van Sande, Yves Govaerts STRUCTURAL RENOVATION TECHNIQUES 66/67 Slachthuizen Anderlecht Ine Wouters, Quentin Collette 78/79 Summer school CH.ESS 2012 Ine Wouters, Inge Bertels 80/81 Prijzen Anne Paduart 82 Alumni Ine Wouters 83 bru:tecture Siemen Goetschalckx, Lennert Loos 84/85 Architectuurmaand Anne Paduart 86/87 Architectuurreis naar Kopenhagen Linde Maes, Meryem Bakalli 88/89 Uitwisseling & Samenwerking Evi Corne 90/91 Opleiding 92/93 Staff 94/95 Studenten 96 Colofon EDUCATION 1IA18/23 Een drijvend verblijf - tijdelijke huisvesting in een stedelijke context Niels De Temmerman Ann Verdonck Mieke Vandenbroucke Aline Vergauwen 3IA56/61 De Architectuur van de Stad: Oudaan in Antwerpen Haike Apelt Stefan Braun 5IA74/77 Meesterproef Jonas Lindekens Thierry Berlemont Bruface i.s.m. ULB: Laurent Ney Arànzazu Galàn Gonzàlez, Stéphane Meyrant 2IA 40/45 Box-with-a-view & Reconversie Gashouder 2 Molenbeek Ann Verdonck Evi Corne 4IA 68/73 Architecture and urbanity: Urban renewal of the Watermael-Bosvoorde district Hera Van Sande Geert Pauwels Bruface i.s.m. ULB: Steven Beckers Séverine Hermand TRANSFORM 08 Mission statement Niels De Temmerman 09 Dynamic re-use strategies (DYNSTRA) Anne Paduart 10/11 Aluminium deployable scissor arch Lara Alegria Mira 12 Transformable alternatives for masonry Mieke Vandenbroucke 13 Assessing the adaptability of spatial layouts Pieter Herthogs 14 Adaptive shading elements Aline Vergauwen 15 New approaches: financial feasibility Waldo Galle 16 Deployable adaptable shelter Aushim Koumar 17 Foldable scissor and plate structures Kelvin Roovers RESEARCH RE-USE 24/25 Warehouse study day Ine Wouters, Inge Bertels 26/27 Marbrite glass Liesbeth Dekeyser 28/29 A RIVETing story Quentin Collette 30/31 Post-war housing in Brussels Stephanie Van de Voorde 32/33 Discrete occupancy profiles Dorien Aerts 34/35 Pierre-Simili: the art of stone imitation Yves Govaerts 36/37 Heat- and wind-induced low-pressure ventilation Maaike van der Tempel 38/39 The Japanese Tower in Laeken Ann Verdonck, Marjolein Deceuninck LIGHTWEIGHT 46/47 COST Action TU1303 Marijke Mollaert, Lars De Laet, Evi Corne 48/49 Workshop Lightweight Structures Marijke Mollaert, Lars De Laet, Jan Roekens 50/51 Bending Incorporated Lars De Laet, Tom Van Mele, Marijke Mollaert, Philippe Block 52/53 Concepts for disaster relief sheltering Jan Roekens 54 Flexible formwork for concrete shells Evy Verwimp 55 Kinematic Form Active Structures Maarten Van Craenenbroeck, Silke Puystiens Architectonische ingenieurswetenschappen INHOUD 4 5

4 In 2008, the research lab of Architectural Engineering (æ-lab) was set up to structure the research activities within the department of architectural engineering and to underline the interdisciplinarity of the research topics. At that time the use of engineering tools to create architecture was put forward as research approach. Topics, which ask for interdisciplinary studies were delineated: the design of lightweight structures and the issue of re-use. The third topic, the incorporation of 4D-design, evolved in 2012 towards transformable structures to better reflect the goal of the proposed strategy. New research projects The clear focus of the research lab of Architectural Engineering is fruitful. The æ-lab has never been as successful in attracting new researchers, research grants and research funding. In October 2012, researcher Waldo Galle joined the æ-lab thanks to an FWO-grant with his proposal of the financial and technical assessment method for transformable construction typologies. In January 2013, the æ-lab broke the Flemish record by attracting three IWT-grants within a department of architecture. The PhD work of Yves Govaerts will focus on sustainable renovation strategies for exterior stone imitating plasters on architectural heritage. Kelvin Roovers will optimize the geometric and kinematic design of foldable scissor and plate structures for architectural applications and Maarten Van Craenenbroeck will focus on the design, analysis and implementation of kinematic prestressed membrane structures. Silke Puystiens was enrolled on the FWO-project Integrated analysis and experimental verification of Kinematic Form Active Structures (KFAS) for architectural applications, supervised by Marijke Mollaert and Danny Van Hemelrijck. And Evy Verwimp was appointed a research position funded by the Faculty of Engineering. war housing in Brussels, supervised by the interdisciplinary team of Inge Bertels, Filip Descamps, Niels De Temmerman, Ann Verdonck and Ine Wouters. The projects are part of the strategic platform Brussels Retrofit XL, which is granted by the Brussels Institute for Research and Innovation (Innoviris). Besides Flemish and Brussels funding agencies, the EU awarded the COSTaction sent in by Marijke Mollaert on Novel structural skins: Improving sustainability and efficiency through new structural textile materials and designs. Finalized research After a 5 months stay in Brussels, funded by the Brains to Brussels grant of Innoviris, Sara Wermiel, from MIT Boston, finished her report on Historical warehouses in the Brussels Capital Region. Researching and preserving commercial and industrial buildings. Leen Lauriks, who was awarded an IWTgrant, finished her doctoral thesis on The contribution of the glass cladding to the overall structural behaviour of 19th-century iron and glass roofs in December 2012 under the supervision of Ine Wouters and Jan Belis (UGent). For the æ-lab it was the first time a joint-phd was granted. Niels De Temmerman and Anne Paduart received research funding from OVAM to assess the adaptability of the Mahatma Gandhi social housing project in Mechelen. The consortium (VUB and KULeuven, VITO, BBRI) presented its findings and policy recommendations during the Transitiearena Duurzaam Wonen & Bouwen. Invited experts In March, Research Seminars were organized about the research topics. The PhD researchers presented their work and an expert (designer/builder/researcher) was invited to make the conversations lively. By means of a public lecture the experts talked about their work and experiences. Prof. Dr. Rajan Filomeno Coelho (ULB), prof. dr. Marieke Kuipers (TUDelft) and Maarten Gielen and Lionel Billiet (ROTOR) were invited. Next to this impressive list of starting PhD students, the æ-lab could attract two postdoc researchers in Anne Paduart and Stephanie Van de Voorde were enrolled in the research project on the understanding, conservation and dynamic reuse of postæ-lab Ine Wouters 6 7

5 Transformable structures for sustainable development TRANSFORM Niels De Temmerman TRANSFORM - Transformable structures for sustainable development, is the research group within the Vrije Universiteit Brussel s æ-lab that studies the effect of designing, engineering and constructing in a transformable way. The objectives of the research group include the facilitation of research and gathering of expertise on the understanding and engineering of materials, components and structures that further anticipate change and time through the architectural design. The above picture, taken at the research seminar at UAE (Union des Anciens Etudiants ULB) on shows TRANSFORM in its current constellation. From left to right (front row): Aline Vergauwen, Anne Paduart, Mieke Vandenbroucke, Lara Alegria Mira - (back row): Aushim Koumar, Waldo Galle, Hendrik Hendrickx, Niels De Temmerman, W. Patrick De Wilde, Kelvin Roovers, Pieter Herthogs. The past academic year has been a particularly good one for TRANSFORM - Transformable structures for sustainable development, as one of the three research groups within ae-lab. In January 2013, we received funding from INNOVIRIS for a two-year research project called DYNSTRA (Dynamic Strategies), in which we will investigate how flexible renovation based on construction details with dry reversible connections could be applied within the Brussels context of postwar housing. Anne Paduart is conducting this research as post-doctoral researcher, thereby continuing and expanding the findings of her PhD dissertation, for which she recently received the prestigious Gustave Magnel Prize. This year has also seen the expansion of our activities into the foray of services to third parties. For a project issued by OVAM (Openbare Vlaamse Afvalstoffenmaatschappij) we formed a consortium of four research institutions dealing with sustainable building. Together with KULeuven, VITO and BBRI, we conducted research on the adaptability of urban fragments, buildings and components, within the context of a social housing project Mahatma Gandhi in Mechelen. The findings were presented to the public at the recent Transitiearena Duurzaam Wonen en Bouwen. Additionally, policy recommendations were formulated which we expect to exert a positive influence on the built environment in the near future. From October 2012, we have been able to add three more talented PhD researchers to our ranks, who will present their research topic on the subsequent pages. They are Waldo Galle (FWO-grant), Kelvin Roovers (IWT-grant) and Aushim Koumar (internal funding). Each one of them individually complements the team already in place with their own talents and expertise. What connects the group is the relentless effort of contributing to the same goal: a sustainable built environment. Inevitably subject to long-term thinking, attaining this goal is undoubtedly hard work, with a hint of utopia. But at the same time it invokes passion and self-perfection, set within an atmosphere of like-mindedness and friendship. New mission statement of TRANSFORM We live in an age where rapid changes in cultural trends, global markets and technological innovation are fuelling resource depletion and waste production. Because most of the earth s resources are finite, they should be used and re-used wisely. As engineers and designers, we are challenged to create answers that remain sustainable in a continuously changing context. The structures of the built environment in which we operate are never end states, but phases of a process. Facilitating transformations is vital to sustainable development and this requires holistic approaches that take change into account and help alleviate future problems. By introducing transformational capacity at different design levels, the TRANSFORM research group wants to maximise the sustainability of settlements, structures and components through time while minimising the waste of resources. We believe that transformability could prove to be an important catalyst for The research lab of Architectural Engineering (ae-lab) at VUB starts a research project in 2013 on the understanding, conservation and dynamic reuse of post-war housing in Brussels. An interdisciplinary team of supervisors Inge Bertels, Filip Descamps, Niels De Temmerman, Ann Verdonck and Ine Wouters will work together with two post-doc researchers Anne Paduart and Stephanie Van de Voorde. Two research projects are part of the strategic platform Brussels Retrofit XL, which is granted by the Brussels Institute for Research and Innovation (Innoviris). In a first research project (Anne Paduart), the focus is on the post-war period for its possible applicability of new retrofit strategies that deal with the future need of buildings to change. During upgrade of the post-war housing estate in Brussels today, it is essential to introduce dynamic retrofit approaches when convenient, in order to anticipate changes during the future building life cycle (including e.g. functional alterations, building upgrade and the end-of-life stage) while minimising the material consumption sustainable development because of the social, economic and ecological qualities it generates over time and the life-cycle resource management it incorporates. As researchers, we study, analyse, design and assess transformable structures varying in scale, context, time-span and purpose. We share our attitude towards a dynamic built environment through publications, projects and education. and waste production in the long run. This involves retrofit strategies that maximise the reuse of building elements, while incorporating principles that augment the ease of disassembly of building elements at any moment. Since post-war designers developed the concept of modular, prefabricated units and standardised building elements, post-war dwellings may be suitable to be retrofitted according to approaches that rely on dismantling, re-using or upgrading of separate building elements. Given that the ability to dismantle building elements during retrofitting today depends on the original construction details and connections, information about the construction and building technology (load-bearing structure, floor and wall composition) of the Brussels post-war dwellings is required in order to develop appropriate interventions (see research project of Stephanie Van de Voorde). In addition, new features need to be incorporated today during the retrofitting in order to ensure that the building upgrade complies with contemporary standards, while optimising the reuse and recycling potential of building materials in the future. Dynamic reuse strategies for the retrofitting of post-war housing in Brussels (Dynstra) TRANSFORM AnnePaduart 8 9

6 Deployable scissor structures are capable of transforming from a small, closed or stowed configuration to a much larger, open or deployed state. In architecture, the main applications are temporary lightweight and mobile structures. One of the goals of my PhD-research is to gain a more profound insight in the structural behaviour of these structures. Towards this end an aluminium scissor arch was constructed at full-scale and experimentally analysed (Fig. 1). The aim was to compare the experimental results with the numerical results extracted from the current digital model. In this project the focus is put on the design, manufacturing, construction, deployment process and experiments. The scissor units are comprised of aluminium tubes with rectangular crosssections (40x20x2mm). The aluminium scissor tubes are connected by a single bolt (M10x70mm) with washers and lock nuts to form a single scissor unit, as shown in Figure 2 (left). Within the tubes, a bearing spacer is placed to ensure a smooth rotation around the bolt axis and to prevent local deformation of the aluminium profiles. The distance between the scissor tubes (spaced using washers) has been calibrated for alignment with the nodes connecting different scissor units. The scissor units in the plane of the arch are connected to each other and to the perpendicular scissor units by nodes shown in Figure 2 (right). These are comprised of four steel corner plate members (60x60x45mm) that are spotwelded together. Nuts were added at either end to permit attachment of pulleys, point loads, etc. The total weight of the scissor arch is 0,6 kn. Experimental testing was conducted using Digital Image Correlation and Tracking (DIC) - an optical method that employs tracking and image registration techniques for accurate three-dimensional measurements of changes in images (Fig. 3). The deployment process was demonstrated numerically and captured by DIC, after which the comparison between these numerical and experimental results revealed that the experimental data has larger vertical deflections than the numerical data (Fig. 4). At first glance, these differences are quite large. However, this is deceiving since total deflections are so small compared to the scale of the structure. For example, for the 5m deployment stage, the numerical model predicts a 0.064m deflection while the experimental model exhibits a 0.110m deflection a difference of less than 0.05m for a 6m span structure. Despite the difference in vertical deflections, the experimental deformed shapes are similar to the numerical shapes. It was also observed that larger vertical deflections occur during deployment (increasing with greater span) than when fully deployed in both the numerical and experimental data. This can be explained by the flexibility of the system during deployment meaning a lack of lateral stiffness. Conversely, in the final fully expanded configuration it was observed that the system demonstrated increased stiffness. The deployment process itself was facilitated by adding wheels to the ground nodes. A minimum of three people is necessary to manually deploy the prototype. At first the deployment is smooth and effortless, but towards the end, as the arch gains height, increased effort is needed. Nonetheless it remains manageable, taking less than 30 seconds to fully deploy the arch. Although it did not actually hamper the deployment process, it was observed that the structure is not laterally stable during deployment. There is a lack of lateral or in-plane stiffness due to its geometry (quadrilateral modules with no bracing). However, it is also observed that the stability improves once the scissor arch is fully deployed. FIG 2: Hinge joint between straight rods to form a single scissor unit (left) and node connecting three aluminium tubes (right) FIG 3: The DIC markers are placed at the nodes of the scissor arch Building a full-scale aluminium deployable scissor arch TRANSFORM Lara Alegria Mira FIG 1: Full-scale aluminium scissor arch prototype deploys from closed to open state FIG 4: Comparison of experimental and numerical deformed shapes through four stages of deployment 10 11

7 Transformable alternatives for load-bearing masonry TRANSFORM Mieke Vandenbroucke 12 A large part of the conventional Belgian (newly built) constructions are made of load-bearing masonry. Most bricks, the components of masonry, are physically suitable to be reused repeatedly. However, when needs change, and therefore renovation or demolition is required, it is difficult to separate the components without damaging them due to the use of cement. The cementitious bricks can be recycled, but this often occurs in an inferior way. It is therefore necessary to examine how bricks can be connected in order to optimize their reuse potential and to respond to changing needs. Conventional load-bearing masonry (Fig. 1) has already some good (convertible) properties. For example it is made out of small, light-weight components, namely bricks. This has the advantage that when reusing the components, a total different configuration can be made and that the components are easy to handle. Nevertheless, due to the small dimensions, there are a large number of components needed to build, for example, a wall and by this large number the amount of (dis)assembly sequences on site increases too, which is often a bottleneck for disassembly. Off-site pre-assembly of several building parts provides a possible answer to this problem. The dimensions of the bricks are standardized according to the method of production, the origin,.., but the different types of bricks are not mutually compatible. This is unfortunate because compatible bricks could give more architectural flexibility in the reuse phase. Finally, the influence of a conventional structure on other building layers with different life spans is a major disadvantage. For example, the space FIG 1: Conventional building node of masonry FIG 2: Dynamic alternative (in the making) for masonry, Q-bricks plan is mainly fixed by the monolithic bearing walls, while according to Brand the space plan changes every 3-30 year and the structure remains sometimes up to 300 years. [1] There is an alternative in the making, namely a smaller variant or Legioblocken, the Q-bricks (Fig. 2), made of rubble waste. At the moment, research is going on to use the stones for emergency sheltering. The bricks are held together only by their own weight and can be reused immediately after use. The small, standardized stones could be piled up by one person. Still, the small dimensions cause a large number of components and connections. The influence on the other building layers remains large and pre-assembly is difficult by the way of connecting. SRB-DUP structure (Fig. 3) is another new type of structure where building parts are unbounded in order to facilitate reuse by using steel plates and bolts. [2] This alternative for masonry can be preassembled and reduces the influence of the structure on the other building layers by making it possible that parts of the structure can be removed and added independently. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that the environmental costs of using steel bolts are too high and that historic brickwork with lime mortar could be a better environmental solution with the same salvageability potential. [3] [1] Brand, How buildings learn: what happens after they re built. Penguin Books, [2] Yamaguchi, Matsufuji, and Koyama, A new structural system: friction-resistant dry-masonry, Build. Res. Inf., vol. 35, no. 6, pp , Nov [3] Nordby, Berge, Hakonsen, and Hestnes, Criteria for salvageability: the reuse of bricks, Build. Res. Inf., vol. 37, no. 1, pp , Feb This research is funded by the Institute of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen) FIG 3: Dynamic alternative for masonry, SRB-DUP structure Existing methods to evaluate a building s capacity to change mostly focus on either expert analysis of technological adaptability or on scenario-based design assessment; this involves adapting a building design according to a set of predetermined architectural programmes (the scenario) and analysing the results. The latter method is slow and predictive, while the former is not necessarily suited to assess the adaptable capacity of existing, nonadaptable buildings. In order to address this, I developed a fast-paced assessment method to determine the generality and adaptability of plan layouts. A building is considered general when it can shelter a variety of functions or architectural programmes without having to change. An adaptable building is a building that has been purposely designed to allow for change. More particularly, the assessment looks at the spatial configuration of the rooms in a plan layout. This can be studied using a Justified Plan Graph (JPG), frequently used in Space Syntax research. In a JPG, an architectural plan is reduced to a network diagram (or graph), were nodes represent rooms and links represent connections between these rooms. The generality of a spatial layout can be expressed as the mean integration of all nodes, where the integration is a dimensionless number that expresses how close a node is to all other nodes (where distance is the number of links you have to traverse to get to all other nodes). In essence, the generality score reflects the amount of architectural configurations that would fit the existing rooms of an existing architectural layout. The innovative aspect of the developed method is that it tries to evaluate the adaptability of a spatial layout by extending upon the JPG method. The adaptability could be seen as a form of generality that also considers potential, non-existing connections between the spaces. These potential connections represent doorways that could be made between spaces by opening up existing walls. The difficulty of opening up this wall is influenced by the characteristics of the wall (structural function, adaptability, embedded services ) and is taken into account in the integration calculation by weighting the links. Theoretically, this generality and adaptability assessment method could be used on any kind of building. Because it has been developed to study adaptability on an urban level, it focusses on existing, non-adaptable buildings of any type. Nevertheless, it could also be applied to purposely designed adaptable buildings. However, in the next stage of this research the general applicability of the method will be verified by testing the method on different plan layouts. This doctoral research is funded by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO). Assessing the adaptability and generality of spatial layouts TRANSFORM Pieter Herthogs 13

8 Adaptive shading elements based on Curved-line Folding TRANSFORM Aline Vergauwen Imagine building envelopes able to actively adapt themselves in response to changing environmental conditions and performance requirements. Recent technological innovations are opening up the development of a new generation of climate adaptive (or responsive) building envelopes, offering the potential to reduce the energy demand while enhancing the indoor comfort. In order to attain this kind of adaptability, foldable structures can be used, providing change in the building envelope s configuration through motion. The folding/unfolding process of this kind of structures is interesting, particularly for the active control of solar radiation and daylighting. Projects like the Dynamic Façade of the Kiefer Technic Showroom in Austria or the kinetic façade of the Abu Dhabi Investment Council have proven the successful application of rigid-foldable plate structures as climate adaptive sun shading devices. The use of curved-line folding for the design of adaptive sun shading elements, however, FIG 1: Grasshopper script which describes the folding behavior of any pattern consisting of only 1 curved crease. remains unexplored. The aim is to study the potential of curved line folding for the design of adaptive façade elements. The first challenge is to morphologically investigate the curved-line folding elements by exploring different mathematical analysis methods in order to understand and describe the folding process. Next, the folding process is translated into parametric 3D models, using Grasshopper and Rhinoceros 3D (FIG 1). Once both the geometric properties and the folding process can be controlled parametrically, the sun shading performance of the curved-line folding elements can be investigated. Since curved-line folding systems differ from rigid-foldable plate systems due to the fact that the curvature of the surfaces changes during the folding process, the effect of this feature on the performance of the shading element is an interesting feature to study. FIG 2: Physical model of 4 foldable shading elements. FIG 3: Conceptual design of a façade with adaptive shading elements based on curved-line folding. Three different phases of the folding process are shown. New system building New technologies in construction such as 3D printing, robot assembly systems and computer numerical control milling are rapidly emerging. Those innovations as well as many other techniques enable the fabrication of custom components. They allow us to build in a systemised way, while leaving the monotonous and impersonal architecture that resulted from industrialisation a few decades ago. This new system building facilitates the construction of transformable buildings, that can fulfil our current and future needs. New financial assessing Construction is of course not only about our needs. It is also about the price we have to pay to fulfil them. Although designers and project owners show interest in the idea of a transformable house, office or studio, they fear the higher initial cost that comes with such a design for change and innovative construction techniques. However, as we know that transformability brings ecological advantages in the long term - through the efficient reuse and recycling of buildings, components and materials - also financial benefits are expected. Financial life-cycle-analyses conducted at our lab and elsewhere illustrated those benefits for buildings that are altered regularly. Life-cycle-analyses are based on the expected values of the service life of components and of future material and labour costs, but future is unpredictable. It is therefore important to develop a financial assessment model that better fits the dynamic nature of transformable buildings. For that reason, this research adopts theories and methods from risk management and financial modelling. Concepts such as option pricing, probabilistic simulation, bandwidth, time horizon and scenario planning are profoundly studied. This research comes with a reappraisal of existing design approaches to transformable building. Based on a broad literature study and additional case studies, an analytical model has been elaborated and revised. Its financial counterpart clusters the technical, social and economic variables that will be included in the new financial assessment model. One of the historical case studies of this research is the Hypothecaire Beleggingskas bank office, located in Antwerp and originally designed by Willy Van Der Meeren. His design consists of a static but versatile load bearing structure and temporary but demountable infill and cladding. The background image on this page shows a detail of the building s front face after its mayor transformation: the reconversion from offices to apartments by Polo Architects. The original façade components are now completed with wooden boxes enhancing the skin s thermal performance. This research is funded by the Research Foundation Flanders FWO. New approaches to transformable building TRANSFORM Waldo Galle 14 15

9 Deployable adaptable shelter based on multi-criteria optimisation TRANSFORM Aushim Koumar A design method for deployable adaptable shelter based on multicriteria optimisation The escalating number of disasters presents huge challenges for humanitarian and development organisations. This increase in affected people worldwide, and most of the time in developing countries, is truly alarming. The most recent data available at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) mentions that 336 natural disasters and 234 technological disasters occurred in Those disasters caused deaths and affected 209 million people. This is a huge amount but is, however, the fourth lowest number of affected people of the decade. In 2010, people were killed by natural disasters, nearly three quarters of them in Haiti. A further 304 million people were affected by those natural disasters. This is almost 30 times the Belgian population When such disasters happen, the aim of each humanitarian organisation is to meet the needs of the affected households by providing, among others, shelter assistance, food and medicine. In order to provide those basic needs, a shelter infrastructure is needed. Two main categories of shelter exist: the family shelter, to provide temporary accommodation to the local population, and collective service tents, also called the emergency tents, which are used as a community centre, dispensary, hospital The latest type however is far from optimal. Beside the fact that the actual emergency tents are difficult to build, they are designed as one size fits all product and cannot be used in the different phases of the recovery. A sustainable shelter solution should in fact not only cover the short-term needs of those who are affected but should also serve as a catalyst for the further development of the local community. A good solution could therefore consist of a construction that can be used in the emergency phase (phase 1) as well as in the development phase (phase 2) of the affected community. My research is opting for a new design approach based on multi-criteria optimisation to combine the solutions of both phases into one type of structure. The aim is to provide a design tool that can be used by NGO s in order to design optimal deployable adaptable scissor shelters for the emergency phase. Furthermore, the elements of those shelters can be combined, after dismantling, in such a way that they result in several housing solutions for the development phase of the affected population. Different challenges are present within this research: How can we use scissor structure for large span structure by assuring their robustness and compactness? Do we have a significant increase in weight by using those structures or can we reduce the selfweight? Can we make such structures modular so that the span and width can be adaptable in function of the need (by removing or adding some components or modules)? How can the structure be enough low-tech so that it promotes reconfiguration for the second phase? Is it feasible to provide an optimal solution in function of the boundary conditions (dependant of the affected community)? I am currently investing a lot of time in order to understand the problematic in the field of emergency operations by being in touch with experts. I have also involved three partners into my research: The Shelter Research Unit of the International Federation of Red Cross, the NGO Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) and the NGO UCOS (University Centre for Development Cooperation) at the VUB. The next step is to design a first shelter model with all the input I obtained. Aushim Koumar (MEMC) Prof. dr. Tysmans T. & Prof. dr. De Temmerman N. Deployable structures have the ability to quickly transform between a very compact, easily transportable state to a much larger deployed state. This attribute makes them ideal as reusable, temporary and mobile structures or for adding adaptable layers to static constructions. Applications include shelters for disaster relief, covers and stages for temporary or travelling events, deployable roofs of sports stadia and adaptive solar shading. Within the group of the deployable structures, deployable scissor and rigid foldable plate structures show very promising architectural qualities since they display a large deployment range, a reliable deployment and are fit for a broad range of applications. Despite their potential and an ever increasing demand for adaptable and mobile structures in architecture, only few of these structures have actually been built. The problem lies within the high complexity of the design process and the poor accessibility to the existing knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this research is to fully comprehend the geometrical and kinematical aspects of deployable scissor and rigid foldable plate structures by unravelling the mathematical principles on which they are based. It will enable generating them in any shape in a generic manner (FIG.1), optimising these models geometrically and kinematically (e.g., towards compactness) and taking the discrete thicknesses into account starting from the first design steps. The outcome will be a toolbox consisting of a theoretical overview of the kinematical and geometrical possibilities and limitations of these structures, as well as a set of digital design tools. Together they provide insight in these complex structures and aid the designer throughout the first stages of the design process in an efficient and interactive manner. They allow to obtain the optimal solution for a given context within a maximum amount of possibilities. As a result, the existing barrier towards creating innovative scissor or plate structures should be significantly lowered. This research is funded by the Institute of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen). FIG 1: Example of a generic design method for deployable scissor structures: a surface of revolution is discretised and populated with scissor units, which are given a discrete thickness. The model was generated using a digital design tool. Optimal geometric and kinematic design of foldable scissor and plate structures TRANSFORM Kelvin Roovers 16 17

10 Ontwerpatelier: Mens en aanpasbaarheid Lise Ongena Laura Ramaekers Thijs Blomme Joris van Weddingen Linde Maes Lloyd De Cock In het eerste jaar Bachelor Ingenieurarchitect wordt de studenten aangeleerd hoe ze een architectuurontwerp kunnen vormgeven dat beantwoordt aan een gegeven actuele probleemstelling. Steeds wordt uitgegaan van een context waarbij het thema mens en aanpasbaarheid centraal staat. We ontwerpen voor de mens gebouwen die een dienende rol vervullen: nu, maar ook in de toekomst. Aanpasbare of transformeerbare gebouwen zijn net die constructies die zich kunnen aanpassen aan veranderende omstandigheden en toekomstige onbekende scenario s. Hergebruik van gebouwen en constructies, en de componenten waaruit ze zijn opgebouwd, draagt rechtstreeks bij tot duurzame ontwerpoplossingen. Ontwerpatelier: mens en aanpasbaarheid Attitude Wie het ontwerpatelier aanvat dient over geen enkele voorkennis te beschikken, alle nodige ontwerp-, teken- en presentatievaardigheden 1 worden in het ontwerpatelier en aanverwante opleidingsonderdelen aangeleerd. Wel wordt van de student een leergierige en zelfkritische houding verwacht, gekoppeld aan creativiteit en inzicht in de driedimensionele ruimte. Er wordt bij aanvang bewust gevraagd om af te stappen van het gekende beeld van architectuur. Niets ligt vast, niets wordt opgelegd, een benadering die past binnen de geest van vrij onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Dit uitgangspunt is nodig om ingenieur-architecten te kunnen vormen die een eigen ontwerpattitude en -methode ontwikkelen doorheen de opeenvolgende ontwerpateliers (1 tot 5), die gekenmerkt worden door een stijgende complexiteit. Deze attitude is gebaseerd op de eigen ideeën en inzichten en de kritische benadering van die van anderen. De ingenieur-architect wordt opgeleid tot een creatief en rationeel ontwerper, met een groot vermogen tot kritisch denken en zelfreflectie. Aline Vergauwen 1IA Niels De Temmerman, Ann Verdonck, Mieke Vandenbroucke 18 Ine Papen 19

11 Begeleiding Opdracht 1: Een drijvend verblijf De ontwerpbegeleiding vindt wekelijks plaats en bestaat uit een gesprek tussen begeleider en student, waarbij de vorderingen van de voorbije week in het schetsboek worden besproken. Er wordt vanaf de eerste ontwerpbegeleiding aandacht besteed aan de structurele aspecten van een constructie (sterkte en stijfheid) en aan de technische detaillering (verbindingen tussen bouwcomponenten). Dit gebeurt o.a. via wisselwerking met het opleidingsonderdeel Bouwtechniek: massiefbouw en door een sterke interactie met het vak Perspectieftekenen en Voorstellingstechnieken. In dat laatste wordt aangeleerd hoe - eerst schetsmatig, later meetkundig correct - een driedimensioneel ontwerpidee op een tweedimensionele manier kan worden voorgesteld en gecommuniceerd. Het ontwerpatelier bestaat uit kleine schetsopdrachten, een inleidende ontwerpopdracht en een tweede eindopdracht met stijgende complexiteit. Van oudsher wonen mensen aan of op het water en ook vandaag nog bestaat deze woonvorm in allerlei varianten (paalwoningen, drijvende dorpen, woonboten, drijvende huizen, floating farms,...). Bij wijze van introductie in het ontwerp van een minimale woonplek wordt gekozen voor een primaire vorm van wonen: een tijdelijk drijvend verblijf op het water dat de basisactiviteiten van de bewoner(s) optimaal ondersteunt. Gelet op het feit dat de opgave zich toespitst op een tijdelijk verblijf dat wordt gekenmerkt door een kleine ruimte, moet er worden omgegaan met de begrippen tijdelijkheid en transformatie. Gebouwen en constructies staan bovendien steeds in een context, en interageren ermee. Wanneer die context verandert (weersinvloeden, functiewijziging, verplaatsen naar nieuwe site,...) dan dient de constructie zich aan te passen aan die veranderende omstandigheden. Dit proces kan optimaal ondersteund worden wanneer de constructie over een zekere transformatiecapaciteit beschikt. Het thema water zal in deze opgave in ruime mate de constructie en haar gebruik beïnvloeden. Eva Meskens In de woning zelf zit de complexiteit van het leven verborgen: complexiteit van functies en relaties, van context en betekenissen, van privacy en persoonlijke ontwikkeling, van cultuur en maatschappij. Het ontwerpen van een woning is dan ook een complexe opgave en blijft ook voor een volleerd ontwerper een uitdaging. Joris van Weddingen Nina Alens Janis Brinkman 20 21

12 Opdracht 2: Tijdelijke huisvesting in een stedelijke context Linde Maes Brussel heeft een problematisch tekort aan huisvestiging: de wachtlijsten voor sociale woningen zijn lang, de noodopvang tijdens de winter voor daklozen blijft problematisch, studenten vinden moeilijk een betaalbaar kot, enz. Daarenboven blijft de bevolkingsdichtheid groeien terwijl de vrije ruimte schaarser wordt. Een mogelijke oplossing zijn minimale en tijdelijke woningen. De opdracht bestaat er dan ook in om hierop een antwoord te bieden: ontwerp voor een bepaalde doelgroep naar keuze een tijdelijke, minimale huisvesting. Het tijdelijke karakter wordt benadrukt door een eenvoudige woning te ontwerpen die op korte termijn verschillende groottes van gezinnen of andere noden aankan, bijvoorbeeld met behulp van schuifbare wanden die op lange termijn verplaatst of weggehaald kunnen worden. De woning kan ook uitgebreid worden of misschien kan een deel meegenomen worden naar een andere locatie. De woning bevat een eenvoudig woonvertrek, met aandacht voor de privacy van de bewoner. Het te ontwerpen gebouw gaat een dialoog aan met de omringende gebouwen en omgeving. Omgaan met het spanningsveld tussen publiek en privaat, wonen en opbergen, dag- en nachtfunctie, behoort tot de opgave. Arnaud Vandenbossche Charlotte Cambier 22 Joris Van Weddingen Koen Melis Lloyd De Cock 23

13 HISTORICAL WAREHOUSES IN THE BRUSSELS CAPITAL REGION. Researching and preserving commercial and industrial buildings Urban warehouses of the nineteenth-century are remarkable structures. As essential facilities in national and international trade and industry during that period, they were heralds of modernization: their presence signifying that a city was integrated into a commercial network made possible by evolving transportation technology. Today, these wonderful buildings are obsolete for their original purposes and therefore endangered. Preserving them has an important social value, in that it would maintain the distinctive look and ambience of former trading and manufacturing areas, and create a sense of continuity between the past and present. Brussels, as a commercial and manufacturing city, has a rich, diverse, and unique collection of old warehouses on its territory, which are worthy being preserved. In the framework of the project Creating a typology of warehouses for Brussels and beyond, supervised by Ine Wouters and Inge Bertels, the American senior researcher Sara Wermiel was funded by Innoviris to study the Brussels warehouses during 5 months. The main product of the research project is an overview of the typologies of the historic Brussels warehouses, which identifies the defining features of this type of building, both architectural and structural. The database of historic warehouses reveals that many historical industrial and warehouse properties have been renovated and re-purposed, however their preservation does not appear to be part of any systematic planning that incorporates historic preservation in redevelopment considerations. Indeed, the old industrial areas with the most historical industrial buildings notably Sint-Jans- Molenbeek and Anderlecht are districts where the Region s urban development pressures may be channelled. This could present opportunities for reusing old buildings. But it could also lead to the kind of general demolition and reconstruction, and insensitive alterations of existing buildings, that have obliterated much of the urban fabric in the north section of the Pentagon and made the old port area unrecognizable for what it had been. To present the research, to consider warehouses in various contexts and to discuss the results with professionals active in the field, an international study day on WAREHOUSES was organized in December Scholars Jens Aerts (BUUR and STeR*, BE), Sara Wermiel (USA) and Hans Bonke (NL) provided the theoretical background on harbour development and the position of the historical warehouses in Belgium and beyond. Maria Leus (PHL, NL), Nele Stragier (L Escaut architects, BE) and Carl Verdickt (Verdickt & Verdickt architects, BE) discussed re-purposed warehouses in Flanders and Brussels. Do you want to know more and detect which Brussels warehouses are on the list of protected monuments? Inge Bertels, Sara Wermiel and Ine Wouters published a full article Brusselse pakhuizen: een beladen toekomst in the Brussels heritage journal Brussels Erfgoed (2013). This research was funded via a Brains (back) to Brussels grant of Innoviris. FIG 1: Urban warehouses in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek with characterising features: doors for loading goods, exterior pulley for raising and lowering goods, more wall to window area on the façade FIG 2: Study day BRUSSELS WAREHOUSES in December 2012 FIG 3: Presentation Nele Stragiers from l Escaut Architects at the study day FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Historical Warehouses in the Brussels Capital Region RE-USE Ine Wouters, Inge Bertels 24 25

14 A popular finish in Belgian Art Deco buildings is Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass developed by the S.A. Verreries de Fauquez (Wallonia, Belgium). The popularity and thus production of these mass coloured plate glass reached a peak between the two World Wars. This opalescent glass was applied as finish for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative cladding, name plates, tabletops, etc. Marbrite Fauquez glass became the greatest success of the Fauquez factory, that even built its own pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs in Paris (1925), accelerating a breakthrough for Marbrite panels. Architect Joseph Van Neck designed the Verreries de Fauquez pavilion, which demonstrated possible applications of opalescent glass. Following this success, trademark Marbrite Fauquez was registered and thus protected in In the 1930s, about half of the Marbrite production was exported to France, England, Vienna, Prague and U.S. The Fauquez factory cooperated with companies in the North of France and in Czechoslovakia, where Marbrite was sold as Kalopaxit. Due to increasing competition, the available range of colours was extended and the quality of marbrite improved. Marbrite owed its success to a low cost due to the fire-polishing process, and was applied in order to respond to the rebuilding campaign after the First World War. Besides this low cost, its hygienic features, inertness to acids, strength, stability, everlasting brilliance, marble-like aspect and a wide range of possible colours and dimensions explains its popularity. The Fauquez factory published l Art Mural, a journal about wall coverings from 1937 till 1939, in which the different colours are shown: black, marbled mahogany, onyx green, white or ivory, cream, marbled grey, marbled bluish grey, bluish green, pale green, salmon, marbled salmon, royal blue, blue, yellow, pink, smoky green, dark greenish blue, etc. The veined marbrite panels were a perfect ersatz for marble. After all, meilleur que le marbre plus beau que la faïence (better than marble, more beautiful than earthenware) was the advertising slogan of the glassworks of Fauquez. Next to a wide range of colours, different finishes were manufactured. Regular Marbrite Fauquez had a smooth and brilliant surface after it was fire-polished in the oven. A second type was the granulated Marbrite glass, of which the surface was rolled over with a patterned roll rendering the glass plate a matt aspect. It was produced from 1924 until Fauquez luxury Marbrite ( ) is a third variant and was produced from approximately 1905 until the Second World War. This high quality Marbrite glass was mechanically polished after the fire-polishing process had occurred. This treatment was carried out in order to obtain a high quality and brilliant shiny glass plate. To avoid small stains and irregularities in the surface, this marbrite de luxe was polished twice. It was available in black, marbled onyx green, marbled greenish blue, marbled light and medium grey, marbled bluish grey, light, medium and dark mahogany, marbled royal blue and marbled ultramarine blue. Besides Fauquez, two other Belgian producers in Floreffe and in Roux were specialized in the manufacture of opaline or marmorite at the beginning of the 20th century. Marbrite Fauquez was available in glass plates of 3m50 long and one metre wide. They had a thickness of six to eight millimetres and even up to 18 and 20 millimetres. These extra thick Marbrite sheets were only available in black, white, cream, salmon and green and were applied as façade cladding, mostly in the mechanically polished finish. Not only the thickness could vary, also the dimensions per tile were standardized: 30x30, 40x40, 50x50, 40x20, 40x30, 50x30, 50x40 centimetres. The product sale and promotion of the Marbrite products was the result of a whole well-organised network of about 24 marbritiers or distributors, each of them having their own sector. Announcements in the Fauquez journal l Art Mural ( ) were also substantial in this communication process. Due to changing trends and the emergence of newly developed materials, the sale and production of Marbrite relapsed after the Second World War. The Marbrite department of the Fauquez factory finally closed in This research is carried out in co-operation wit KIK-IRPA. FIG 1: Postcard by Verreries de Fauquez, written on the backside: polished mahogany for wainscoting of a shop at Blankenberge (date unknown, coll. Cis Kennes). FIG 2. Advertisement by one of Fauquez selling agents (journal l Art Mural, , AAM Brussels) Marbrite glass, a clear view of an opalescent Art Deco glass RE-USE Liesbeth Dekeyser 26 27

15 When assessing static and fatigue resistances of historical iron and steel structures, an in-depth knowledge of riveting techniques and practices is a necessary first-stage task before undertaking any renovation or rehabilitation project. Unfortunately, very limited information is available in literature. Moreover, bridge and building construction communities have steadily forgotten the know-how regarding the complex, and now largely obsolete, riveting technology. Experimental investigations - geometry, metallography, etc. - allow to potentially reveal and identify the original material properties, design, manufacturing and driving techniques of rivets. A rivet consists of a shank and a first rivet head - called shop head - formed by crushing the end of a cut segment of cylindrical iron bar. Once the rivet heated by the rivet stoker (A) in the forge took on a red-orange to white-hot colour, the rivet was thrown to the rivet catcher (B) who caught it with tongs to insert it in the rivet hole. Then the holder-on (C) bucked up (held in place) the rivet on the shop side with a dolly bar and the riveter (D) formed the second rivet head, the field head, on the protruding shank end with a hand-held hammer or a riveting machine [FIG 1]. Geometry (NDT), rivet manufacture Before 1850, rivet manufacture was a manual technique and peculiar to every shop. The mechanization of the manufacturing process allowed the many different shapes and dimensions of rivets characteristic of that period, to be standardized and the variety reduced. While many of the first manufacturing machines ( ) were multifunctional - manufacturing of bolts and rivets, and nails, etc. - the specific rivetmaking machines developed from the second half of the 19th century onwards, clearly were aimed at solving the main technical issues of the time (e.g. supply of iron bars, ejection of the forged rivets). Rivets being geometrically affine for a given form of the rivet head, it is possible to approximately deduce the values of the shank diameter d as well as the plate thickness e from the geometry of the rivet head - i.e. the head diameter D, head depth h and radius of curvature R - by a non-destructive way [FIG 2, top-right]. For round rivet heads, which were the most common ones for loadbearing structures, the following three main ratios - kind of rules of thumb - contribute to enlighten us: D/d, h/d, and R/d, being equal to 5/3, 2/3, and ca. 0.86, respectively. In particular, tests performed by Ch. Frémont in 1906 on the optimization of the h/d ratio proved that the value of 2/3 was safe, and prevented any head failure (tearing off) under accidental axial tensile load. Metallography, rivet driving Destructive assessments of riveted connections (rivet shank, rivet heads, and clamped plies) can add to our knowledge on the quality of the original material properties and driving process. Microstructural and metallographic analyses provide information on the manufacturing process and the chemical composition. For hot-driven wrought-iron rivets, the shape and distribution of slag inclusions can indirectly reveal the different degrees of hot workings they had undergone, i.e. the wrought-iron bars used for rivet manufacture. Regarding the chemical composition, previous research showed that the ductility of wrought iron decreases as the phosphorus content of the ferrite increases and/or in presence of excessive slag. In fine, both the manufacturing process and the chemical composition of wrought iron have a significant impact on the mechanical properties. Several experiments carried out in countries such as France or the US proved that the tensile strength of undriven rivets was increased if mechanically driven (average increase of 20%). Looking at the fibres arrangement at the junction of the rivet head and shank allows to distinguish manually- from machine-driven rivets. The machine driving process induces a reorientation of slag inclusions in a barrel shape [FIG 2, top-left] while manual driving generates a tulip-shaped fibres arrangement [FIG 2, bottom-left]. Though non-destructive, geometrical analyses reveal invaluable observations that still remain partially hypothetical. Metallographic investigations are complementary and help to elucidate the mysteries of this riveting story! This research is funded by the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO Vlaanderen). FIG 1: Riveting gang assembling a builtup section of the Eiffel Tower in 1889 (manual riveting): the rivet stoker (A), the rivet catcher (B), the holder-on (C), and the riveter (D) (Tissandier, G. ed. (1889). La Tour Eiffel de 300 mètres, Paris: G. Masson) FIG 2: Charles Frémont s reproduction of Edwin Clark s engraving of hot-driven rivets (1850): longitudinal cross-section showing fibres arrangement of machine-driven (top) and hand-driven (bottom) shop- and field rivet heads (Frémont, C. (1906). Etude expérimentale du rivetage, Paris: Société d encouragement pour l industrie nationale). A RIVETing story: rivet manufacture and driving RE-USE Quentin Collette 28 29

16 Documentation and conservation of the post-war housing stock in Brussels ( ) During the post-war period ( ), a vast number of residential buildings was built in Brussels, varying from single family houses, collective low-rise projects and mediumrise urban apartments, to high-rise building blocks. The majority of these buildings needs retrofitting within the next decades, as original building systems deteriorate and current demands rise, especially with regard to comfort and energy consumption. Yet the framework and criteria to renovate this postwar heritage is lacking: this patrimony is often conceived as too young to be taken into account within heritage practices, and researchers are still defining the qualities of the post-war architectural production. Many of these buildings are in a varying state of decay or are threatened to be demolished, making the question for an appropriate renovation strategy urgent. When determining the appropriate renovation concepts and materials for post-war houses, the value of these buildings needs to be taken into account, from an economic, social, environmental, architectural, and heritage point of view. The strategies used to retrofit should also respect the structure s significance: buildings of high value, in heritage terms, need special strategies, which strengthen the original ideas and qualities of the building. Likewise, the retrofit strategy for less original or characteristic buildings, although old and durable, can be less demanding. Moreover, the renovation strategies need to bear in mind the specific characteristics of postwar architecture. For example, typical for post-war house building is the large-scale application of new, innovative or experimental building materials, techniques and processes like prefabrication and industrialization, as constructing affordable housing at high speed was high on the agenda during the post-war era. Also, unlike architecture of the 19th century and before, the intent of Modern Movement buildings was less permanent and their materials were less precious concrete appeared to be not as indestructible as was assumed, iron reinforcements started to corrode, while some curtain walls have aged badly. Yet knowledge on these innovative materials and construction techniques and on how to renovate them is lacking. It is therefore important to analyze and learn to assess these innovations, in order to determine the historical value and evaluate their retrofitting capacity, with specific attention for the original durability intentions and the way in which construction details and connections were designed. These details and connections were often part of a prefabrication concept or meccano-system, thus indicating the possible application of design to dismantle, re-use or zero-waste renovation strategies. This research sets out to document the construction and technological aspects of the post-war building stock, in order to offer criteria for evaluating the heritage value of post-war single housing units, complexes, and ensembles in the Brussels capital region, in relation to its retrofitting capacities. These criteria will enable the various actors (owners, architects, engineers, contractors, Direction of Monuments & Sites, ) to identify the qualities of the building and corresponding levels of interventions and measures. Challenging the tension between historical knowledge and current demands, combining construction history, renovation techniques and building physics, the research is embedded in a multidisciplinary research team, consisting of dr. ir.-arch. Stephanie Van de Voorde, professors Ine Wouters, Inge Bertels, Ann Verdonck and Filip Descamps. This research is funded by Innoviris, the Brussels Institute for Research and Innovation. The project fits within the framework of the strategic research platform Brussels Retrofit XL, in which Innoviris gathers and funds researchers from various scientific partners in the Brussels region. Within this group, a close collaboration will be pursued with the research groups on Dynamic Reuse Strategies for the retrofitting of post-war housing in Brussels (Anne Paduart and Niels De Temmerman, VUB-ARCH, ReUse Lab, see p. 9) and Sustainable retrofit of urban blocks and buildings in the Brussels Capital Region (Arnaud Evrard and Sophie Trachte, UCL/LOCI; Aranzazu Galan Gonzalez and Aristide Athanassiadis, ULB/BATir). FIG 1: An example of post-war prefabrication and industrialisation: accommodation for students at the VUB-campus in Etterbeek designed by Willy Van Der Meeren (1973). (Archive of the technical department of the VUB) FIG 2: The apartment building La Magnanerie in Forest, designed by Claude Laurens and Jacques Cuisinier ( ), was constructed with the industrialised building system Barets. (Betty Campbell, New building in Belgium is bringing many changes to its charming capital, in: Concrete Quarterly, April-June 1964, vol. 18, n. 61, p. 29) FIG 3: The apartment building Ieder Zijn Huis in Evere ( ) is currently being renovated by the architectural office Origin Architecture & Engineering, with respect to Van Der Meeren s original architectural and structural concepts and strategies. (Picture by Anne Paduart, May 16, 2013) Post-war housing stock in Brussels ( ) RE-USE Stephanie Van de Voorde 30 31

17 User behaviour plays a key role in the energy demand of residential buildings, and its importance will only increase when moving towards nearly-zero-homes. However, little information is available on how users interact with their homes. Due to the lack of information, user behaviour is often included in building performance simulations through one standard user profile. To obtain more accurate building simulations, we need user profiles that capture the variations in behaviour. By applying cluster analysis on Belgian timeuse data, we defined occupancy profiles that can be implemented in building energy simulations. To obtain a more energy efficient building stock, we need accurate prediction and modelling methods for energy demand that take into account both building characteristics and user behaviour. The current energy performance calculation method ISO focuses primarily on building characteristics. The result is a theoretical energy consumption. However, once the dwelling is occupied, the actual energy consumption may differ greatly from the predicted theoretical consumption. Researchers believe that this difference is caused by the diversity of user behaviour, since they have found a wide variation of the energy consumption of dwellings with similar building characteristics. User behaviour influences the energy demand of a building both passively and actively. On the one hand, the presence of people in a building will lead to passive effects such as the change of heating or cooling demand. On the other hand, active effects include the operation of control devices (e.g. window opening, lighting control) or the use of electrical appliances (e.g. computers, washing machines). Both effects are closely related: the presence of people is required for the majority of control actions and the use of most appliances. Understanding of both the passive and the active effects of user behaviour is needed when modelling (nearly-)zero-energy buildings because these buildings are primarily heated by the sun, metabolic heat of the users and heat emitted from electrical home appliances. However, these effects are difficult to predict because they are based on the user s preferences and habits rather than on purely rational choices. We developed a set of occupancy profiles for user behaviour modelling by performing cluster analysis on a Belgian time-use survey. This survey contains detailed information on the whereabouts and activities of 6400 respondents from 3474 households with a time resolution of 10 minutes. For each of the respondents we analysed the occupancy data from their survey entries. We used hierarchical clustering analysis to detect similarities in the occupancy data. The results of the hierarchical clustering are presented in a dendrogram (fig 1). The higher the branches split, the higher the differences between two branches. Based on the dendrogram, we defined seven clusters. From the average occupancy data of these clusters, we formulated discrete occupancy profiles (fig. 2). To acquire better insight in user behaviour, we analysed the composition of the clusters based on the respondents employment, income and age (fig.2). For weekdays, we found that users that are employed fulltime are mainly situated in profiles with low occupancy levels during daytime (e.g. profile 1 and 2). Conversely, those who are either unemployed or retired are largely represented by profiles with high occupancy levels during daytime (e.g. profile 7). As expected, age is closely related to employment. The majority of respondents aged between 12 and 55 are found in profiles with high-absence profiles, whilst respondents older than 55 are typically characterised by low-absence profiles. Respondents with a higher income are increasingly likely to be found in the profiles with high absence during the day. Respondents with very low incomes, possibly unemployment allowances, are typically represented by the low-absence profiles. An exception to this finding are children under 18, who do not receive an income. We presented a set of profiles that describe the occupancy behaviour of users and linked these profiles to the employment type and age of the users. The profiles may be implemented in building simulations. They may also serve as a foundation for the improvement of user behaviour calculations in energy performance regulations. This research is funded by the Brussels Institute for Research and Innovation (Innoviris Brussel). FIG 1: Results of the hierarchical clustering PROFILE 1 PROFILE 2 PROFILE 7 FIG 2: Discrete profiles and profile composition according to age, employment and income Discrete occupancy profiles from time - use data RE-USE Dorien Aerts 32 33

18 The use of natural stone in architecture was always considered in the past as a way to increase the status of a building. Since natural stone was a durable imported product, only the rich could afford it to build prominent structures. In the late 19th century, the introduction of Portland cement led to innovative compositions towards decorative rendering mortars. From this point, craftsmen started to apply the plasters on façades to create an almost perfect imitation of a sandstone masonry, known as pierre-simili. Pierre-simili is a mixture of binder, aggregate and several additives, and may be applied directly as a cladding on wall surfaces. Sometimes the stone imitation is precast produced in moulds and afterwards integrated in façades as decorative elements (artificial stone). Since there is no uniform formula for pierre-simili (some types were ready-mixed mortars, some were composed on site) the colour and other visual characteristics may differ. The main ingredients of the compositions are lime, mica, crunched natural stone and white cement. After application, the surface was scratched or scraped to shape a rough texture. In order to create a convincing sand stone masonry imitation, simulated joints were drawn into the wet plaster. Today, these peculiar finishes suffer in most cases from pollution, cracks, peeling off and other damage which have completely changed the initial perception. Since there is lack of knowledge towards the composition, properties and application of these plasters within the restoration/conservation issues, many questions remain unanswered. As a consequence, incorrect decisions are often made during restoration, resulting in increasing damage. To gain insight into the characteristics of pierre-simili plasters, it is important to focus on their historical background. Terranova, Terrasit, Edelputz, Chromolith and Culemix are different brands of ready-mix simili rendering mortars. Since they possess each a slightly different color and texture, it is interesting to compare the composition of a few particular types. This article includes a brief overview of the Dura variant. In 1911, Adriaan Martens established a company for building materials - next to the train station of Kalmthout. This expansive family business transformed into NV Kempische Betonwerken in Besides precast concrete elements, cement and granito finishes, the firm was mainly known for their Dura artificial stone and Dura plaster. This pierre-simili has a light limestone colour and was frequently used for façade renovations, to hide building traces in the underlying masonry structure. An example of the Dura plaster can be found on the awning of the Sint-Lievens college in Antwerp (1929). A sample was lifted and examined in the laboratories of the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA 2006). Optical microscopy shows a mortar composed of three layers: one coarse granular layer and two upper fine-grained layers. The top layer has a thickness of about 3 mm and contains sharp sand particles ( µm) with a small amount of potassium feldspars. Cracked lime fragments are found in combination with cement traces, which indicates the use of a bad mortar (a mix of Portland cement and hydraulic lime). The Dura mortar also had an indoor application, which is illustrated by the interior of the public swimming pool in Antwerp (Veldstraat, 1932). In the thirties, it was necessary to finish pool halls in a hygienic, sustainable way. Because of the high humidity levels, it was no longer allowed to use wood or iron elements (they would degrade prematurely). In this case, a water resistant French stone finish was applied above a tiled plinth. In addition, architect Renaat Braem made a few designs in which he used a Dura mortar in combination with white glass particles (like dwelling Janssens in Deurne, 1936). A. Martens s firm also manufactured artificial Dura stones. Architects submitted their plans with the desired stone dimensions - to the factory s foreman. Together with reinforcing bars, the Dura mix was cast into the formwork. After 3 days the artificial stones were sufficiently hardened to start with handcrafted moulures. This research is funded by the Institute for Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen). FIG 1: Façade composed of both cast FIG 2: Damaged pierre-simili finish (Old stones, masonry and pierre-simili mortar Bankbuilding Leuven, 1913) FIG 4: Detail of a simulated joint FIG 5: Window sill in white Dura stone FIG 3: Rendering mortar in Dura FIG 6: Drawing with specific dimensions for pierre-simili stones FIG 7: Artificial cast stones at the Dura factory FIG 8: Delivery note Kempische Betonwerken N.V. Pierre Simili: the art of stone imitation RE-USE Yves Govaerts 34 35

19 inleidende Simulation tekst of 19th-century heat- and wind-induced low-pressure ventilation main systems text body. in buildings using CFD This research is funded by the Institute for Innovation by Science When and renovating Technology Flanders and/or (IWT-Vlaanderen). reusing our 19th-century patrimonium, attention is given to the architecture and structural characteristics. Modern building techniques to ensure an adequate thermal comfort are often added in a second phase, without taking into account the former techniques included in the buildings. However, the air shafts of heat- and wind- induced lowpressure ventilation systems present in 19th-century buildings give us a unique opportunity to investigate the potential of hybrid ventilation systems in renovations, and thus to establish an energy efficient restoration of historic buildings, with maximal respect for the former technology. The electrical energy needed for mechanical ventilation represents a significant share in the energy balance of a building. The analysis, development and optimization of natural and hybrid ventilation techniques for hygienic and night ventilation is therefore of an important economical and energetic relevance. In hybrid ventilations strategies, natural and mechanical ventilation techniques are combined into an innovative and efficient system. They include the use of renewable energy sources, energy recovery, demand control and energy efficient technologies, but also low-pressure ventilation systems. Low-pressure ventilation systems Throughout building history, a large range of natural low pressure techniques such as wind towers, wind catchers, chimneys and earth-air heat exchangers were developed and used to improve the indoor air quality and temperature. In the 19th century two main artificial ventilation methods were developed to ensure sufficient air change rate in large buildings: a mechanical ventilation system, including fans and ventilators, and a heatand wind-induced low-pressure ventilation system. In the latter, the temperature difference between outdoor and indoor temperature creates low- pressure differences to induce an air flow in the building to extract the foul air. In winter, the natural temperature difference between interior and exterior air was sufficient to supply fresh air and to extract the used air from the rooms, but this was not the case in summer. Heating elements were introduced into the duct system to induce an adequate draught in the air channels. Although the temperature difference was the main source of air displacement, the flow was also influenced by wind. An air extraction element on the roof was added to the ventilation system and contributed to its performance. The improved numerical simulation of air flows by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and dynamic energy balances, makes an accurate dimensioning and recalculation of these inventive 19thcentury low-pressure systems possible. This allows us to control the problems such as draught and counter flow, in order to reuse the system for hygienic ventilation and night ventilation in the renovation and restoration of 19th-century buildings. Simulating ventilation In this research, based on a study of the 19th-century heat and wind driven ventilation system and their air extraction elements, and a survey of available contemporary hybrid ventilation techniques, the low pressure ventilation system will be modeled and optimized using dynamic simulation and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software. When simulating the energy performance of buildings, one includes the performance of roof elements by using the wind pressure coefficient. These coefficients are determined by wind tunnel testing and CFD simulations, including only the wind flow (FIG.1) But, in the case of natural ventilation, the heat-induced air flow will be more important, and it will affect the wind pressure coefficients. To assess the performance of a low-pressure ventilation system, heat and wind effect must therefore be included. When translating this ventilation situation to CFD, we must thus include wind around the building (turbulent air flow), the heat transfer between the outside and inside air flow and the heat transfer between the outside flow and the building itself. For natural ventilation cases, as the temperature differences remain small, the air can be considered as an incompressible fluid to speed up numerical simulation using the approximation. These characteristics of natural ventilation lead to the development of a new natural ventilation solver for the Open source CFD software OpenFOAM- 1.6ext, to analyze the flow conditions of heat- and wind- induced low-pressure flow (FIG.2). This research is funded by the Institute for Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT- Vlaanderen). FIG 1: When simulating ventilation, we must include heat and wind effect FIG 2: Characteristics of the natural ventilation solver 19th-century heat- and wind-induced low-pressure ventilation RE-USE Maaike van der Tempel 36 37

20 THE JAPANESE TOWER AT THE ROYAL DOMAIN IN LAKEN: REHABILITATION OF A UNIQUE JAPANESE LACQUER ENSEMBLE In the municipality of Laken, just outside the city centre of Brussels, lies the Royal Domain with the Royal Residence. The Japanese Tower is situated next to the Royal Gardens and the Van Praetlaan. Established by order of King Leopold II of Belgium, the Tower is nowadays property of the Belgian State and is thereby managed by the Buildings Agency of the Belgian Government. The ground floor is occupied by the Museum of the Far East, part of the Royal Museums of Art and History. It houses collections of Japanese art. As the access to the building is very difficult, the Tower itself has never been properly used. For many decades, the five floors of the Tower have been left untouched.therefore the tower could keep its original decoration. The Japanese Tower dates from 1904 and is designed by the famous French architect Alexandre Marcel ( ). The Tower itself is timber-framed, made by European craftsmen. The remarkable interior decoration consists on the one hand of elements, which were shipped from Japan, and on the other hand of European parts. The major challenge of the preliminary research on the interior decoration was the identification and differentiation of Japanese and European interventions. The research methodology sought to maximize the link between historical research, architectural paint research on-site and laboratory research on representative paint samples. A rich variety of decoration techniques and materials was found during the architectural paint research: Japanese lacquer-work, Japanese and European Aventurine and polychromy, Japanese and European finishes on canvas, wood or stucco, metal decorations and Japanese wallpaper. Observations made by prof. dr. William Coaldrake and Shigeru Kubodera confirm the extensive use of ikkei saishiki, a special Japanese technique, which uses both lacquer and polychromy and demands extraordinary virtuosity. Among the Japanese decorative pieces, elements from the late Edo and Meiji period were identified. During examination and analysis it became clear that European craftsmen have retouched lots of original Japanese decoration during set up. This retouching, confirmed by the accounts found in the Brussels Royal Archives, increases the complexity of identifying European and Japanese work. Previous to the masterplan, damage assessment and restoration tests were executed. There are different levels of conservation in this important cultural property: dusting, cleaning, fixation, application of clear lacquer over faded and ultra-violet damaged lacquer, climate control, protection against UV and the removal of extensively applied European varnish, that has been used extensively and incorrectly in the past as a means of conservation. The rediscovery and research of the sumptuous interior decoration in the Japanese Tower, including many parts brought from Japan, provides unique insights into Meiji era Japonisme in Europe and cultural relations between Europe and Japan at the turn of the Twentieth Century. The rehabilitation of this splendid ensemble will be a major challenge for the future conservation team, as it was for the research team. Detail of a dragon panel of a sliding door in ikkei saishiki, a special Japanese technique, which uses both lacquer and polychromy Timber frame of the Japanese Tower during construction in 1902: Marcel seemed to be delighted about the timber frame: The characteristics and also the enormous difficulty of this immense work lays in the execution of the entire structure in wood without using any iron. By rejecting the European way of building and adapting Japanese construction methods, a perfect balance between the oeuvre and its resistance to the northern winds was obtained. But clearly Marcel was not completely convinced of the Japanese construction methods and added wooden wind braces on each level of the structure. ( Brussels Royal Archives, collection no. 586) The Japanese Tower at the Royal Domain in Laken RE-USE Ann Verdonck, Marjolein Deceuninck 38 39

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