23.7 The Conclusions XVIII-2 of the Committee suggested non-conformity of the Dutch education system with the Charter.

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1 Introduction 23.1 On 10 September 2007 applicants submitted an application - now registered as application nr 39881/07 - to the European Court for Human Rights after the Dutch Council of State had decided [PRODUCTION f6] that no mainstream secondary school could be forced to admit (pupils like) Sterre. Earlier findings of the only type of special school that is entitled to enroll Sterre was that it was not fit to deliver good education for (children like) Sterre [PRODUCTIONS g3, g4 and sections and of the application form]. As a consequence no school after primary education can be found in the Netherlands for Sterre and parents decided to enroll Sterre in a secondary school in London from September 2005 onwards Under question 15 (sections ) of the application form, applicants referred to international opinions and conventions concerning the right to education for pupils with disabilities. This amendment on the application adds the recent findings of the European Committee of Social Rights on the Dutch education system The Dutch Secretary of State for Education denies any obligation to comply with international human rights treaties, conventions or charters to guarantee the right to education for disabled pupils. Commenting on the decision of the Council of State about Sterre [PRODUCTION f6] she wrote in her letter of 5 July 2007 to applicants that she could do nothing about it [PRODUCTION f7] and in a subsequent letter of 25 September 2007 [PRODUCTION z3] she denied any liability for the right to education for (children like) Sterre stating: Het recht op onderwijs in de mensenrechtenverdragen bevat geen harde, expliciete juridische basis voor kinderen met een beperking om onderwijs te volgen. zoals andere kinderen dat kunnen. Evenmin bestaat er een verdragsbepaling op Europees of mondiaal niveau die de overheid verplicht om speciaal onderwijs aan te bieden of regulier onderwijs mede geschikt te maken voor kinderen met een beperking Recently The European Committee of Social Rights commented on the19th report on the application of the European Charter over the period as submitted by the Netherlands on 20 July 2006 [PRODUCTION z6] Concerning Article15 of the Charter, the article about the right of persons with disabilities to independence, social integration and participation in the life of the community, the Committee expressed her concerns [PRODUCTION z4] Dutch government is required to submit additional information before 31 October The European Committee of Social Rights will comment on the Dutch report by December The Conclusions XVIII-2 of the Committee suggested non-conformity of the Dutch education system with the Charter. Non-conformity The Committee recalls that the underlying vision of Article 15 1 makes the existence of a non-discrimination legislation necessary. This legislation should, as a minimum, require a application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 491

2 compelling justification for special or segregated education. The legislation should also provide an effective remedy in the case pupils are unlawful excluded or segregated or otherwise denied an effective right to education. The Committee wants to know from the next report if such a legislation exists As shown in the case concerning the applications for Sterre, the courts and the Council of State didn't ask for a compelling justification but merely answered the question whether schools could refuse Sterre at all. Obviously the compelling evidence that the LGFlegislation demands is secondary to the freedom of education given to the school boards in article 23 of the Constitution. The Secretary of State for Education underlines in her letters even more [PRODUCTION f7 and x3] that no effective remedy exists Although further anti-discrimination legislation is in place: (Equal Treatment Disabled and Chronically Ill People Act, Wet Gelijke Behandeling op grond van Handicap of Chronische Ziekte, WGBH/CZ) this legislation does not (yet) apply to primary and secondary education. Parliament is very reluctant to adopt a proposal to extend the WGBH/CZ to funding (primary and secondary) education (Kamerstuk ) because such legislation could interfere with article 23 of the Constitution which grants the freedom for schools to implement education. Article 23 section 2 of the Constitution states: Het geven van onderwijs is vrij, behoudens het toezicht van de overheid en, voor wat bij de wet aangewezen vormen van onderwijs betreft, het onderzoek naar de bekwaamheid en de zedelijkheid van hen die onderwijs geven, een en ander bij de wet te regelen. and the legislation referred to in art 23 of the Constitution states: De beslissing over toelating en verwijdering van leerlingen berust bij het bevoegd gezag... (art 40 section 1 Wet Primar Onderwijs) Het bevoegd gezag beslist over de toelating van leerlingen (art 2 section 1 Inrichtingsbesluit WVO) In a letter to the Commons (Tweede Kamer) dated 5 November 2007 [PRODUCTION z7] the government proposed an extension of the WGBH/CZ so it will apply to funding education from 2009 onwards. But even if the proposed extension will be accepted by parliament it is unlikely to change the current position for (pupils like) Sterre regarding the right to education The proposals aim to ban discrimination on grounds of disabilities for pupils not yet covered by the current Disability Education Funding Act (LGF) as can be deducted from the remark on page 13 of the letter: De onderwijswetgeving over bijvoorbeeld LGF gaat daarentegen uit van indicaties voor ernstige gebreken, stoornissen en beperkingen die bij algemene maatregel van bestuur nader worden omschreven At first sight the proposals don't change the right to mainstream education for disabled pupils as is shown on page 8 of the letter: In tegenstelling tot wat in de vraag wordt gesuggereerd, komt er geen wettelijk vastgelegde acceptatieplicht voor de toelating van leerlingen met een handicap of chronische ziekte. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 492

3 Besturen van reguliere scholen beslissen derhalve over de toelating van een leerling, op basis van de beperkingen en de mogelijkheden van de leerling en van de beperkingen en mogelijkheden van de school. Zij behouden hun huidige recht en de vrijheid om een eigen schoolbeleid te voeren met betrekking tot de aanname van leerlingen en de bewaking van hun grondslag. As long as the education legislation remains unchanged, schools decide on admission of pupils and the courts of justice do not (see 23.10). But even in in the unlikely event that the education legislation changes in such a way that an obligation for schools is introduced to accept pupils disregarding their abilities - as could happen for instance in the proposals for "Passend Onderwijs" - it will take many more years afterwards before law-case guarantees inclusion and schools will accept all pupils Even the guarantee as given in the letter on the same page: In het speciaal onderwijs kan een geïndiceerde leerling overigens niet geweigerd worden. cannot be considered as complying with article 2 First Protocol ECHR or article 15 of the Charter as this guarantee does not respect as a matter of course the religious and philosophical convictions of the pupil or their parents that aim mainstream education and offers the right to segregated education only The Committee learns from the report as submitted by the Netherlands that only 20% of the as disabled diagnosed children attend mainstream education. Details given in a letter to the Commons (Tweede Kamer) on 26 August 2006 [PRODUCTION z5] show that, although 1643 pupils with the same statement as Sterre (MG cluster 3 ) were counted in primary schools, not a single pupil in the Netherlands - statemented as Sterre - is attending a mainstream secondary school (see tabel 6 under AB VO / MG (LG/ZMLK) 1 ). The Committee recalls that education is a basic right for all children and should there be children denied of any educational provision on the grounds of his or her disability, this would give rise to a finding of non conformity. The denial of the right for education for (children like) Sterre in the Netherlands applies greatly to this situation As earlier mentioned in section of the application, comparison of trends is difficult in the Dutch Education system. After changes in legislation in 1998 (Primary Education Act (WPO), Secondary Education Act (WVO) and Special Education Act (WEC) a large part of the then special schools were categorized as mainstream schools (Speciale School voor Basisonderwijs (SBaO), Praktijkonderwijs (PO) and Leerwegondersteunend Onderwijs (LWOO)) The aim of the Dutch government is to change legislation even further and to categorize all education as "mainstream" education from 2011 onwards (Passend Onderwijs). Recent and future statistics about disabled students in mainstream schools will be flawed greatly because of the frequent changing of definitions The 19th Report from the Dutch Government doesn't mention the about 6000 children in child-day-care centers (KDC's) or on a waiting list who are excluded from any education at all [PRODUCTION z8]. 1 AB VO means: Ambulant (AB) begeleid in het Voortgezet Onderwijs (VO) MG means Meervoudig Gehandicapt (LG /ZMLK) means Lichamelijk Gehandicapt (LG) / Zeer Moeilijk Lerend Kind (ZMLK) application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 493

4 Conclusions Nor the current practice in the Netherlands regarding the right for disabled children on education, nor the new proposals for the extension of the non-discrimination legislation do or will do conform the European Social Charter. London, 7 November 2007 Ferdi Ploeger Yvonne Brouwers application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 494

5 P R O D U C T I O N S application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 495

6 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 496

7 24. P R O D U C T I O N S (Amended list, see also page of the application) Amendments First Amendment 30 September 2007 (wrongly dated 30 October 2007) z1 First amendment letter z2 letter from applicants to Secretary of State for Education, 15 August z3 letter from Secretary of State for Education, 25 September Second Amendment 10 November 2007 z4 European Social Charter, Conclusions XVIII z5 Groei van het Speciaal Onderwijs, Letter MinOCW 26 August z6 European Social Charter, the Netherlands' 19th Report about art z7 WGBH/CZ, Brief van 5 November 2007 aan Tweede Kamer z8 Children exempted from any education whatsoever (KDC's and MKD's) application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 497

8 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 498

9 P R O D U C T I O N z 4 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 499

10 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 500

11 June 2007 European Social Charter European Committee of Social Rights Conclusions XVIII-2 (THE NETHERLANDS KINGDOM IN EUROPE) Articles 1 4, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 15 of the Charter, and Articles 2 and 3 of the 1988 Additional Protocol The text of the conclusions may be subject to editorial revision. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 501

12 Introduction The function of the European Committee of Social Rights is to judge the conformity of national law and practice with the European Social Charter. In respect of national reports, it adopts conclusions and in respect of collective complaints, it adopts decisions. A presentation of this treaty as well as general comments formulated by the Committee figure in the General Introduction to the Conclusions 1. The European Social Charter was ratified by the Netherlands on 22 April 1980 and Articles 1 to 3 of the 1988 Additional Protocol on 5 August It has ratified the Revised European Social on 3 May The time limit for submitting the 19 th report on the application of the European Social Charter and the 9 th report on the 1988 Additional Protocol (Kingdom in Europe) to the Council of Europe was 31 March 2006 (reference period: 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2004) and the Netherlands submitted it on 20 July This report concerned the following non-hard core provisions of the Charter and the Additional Protocol: right to just conditions of work (Article 2), right to safe and healthy working conditions (Article 3), right to a fair remuneration (Article 4), right to vocational guidance (Article 9), right to vocational training (Article 10), right of persons with disabilities to education, training and employment (Article 15), right of workers to be informed and consulted (Article 2 of the Additional Protocol), right of workers to take part in the determination and improvement of the working conditions and working environment (Article 3 of the Additional Protocol). The Netherlands has accepted all of these articles. The present chapter on the Netherlands contains 23 conclusions 2 : 16 cases of conformity: Articles 2 1, 2 2, 2 5, 3 1, 3 2, 3 3, 4 2, 4 5, 9, 10 1, 10 2, 10 3, 10 4, 15 2, and Articles 2 and 3 of the Additional Protocol; 3 cases of non-conformity: Articles 4 1, 4 3 and 4 4. In respect of the 4 deferred conclusions, that is Articles 1 4, 2 3, 2 4 and 15 1, the Committee needs further information in order to assess the situation. The next Dutch report will be the first under the new system for the submission of reports adopted by the Committee of Ministers. 3 It concerns the accepted provisions of the following articles belonging to the thematic group Employment, training and equal opportunities : 1 The conclusions as well as state reports can be consulted on the Council of Europe s Internet site ( ) under Human Rights. 2 The 23 conclusions correspond to the paragraphs of the Articles which are part of the non-hard core and Article 1 4. This latter provision is usually examined together with Articles 9, 10 and 15 due to the links between these provisions. Since the right to equality under Article 1 of the 1988 Additional Protocol covers remuneration, the Committee no longer examines the national situation in this respect under Article 4 3 (right to equal pay) as regards States which have accepted both provisions. 3 Decision adopted at the 963rd meeting of the Ministers Deputies on 3 May application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 502

13 the right to work (Article 1), the right to vocational guidance (Article 9), the right to vocational training (Article 10), the right of persons with disabilities to education, training and employment (Article 15), the right to engage in a gainful occupation in the territory of other States Parties (Article 18), the right of men and women to equal opportunities (Article 20), the right to protection in cases of termination of employment (Article 24), right of workers to the protection of claims in the event of insolvency of the employer (Article 25). The report should be submitted to the Council of Europe before 31 October application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 503

14 Article 15 Right of physically or mentally disabled persons to vocational training, rehabilitation and social resettlement Paragraph 1 Vocational training arrangements for the disabled The Committee takes note of the information provided in the Dutch report. The Committee notes from the report that the Netherlands puts emphasis on the full participation of persons with disabilities in society and it reiterates its question about whether the definition of disability retained moved away from a medical definition of disability and towards a more social definition such as that endorsed by the WHO in its International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF The Committee asks to be systematically provided with figures concerning the number of persons with disabilities, including the number of persons with disabilities below 18 years of age and of working age. Education The Committee recalls that, as stated in the Autism-Europe decision (Autism-Europe v. France, Complaint N 13/2002, decision on the merits of 4 November 2003, 48), the underlying vision of Article 15 is one of equal citizenship for persons with disabilities and, fittingly, the primary rights are those of independence, social integration and participation in the life of the community. Securing a right to education for children and others with disabilities plays an obviously important role in advancing these citizenship rights. Under Article 15 1, the Committee therefore considers necessary the existence of nondiscrimination legislation as an important tool for the advancement of the inclusion of children with disabilities into general or mainstream educational schemes. Such legislation should, as a minimum, require a compelling justification for special or segregated educational systems and confer an effective remedy on those who are found to have been unlawfully excluded or segregated or otherwise denied an effective right to education. Legislation may consist of general anti-discrimination legislation, specific legislation concerning education, or a combination of the two. The Committee also whether any such legislation exists. It should be noted that, in the view of the Committee, Article 15 applies to all persons with disabilities regardless of the nature and origin of their disability and irrespective of their age. It thus also covers both children and adults who face particular disadvantages in education, such as persons with mental disabilities. According to the report, children with disabilities attend mainstream schools to the extent possible. Accordingly, schools receive help to cater for pupils with special needs. During the school year 20% of pupils with a diagnosed disability were integrated into mainstream primary and secondary schools and the aim is to increase the percentage. Children with disabilities who cannot attend mainstream education are educated in special education primary and secondary schools, pre-vocational secondary education (VMBO) and practical training. Pupils are assessed by an independent committee, which determines their educational needs. Parents can then opt for a special school or a mainstream school that is prepared to accept them and provide special support facilities. The introduction of the 2002 personal Budget (Special Needs) Act provides a personal budget to help parents make their choice between the two systems since the financial assistance is allocated to the school. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 504

15 The Committee notes from another source 1 that, at least with respect to children with intellectual disabilities, mainstreaming though possible remains a rather difficult option. In particular, as a consequence of the lack of adequate services, children with intellectual disabilities attend rather special than mainstream education (in ,000 pupils were in special education against 900 in mainstream). According to the same source, a number of children are excluded from any education and children with autism are for example the largest group who do not attend school. The Committee asks for the Government s comments on this. It notes that the system remains largely non inclusive for children with disabilities. It further recalls that education is a basic right for all children and should there be children denied of any educational provision on the grounds of his/her disability, this would give rise to a finding of non conformity. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of mainstreaming it asks again that the next report to provide information on attendance in mainstreaming compulsory and upper secondary schooling, as well as whether the educational offer in both mainstreaming and special education matches with demand. It also asks information on case law and complaints brought to the appropriate institutions concerning discrimination in access to education. The report does not indicate to which extent general teacher training include courses in special needs education. The Committee notes from another source 2 that teachers receive only limited training for children with intellectual disabilities and in-service training is optional. The Committee asks what measures have been taken to remedy the situation. Vocational training The Committee notes that mainstreaming also applies to secondary vocational education and higher university and non-university education. Since there are no special education institutions for these levels of education, mainstream institutions are under the obligation not to discriminate against persons with disabilities and to make the necessary adjustments to allow them access. This obligation has been strengthened by the Equal treatment (Disabled and Chronically Ill People) Act entered into force in 2003, which covers training and higher education. The right to equal treatment applies not only to classes, but also to work placements, taking exams and getting vocational guidance. Secondary vocational institutions receive funding for students with disabilities. Since 2002 higher education institutions have received funding to improve access for disabled students. Additional material facilities are available under the Work and Income (Capacity for Work) Act. In the context of the policy for the reintegration of people who are unfit for work, vocational training is one of the alternative options along with counseling and other forms of support. Currently, the Employee Insurance Agency (UWV) is responsible for reintegrating people claming incapacity benefits, but the reintegration services are purchased by private agencies. The UWV remains responsible for providing additional services which enable the persons to perform effectively in the workplace, such as transport, personal support, startup capital, subsidies for adjustment in the workplace. Persons with severe disabilities can also participate in vocational training organized by specialized institutions. 1 EUMAP (EU Monitoring and Advocacy Programme of the Open Society), Right of People with intellectual disabilities: access to education and employment, Summary Report The Netherlands, Ibid. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 505

16 The Committee asks for information to be provided in the next report on the effectiveness of the measures taken with respect to vocational training, in particular the number of persons with disabilities attending secondary vocational and higher education and the other forms of training available, the extent to which the training offer matches the demand, as well as the impact of training on the subsequent integration of persons with disabilities in the labour market. The Committee notes from the report that under the 2003 Equal Treatment (Disabled and Chronically Ill People) Act complaints may be filed with the Equal Treatment Commission. This is a non-judicial body whose decisions are not binding but are usually complied with and followed by courts in subsequent legal proceedings. As regards higher education, the report indicates that out of the four complaints filed with the Equal Treatment Commission, two decisions found that there had been discrimination. Legal proceedings can always be brought in front of civil courts. Pending receipt of the information requested, the Committee defers its conclusion. Paragraph 2 Employment for persons with disabilities The Committee takes note of the information provided in the Dutch report. The Committee observes that, although requested, there is no information in the report on the number of persons with disabilities of working age, those in employment and those unemployed. It recalls that, in the last report, it was stated that in 1999 there were 1.1 million people with disabilities, of whom 33.1% were in employment. The Committee asks to be systematically provided with such figures. Non-discrimination legislation The Committee notes from the report that anti-discrimination legislation, the Equal treatment (Disabled and Chronically Ill People) Act, entered into force in The act explicitly prohibits direct and indirect discrimination in employment and vocational training on the ground, inter alia, of disability. With regard to employment, the Act prohibits discrimination at every stage: placement, recruitment and selection, conclusion of an employment contract, terms and conditions of employment, promotion, training and termination of contract. The Committee recalls that non-discrimination legislation must provide for the adjustment of working conditions (reasonable accommodation) in order to guarantee the effectiveness of non-discrimination legislation in the field of employment. It notes that the Dutch antidiscrimination legislation contains this obligation, unless it imposes a disproportionate burden. Individuals who feel discriminated may file complaints with the Equal treatment Commission. This is a non-judicial body whose decisions are not binding but they are usually complied with and followed by courts in subsequent legal proceedings. Individuals can also bring cases before the civil courts and there is a shift in the burden of proof. In order to assess whether the right to non-discrimination in employment is effectively guaranteed for persons with disabilities, the Committee asks the next report to indicate how reasonable accommodation is implemented in practice, whether there is any case law on the issue and whether it has prompted an increase in employment of persons with disabilities in the open labour market. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 506

17 Measures to promote employment There must be obligations on the employer to take steps in accordance with the requirement of reasonable accommodation to ensure effective access to employment and to keep in employment persons with disabilities, in particular persons who have become disabled while in their employment as a result of an industrial accident or occupational disease. The Committee refers to its conclusion under Article 15 1 as far as the measures to promote reintegration are concerned. Young people who become disabled before entering the labour market benefit from an appropriate scheme, the Invalidity Insurance (Young Disabled persons) Act (WAJONG), which provides them with entry into regular jobs, sheltered employment and other forms of support. The Committee observes from another source 1 that there are in the Netherlands arrangements to allow persons with disabilities to work on the open market, such as supported employment and subsidies for employers. No official quota is reserved to this group, but employers are urged to employ on a voluntary basis persons with disabilities as 2% of their work force. These measures appear to benefit in a limited manner persons with intellectual disabilities, whose presence in the open market is small. The Committee asks the next report to provide detailed information on the measures taken in the open market for all disabled people, including the number or percentage of those employed through them. Under the 1998 Sheltered Employment Act, sheltered employment facilities are reserved for those persons who, due to their disability, cannot be integrated into the open labour market. The eligibility assessment takes into consideration the reduced productivity as well as the need for alterations of the workplace and supervision. Local authorities are responsible for creating as many jobs as possible for people who have been assessed as eligible. According to the report, in % of those eligible worked in the main company offering sheltered employment, 9% were seconded to a regular employer, and 1% were employed by a regular employer. The report also indicates that not all local authorities fulfilled their obligation and that a revision of the legislation is under study. Working conditions and pay in sheltered employment are defined in the collective agreements, as for any other worker. The Committee notes that sheltered employment is well established and in conformity with the requirements of Article 15 2; nonetheless, it asks the next report to indicate the number of beneficiaries of the system, as well as the rate of progress into the open market, which seems very low 2. Pending receipt of the information requested, the Committee concludes that the situation in the Netherlands is in conformity with Article EUMAP (EU Monitoring and Advocacy Programme of the Open Society), Right of People with intellectual disabilities: access to education and employment, Summary Report The Netherlands, Ibid. application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 507

18 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 508

19 P R O D U C T I O N z 5 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 509

20 application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 510

21 logoocw De voorzitter van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal Postbus EA Den Haag Den Haag Ons kenmerk 28 augustus 2006 PO/ZO/06/31958 Onderwerp Groei van het (voortgezet) speciaal onderwijs De groei van het (voortgezet) speciaal onderwijs ((V)SO) is het afgelopen jaar regelmatig onderwerp van gesprek geweest. Vooral de ontwikkelingen in cluster 4 baren zorgen. Aan de Kamer is daarom toegezegd nader onderzoek te doen naar de ontwikkelingen en de achtergronden in het aantal leerlingen met een indicatie voor plaatsing in het (V)SO of inschrijving in het regulier onderwijs met een leerlinggebonden financiering (LGF)/ rugzak. Dit onderzoek is intussen afgerond en heeft geleid tot de volgende drie rapportages, die bij deze brief zijn gevoegd: Notitie Ontwikkelingen deelname speciaal onderwijs, uitgevoerd door Centerdata (universiteit van Tilburg) in samenwerking met de directie Primair onderwijs van het departement. Toename leerlingen met gedragsproblemen in primair en voortgezet onderwijs. Een Nederlands- Vlaamse vergelijking, uitgevoerd onder regie van de Beleidsgericht onderzoek Primair Onderwijs (BOPO) door de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven en de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. De groei van de deelname aan cluster 4: opvattingen over oorzaken en groeibeperkende maatregelen van de Landelijke commissie toezicht indicatiestelling (LCTI). Naast deze rapporten zijn voor de analyse van de groeiproblematiek zijn ook een aantal andere, eerder verschenen rapporten van de LCTI van belang. Het betreft: Kanttekeningen bij de groei van de deelname aan cluster 4. Dit onderzoek is op 30 november 2005 aan de Tweede Kamer gestuurd (Kamerstukken II, 2005/ 06, 27728, nr. 87). Het Advies van de LCTI over 2005, vastgesteld in maart Ook dit advies is bij deze brief gevoegd. Voordat wordt ingegaan op analyse en achtergrond van de groei, wordt eerst een overzicht gegeven van de kwantitatieve ontwikkelingen. Deze zijn afkomstig uit de notitie Ontwikkelingen deelname speciaal onderwijs. Na een algemeen overzicht wordt ingezoomd op de ontwikkelingen per cluster. De analyse is uitgevoerd voor de clusters 2, 3 en 4. Cluster 1 is vanwege de afwijkende systematiek buiten beschouwing gelaten. Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap Rijnstraat 50, Postbus 16375, 2500 BJ Den Haag T F W application nr 39881/07 Ploeger and Brouwers vs the Netherlands page 511

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