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1 Logistiek Management voor BK: Hoofdstuk 1: Introduction to SCM: Supply chain, or logistics network. SCM is a set of approaches utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, and stores, so that merchandise is produced and distributed at the right quantities, to the right locations, and at the right time, in order to minimize system wide costs while satisfying service level requirements. At strategic, tactic or operational level. 1. Supply chain strategies cannot be determined in isolation. They are directly affected by another chain that most organizations have, the development chain. That includes the set of activities associated with new product introduction ( product architecture). At the same time, supply chain strategies also should be aligned with the specific goals of the organisation, such as maximizing market share or increasing profit. 2. It is challenging to design and operate a supply chain so that total system wide costs are minimized, and system wide service levels are maintained. Indeed, it is frequently difficult to operate a single facility so that costs are minimized and service level is maintained. The difficulty increases exponentially when an entire system is being considered. The process of finding the best system wide strategy is known as global optimalization. 3. Uncertainty and risk are inherent in every supply chain. Customer demand, travel times. Development chain: Engineering development chain Manufacturing production portion of the chains Supply chain or logistics fulfilment of customer demand Global optimization: 1. the supply chain is a complex network of facilities 2. Different facilities in the supply chain frequently have different, conflicting objectives. 3. The supply chain is a dynamic system that evolves over time 4. System variations over time are also an important consideration Uncertainty and risk: Global optimization is made even more difficult because supply chains need to be designed for, and operated in, uncertain environments, thus creating sometimes enormous risks to the organization. 1. Matching supply and demand 2. Inventory and back-order levels fluctuate considerably across the supply chain 3. Forecasting doesn t solve the problem 4. Demand is not the only source of uncertainty 5. Recent trends such as lean manufacturing, outsourcing, and offshoring that focus on cost reduction increase risks significantly To minimize uncertainty, build flexibility and redundancy in the supply chain in order to reduce risks. Evolution:

2 1980s: TQM 1990s: strategic partnerships, outsourcing Late 1990s: Internet and the related e-business models Now: Focus on strategies that find the right balance between cost reduction and risk management. Redundancy Information Flexibility Improving processes technology, o.a. ERP. Three issues: The ability to match supply chain strategies with product characteristics The ability to replace traditional supply chain strategies, in which each facility or party in the chain makes decisions with little regard to their impact on other supply chain partners, by those that yield a globally optimized supply chain. The ability to effectively manage uncertainty and risk. The strategic level deals with decisions that have a long-lasting effect on the firm. The tactical level includes decisions that are typically updated anywhere between once every quarter and once every year. The operational level refers to day-to-day decisions such as scheduling, lead time quotations, routing, and truck loading. Hoofdstuk 2: Inventory is held due to: 1. Unexpected changes is customer demand 2. The presence in many situations of a significant uncertainty in the quantity and quality of the supply, supplier costs, and delivery times. 3. Lead times. 4. Economies of scale offered by transportation companies that encourage firms to transport large quantities of items, and therefore hold large inventories. Economic Lot Size Model: Inventory cost in a cycle (time between two successive replenishments) of length T is K + htq / 2 There are at least three reasons why the distributor holds inventory: 1. to satisfy demand occurring during lead time 2. to protect against uncertainty in demand 3. to balance annual inventory holding costs and annual fixed order costs. EOQ Model: Setup cost + Inventory holding cost per unit of time = Total cost: 2KD Economic Order Quantity: Q* h KD hq Q 2 Verandering in order quantity: Q = bq*

3 The optimal order quantity is not necessarily equal to forecast, or average, demand. Indeed, the optimal quantity depends on the relationship between marginal profit achieved from selling an additional unit and marginal cost. More importantly, the fixed cost has no impact on the production quantity, only on the decision whether to produce or not. Thus, given a decision to produce, the production quantity is the same independently of the fixed cost. As the order quantity increases, average profit typically increases until the production quantity reaches a certain value, after which the average profit starts decreasing. As we increase the production quantity, the risk-that is, the probability of large lossesalways increases. At the same time, the probability of large gains also increases. This is the risk/reward trade-off. Continuous Review Policy (Q, R): Average Demand during Leadtime: L AVG Safety stock: z STD L Reorder level: L AVG + z STD L 2K AVG Optimal order quantity: Q h Inventory level after receiving order: Q + z STD L Average inventory level: 2 Q + z STD L Variable lead times: Reorder point: R AVG AVGL z AVGL STD AVG STDL Average demand during lead time: AVG AVGL Standard deviation of demand during lead time: Safety stock: AVGL STD AVG STDL AVGL STD AVG STDL EOQ: Q 2K AVG h Periodic Review Policy (s, S) Two bin system: In een s,s policy: s = R en S=R+Q. r = length review period L = Lead time Base-stock level: ( r L) AVG Safety stock: zstd r L Expected level of inventory after receiving an order: r AVG zstd r L Average: r AVG r STD r L 2

4 Service level will be higher for product with: High profit margin High volume Low variability Short lead time Risk pooling suggests that demand variability is reduced if one aggregates demand across location. Coefficient of variation = Standard deviation / Average demand Three critical points about risk pooling: 1. Centralizing inventory reduces both safety stock and average inventory in the system. 2. The higher the coefficient of variation, the greater the benefit obtained from centralized systems; that is, the greater the benefit from risk pooling. 3. The benefits from risk pooling depend on the behaviour of demand from one market relative to demand from another. What are the trade-offs that we need to consider in comparing centralized distribution systems with decentralized distribution systems? Safety stock: safety stock decreases as firm moves from a decentralized to a centralized system. Service level: when the centralized and decentralized systems have the same total safety stock, the service level provided by the centralized system is higher. Overhead costs: in a decentralized system greater, less economies of scale Customer lead time: short in decentralized Transportation costs: difference inbound and outbound. Inventory reduction strategies: Perform periodic inventory review. Provide tight management of usage rates, lead times, and safety stock Reduce safety stock levels Introduce or enhance cycle counting practice Follow ABC approach Shift more inventory or inventory ownership to suppliers Follow quantitative approaches Inventory turnover ratio = Annual sales / Average inventory level 1. Judgment methods: involve the collection of expert opinions 2. Market research methods involve qualitative studies of consumer behaviour 3. Time-series methods are mathematical methods in which future performance is extrapolated from past performance. 4. Causal methods: are mathematical methods in which forecasts are generated based on a variety of system variables. 1. Judgement methods: Panels of experts Delphi method 2. Market research methods: Market testing Market surveys

5 3. Time-series methods: Moving average Exponential smoothing Methods for data with trends Holt s method: combination trend and exponential smoothing. Methods for seasonal data: decomposition, Winters method: Holt s with seasonality. 4. Causal methods: Causal methods generate forecasts based on data other than the data being predicted. Selecting the right one: What is the purpose of the forecast? How is it to be used? What are the dynamics of the system for which the forecast will be made? How important is the past in estimating the future? Hoofdstuk 3: Network planning Introduction: Network planning: the process by which the firm structures and manages the supply chain in order to: Find the right balance between inventory, transportation, and manufacturing costs. Match supply and demand under uncertainty by positioning and managing inventory effectively. Utilize resources effectively by sourcing products from the most appropriate manufacturing facility. 1. Network design 2. Inventory positioning 3. Resource allocation Network design: Network design determines the physical configuration and infrastructure of the supply chain. Following key strategic decisions: 1. Determining the appropriate number of facilities such as plants and warehouses 2. Determining the location of each facility 3. Determining the size of each facility 4. Allocating space for products in each facility 5. Determining sourcing requirements 6. Determining distribution strategies, allocation of customers to each warehouse. Het doel is het minimaliseren van de jaarlijkse systeemkosten, en een compromis sluiten met deze kosten en het service level. Voor een optimalisatie is een grote verzameling aan data nodig, waaronder: locaties consumenten, alle producten, vraag, transport rates by mode etc. Omdat uit voorgaande veel data voortkomt, is data aggregation een must. Naar productgroep, consumentenclusters. Transport costs: Transportkosten zijn bijna lineair als gekeken wordt naar afstand, maar niet naar volume.

6 Internal en external fleet. In the LTL industry, the rates typically belong to one of three types of freight rates: class, exception, and commodity. De class rates zijn standaard, en kunnen worden gevonden met behulp van een classificatie tarief. Rate basis number: afstand tussen standplaats truck en bestemming. De twee andere rates zijn speciaal. (volgende paragraaf zelf doorlezen als je het interessant lijkt) Warehouse costs: 1. Handling costs 2. Fixed costs 3. Storage costs Annual flow and average inventory associated with this product tell us nothing about how much space is needed for the product in the warehouse. The amount of space that the warehouse needs is proportional to peak inventory, not annual flow or average inventory. Overcome by calculating Inventory turnover ratio: Annualsales AverageInventoryLevel (paragrafen over de capaciteit van warehouses, locatie warehouses, service level requirements) Omdat network design een lange-termijn effect heeft op de onderneming dient de toekomstige vraag in acht te worden genomen. Het model wat gemaakt is dient te worden gecontroleerd en gevalideerd. Oplossen van het configuratie probleem (optimaliseren): 1. Mathematical optimization techniques that include a. Exact algorithms that are guaranteed to find optimal solutions. b. Heuristic algorithms that find good solutions, not necessarily optimal solutions. 2. Simulation models that provide a mechanism to evaluate specified design alternatives created by the designer. (stukje modelleren van voortbrenging) Beperking van wiskundige modellen is dat het statisch is en niet dynamisch. Simulatie modellen houden wel rekening met dynamiek. In simulatiemodellen kunnen voorkomen: 1. individual ordering pattern 2. specific inventory policies 3. inventory movements inside the warehouse Echter, een simulatiemodel lijkt alleen te gebruiken ter evaluatie, het is geen optimalisatiemodel. One of the key requirements of any supply chain planning tool for network design is flexibility (the ability of the system to incorporate a large set of preexisting network characteristics. Incorporate the following features in the optimization model:

7 1. customer-specific service level requirements 2. existing warehouses 3. expansion of existing warehouses 4. specific flow patterns 5. warehouse-to-warehouse flow 6. production and bill of materials. Van belang is de effectiviteit en robuustheid. Inventory positioning and logistics coordination: Waar moet een MTO facility komen en waar een MTS facility? Ofwel: waar is safety stock vereist? Level of safety stock: zh SI T S, waarbij SI + T S de net lead time is. Locale optimalisatie leidt tot: low inventory turns Inconsistent service levels across locations and products. Push en pull strategie. Resource allocation: Supply chain master planning. global optimization. Depending on the objective of the planning process, the output can focus on either of the following: Sourcing strategies Where sould each product be produced during hteplanning horizon? Supply chain master plan. What are the production quantities, shipment size, and storage requirements by product, location, and time priode? Belangrijke punten: Bottlenecks identificeren Tactical planning tools have the ability to analyze demand plans and resource utilization to maximize profit Focus on cost minimization or profit maximization? An effective supply chain master planning tool also must be able to help the planners improve the accuracy of the supply chain model. Supply chain master planning helps address fundamental trade-offs in the supply chain such as production setup cost versus transportation costs or production lot sizes versus capacities. It takes into account supply chain costs such as production, supply, warehousing, transportation, taxes, and inventory as well as capacities and changes in the parameters over time. Hoofdstuk 4: Supply contracts Many OEM s focus on closely collaborating with the suppliers of their strategic components or products. Strategic components: In an supply contract supplier and buyer agree on: Pricing and volume discounts Minimum and maximum purchase quantities

8 Delivery lead times Product or material quality Product return policies Sequential supply chain: Each party determines its own course of action independent of the impact of its decisions on other parties. doesn t identify the best for entire supply chain. It turns out that a variety of supply contracts enable risk sharing, and therefore increase profits for both supply chain entities. Buy-back Contracts: Seller buys back unsold goods for price higher than salvage value. Revenue-Sharing Contract: The buyer shares some of its revenue with the seller, in return for a discount on the wholesale price. Quantity-Flexibility Contracts: This contract gives full refund for a portion of the returned items, whereas a buy-back contract provides partial refund for all returned items. Sales Rebate Contracts: Sales rebate contracts provide a direct incentive to the retailer to increase sales by means of a rebate paid by the supplier for any item sold above a certain quality. Global Optimization: Effective supply contracts provide incentives for supply chain partners to replace traditional strategies, in which each partner optimizes its own profit, with global optimization, where supply chain profit is maximized. Supply contracts are important because they help firms achieve global optimization, without the need for an unbiased decision maker, by allowing buyers and suppliers to share the risk and the potential benefit. Indeed, it can be shown that carefully designed supply contracts achieve the exact same profit as global optimization. Limitations: Buy-back contracts require the supplier to have an effective reverse logistics system and may increase its logistics cost. Revenue-sharing contracts require the supplier to monitor the buyer s revenue and thus increase administrative cost. Another limitation: buyers have an incentive to push competing products with higher profit margins revenue-sharing results in lower profit margins. Contracts for make-to-stock/make-to-order supply chains: MTO: Buyer takes all the risk, while supplier takes no risk MTS: Supplier takes all the risk, while buyer takes no risk. Pay-back Contracts: The buyer agrees to pay some agreed-upon price for any unit produced by the manufacturer but not purchased by the distributor. Cost-Sharing Contracts: paying a part of the production cost (sharing this cost) Contracts with asymmetric information: Capacity reservation contracts: Manufacturer pays to reserve a certain level of capacity with the supplier. The reservation price is a menu of prices designed by the supplier to motivate the manufacturer to reveal its true forecast. That is, by choosing the amount of capacity to reserve with the supplier, the manufacturer signals its true forecast. Advance purchase contracts: Supplier charges the advance purchase price for firms orders placed prior to building capacity and a different price for any additional order placed when demand is realized. Again, the initial firm commitment made by the manufacturer provides the suppliers information about the manufacturer s true forecast. Contracts for nonstrategic components:

9 Componenten die niet van strategisch belang zijn hoeven niet te vallen onder de supplierbuyer relatie op de lange termijn. Flexibele contracten zijn dan beter, zodat je snel kunt wisselen als iets voor een goedkopere prijs te krijgen is. Long-Term Contracts: eliminate Financial risk. Dezelfde hoeveelheden geleverd naar een bepaalde, vaste tijd. Flexible, or Option, Contract: The buyer prepays a relatively small fraction of the product price upfront, in return for a commitment from the supplier to reserve capacity up to a certain level. Spot Purchase: The focus is on using the marketplace to find new suppliers and forcing competition to reduce product price. Portfolio Contract: Combine the first three contract options strategically. (zie ook Table 4-2, blz. 138) Hoofdstuk 5: The value of information Information: Reduce variability in the supply chain Suppliers can make better forecasts, accounting for promotions and market changes. Coordination of manufacturing and distribution systems and strategies. Serve customers better by offering tools for locating desired items. Retailers can react and adapt to supply problems more rapidly. Lead time reductions. The bullwhip effect: Increase in variability as we travel up in the supply chain is referred to as the bullwhip effect. (Uitleg zie slides en aantekeningen). Control the bullwhip effect by: Demand forecasting beter voorspellen zorgt voor minder variabiliteit Lead time reduceren zorgt voor minder variabiliteit Batch ordering de ene week geen bestelling, de andere week een hele grote bestelling. Price fluctuation retailers bevoorraden meer als de prijs laag is. Inflated orders Inflated orders placed by retailers during shortage periods tend to magnify the bullwhip effect. ( hoeft niet) Als informatie wordt gecentraliseerd, heeft elk niveau van de supply chain dezelfde informatie en kan elk niveau meer precies een voorspelling maken. Grote fout die gemaakt wordt is dat er omhoog gekeken wordt (decentraal): de wholesaler kijkt naar de retailer, de manufacturer kijkt naar de wholesaler. Terwijl iedereen naar de consument hoort te kijken (centraal). The variance of the orders placed by a given stage of a supply chain is an increasing function of the total lead time between that stage and the retailer. In een decentrale supply chain de variantie wordt exponentieel vergroot op elk niveau binnen de supply chain. Centralizing information can significantly reduce, but will not eliminate the bullwhip effect.

10 Methods for Coping with the Bullwhip effect: 1. Reducing uncertainty 2. Reducing variability in customer demand 3. Lead-time reduction 4. Strategic partnerships Information sharing and incentives: Informatie kan gecentraliseerd worden, maar retailers kunnen er dan voor zorgen dat de voorspellingen overdreven worden, met als gevolg dat lagere niveaus de voorspellingen gaan negeren. Om retailers de juiste voorspellingen te laten zien bestaan er twee contracten: Capacity reservation contracts, in which the supplier provides the OEM with a menu specifying different level of capacities he is willing to build and the corresponding price for each one. It turns out that to motivate the OEM to reveal its true information, the per-unit price charged by the supplier decreases with the level of capacity. Advance purchase contracts, in which the contract manufacturer charges an advance purchase price for orders placed prior to building capacity and a different (higher) price for any additional order placed when demand is realized. Maar, dat deze informatie openbaar wordt, kan er voor zorgen dat de informatie concurrentie helpt. Effective forecasts: Meer informatie leidt tot betere voorspellingen Retailer kan door promoties of set pricing de vraag tot in zekere mate controleren. Voorgaande leidt tot een coöperatief voorspellingssysteem binnen de supply chain. Information for de coordination of systems: Whose best interest is it to reduce overall system cost and how will these savings be shared among the system owners? Local optimization global optimization. Informatie is belangrijk om het hele system te coördineren. Locating desired products: Men kan op meerdere manieren tegemoet komen aan de consumentenvraag. Men kan het product zo off-the-shelf leveren, of beloven binnen 24 uur het product aan huis af te leveren. Lead-time reduction: Important, because: 1. The ability to quickly fill customer orders that can t be filled from stock 2. Reduction in the bullwhip effect 3. More accurate forecasts due to a decreased forecast horizon. 4. Reduction in finished goods inventory levels. Information and supply chain trade-offs: In sequential planning, each stage of the supply chain optimizes its profit with no regard to the impact of its decisions on other supply chain stages. In contrast, in global optimization, the objective is to coordinate supply chain activities so as to maximize supply chain performance. Barrière: Conflicting objectives in the supply chain. Trade-offs: Lot Size Inventory Trade-Off: als er veel tegelijkertijd geproduceerd wordt, gaat er ook meer in de voorraad. Want de vraag is niet zo dat alles tegelijk komt. Inventory Transportation Cost Trade-Off:

11 o Carrying full trucks minimizes transport costs. o Maar de vraag is vele malen kleiner etc.. Lead-time Transportation Cost Trade Off: Als producten die geproduceerd zijn moeten wachten totdat de truck vol is wordt de levertijd groter. Product Variety Inventory Trade-Off: Om de levertijd van de verschillende producten hetzelfde te houden, dient er een gedeelte bevoorraad te worden. Cost-Customer Service Trade-Off: spreekt voor zich Decreasing marginal value of information: Trade-off tussen waarde van informatie en de kosten om deze informatie te verkrijgen. Ook de kwantiteit van informatie verkrijgen kan worden betwist. Hoofdstuk 6: Supply chain integration Het voorstuk (consument) dient geïntegreerd te worden met het achterstuk van de supply chain. Push-Based supply chain: Long-term forecasts Inability to meet changing demand patterns The obsolescence of supply chain inventory as demand for certain products disappears Thus, in an push-based supply chain, we often find increased transportation costs, high inventory levels, and/or high manufacturing costs, due to the need for emergency production changeovers. Pull-Based supply chain: In a pull-based supply chain, production and distribution are demand driven so that they are coordinated with true customer demand rather than forecast demand. Geen bevoorrading Thus, in a pull-based supply chain, we typically see a significant reduction in system inventory level, enhanced ability to manage resources, and a reduction in system costs when compared with equivalent push-based system. Moeilijk te reageren op de vraag met lange levertijd, geen schaalvoordelen Push-Pull supply chain: Deel van de supply chain is push, het andere gedeelte is pull. De grens is de push-pull boundary. Identifying the appropriate strategy: Everything else being equal, higher demand uncertainty leads to a preference for managing the supply chain base don realized demand: a pull strategy. Alternatively, smaller demand uncertainty leads to an interest in managing the supply chain based on a long-term forecast: a push strategy. Similarly, everything else being equal, the higher the importance of economies of scale in reducing cost, the greater the value of aggregating demand, and thus the greater the importance of managing the supply chain based on long-term forecast, a push-based strategy. If economies of scale are not important, aggregation does not reduce cost, so a pull-based strategy makes more sense. (zie ook fig. 6.9)

12 Since uncertainty in the push portion of the supply chain is relatively small, service level is not an issue, so the focus can be on cost minimization planning processes. Focus pull: service level. High service level is achieved by deploying a flexible and responsive supply chain, that is, a supply chain that can adapt quickly to changes in customer demand order fulfilment processes are typically applied. Op de push-pull boundary dient een buffer inventory te komen. The impact of lead time: Hoe langer de levertijd, des te meer noodzaak voor push-based strategy. Zie fig Demand-driven strategies: Demand forecast Demand shaping Aggregating forecasts are more accurate. Market analysis, trends Incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting processes with your customers balancing supply and demand The impact of the internet on supply chain strategies: Impact tremendous Provides convenience and cost reduction E-business is a collection of business models and processes motivated by Internet technology and focusing on improvement of extended enterprise performance. E-commerce is the ability to perform major commerce transactions electronically. E-commerce is part of e-business. The Internet and the associated new supply chain paradigms introduce a shift in fulfilment strategies: from cases and bulk shipments to single items and smaller-size shipments, and from shipping to a small number of stores to serving highly geographically dispersed customers. Zie ook table 6-3. Artikel Cohen et al.: Companies focus more and more on after-sales service. Companies changed tack because demand slowed, competition intensified, and profit margins imploded. Door een hogere after-sales service worden consumenten loyaler. Customers don t expect products to be perfect, but they do expect manufacturers to fix things quickly when they break down. Across industries, delivering after-sales services is more complex than manufacturing products. First, companies must approach the promises they make as products that they design, price, produce, and deliver to customers in order to generate revenues. Second, companies must design a portfolio of service products. Third, companies should visualize a distinctive after-sales services supply chain that delivers service products to customers through a network of resources.

13 Six Steps for Managing Service Networks Companies should use a systematic approach to improve after-sales service quality levels, reduce investments in service assets, and cut operating costs. 1. Identify which products to cover. Support all, some, complementary, or competing products. 2. Create a portfolio of service products. Position service products according to response times and prices. 3. Select business models to support service products. Use different models for different products and life cycle stages. 4. Modify after-sales organizational structures. Provide visibility, incentives, and focus for services. 5. Design and manage an after-sales services supply chain. Decide location of resources, prioritize resource utilization, and plan for contingencies. 6. Monitor performance continuously. Evaluate against benchmarks and customer feedback. The value companies place on after-sales services will determine the business models that firms can use to deliver them. When services are all-important, manufacturers may choose to sell services rather than the products that generate them. Models of after-sales service:

14 (Voor het idee rondom het artikel, zie de bijgevoegde PDF!) Hoofdstuk 7: Distribution strategies: Items can be direct shipped from the supplier or manufacturer to the retail stores or end customer, or one or more intermediate inventory storage points can be used. Direct shipment distribution strategies: Voordelen: Vermijden van kosten van een distributiecentrum Lead times gereduceerd. Nadelen: Geen risk-pooling effects, want er is geen centraal warehouse. Transportkosten vermeerderen omdat kleinere hoeveelheden naar meer locaties moeten. Gebruikt in situaties waarbij belangrijk is: lead time, sterke retailers. Intermediate inventory storage point strategies: In a traditional warehousing strategy, the distribution centers and warehouses hold stock inventory and provide their downstream customers with inventory as needed. In a cross-docking strategy, warehouses and distribution centers serve as transfer points for inventory, but no inventory is held at these transfer points. Traditional warehousing: Gecentraliseerd systeem globale optimalisatie Gedecentraliseerd systeem locale optimalisatie Enkele belangrijke kwesties: Safety stock Overhead Economies of scale Lead time Service Transportation costs

15 Natuurlijk is het ook mogelijk centrale en locale faciliteiten te combineren. Producten met een hoge vraag en lage kosten worden gedecentraliseerd, terwijl producten met een lagere, onzekere vraag en hoge kosten worden gecentraliseerd. Cross-Docking: In this system, warehouses function as inventory coordination points rather than as inventory storage points. De lead times worden korter, weinig voorraadkosten. Echter, het is moeilijk te managen en er is een startinvestering nodig. Zaken die belangrijk zijn bij cross-docking: informatie systemen, snel transportsysteem, voorspellingen, alleen effectief voor grote distributiesystemen. Inventory Pooling: In een gedecentraliseerd systeem is het belangrijker dat er genoeg voorraad is, omdat de klant anders naar een andere aanbieder gaat. Bij een gecentraliseerd systeem halen alle aanbieders de voorraad uit dezelfde pool, waardoor men ook precies kan zien hoe het geheel zit bij de concurrentie. Zo kun je dan, behalve je eigen voorraad ook voorraad bestellen voor wat de concurrentie (waarschijnlijk) tekort heeft. Groot nadeel: je leert elkaars strategie kennen. Game theory: Nash equilibrium: If two competitors are making decisions, we say that they have reached Nash equilibrium if they have both made a decision, in this case decided on an amount to order, and neither can improve his or her expected profit by chaging the order amount if the other dealer doesn t change his order amount. Als de zoekpercentages klein zijn, zullen retailers minder bestellen in een gedecentraliseerd systeem, dus zullen manufacturers dan een gecentraliseerd systeem prefereren. Als de zoekpercentages groot zijn, zullen retailers meer bestellen in een gedecentraliseerd systeem, waardoor de manufacturer dan dit systeem prefereert. Uiteindelijk blijkt dat manufacturers altijd belang hebben bij een zo hoog mogelijk zoekpercentage, wat bereikt kan worden m.b.v. marketing e.d. Transshipment: By transshipment, we mean the shipment of items between different facilities at the same level in the supply chain to meet some immediate need. Vooral op retail-niveau. Selecting an appropriate strategy: Verschillende strategieën worden gebruikt voor verschillende producten. Invloeden: Vraag Locatie consumenten Service level Kosten (transport en voorraad) Lot size Vraag variabiliteit Hoofdstuk 8: Strategic alliances: Introduction: 4 manieren om activiteiten te completeren: 1. Door interne activiteiten, als men over de resources en expertise beschikt. 2. Acquisitions, als men niet over de benodigde resources en expertise beschikt, kan een ander bedrijf worden ingeschakeld.

16 3. Transacties op armlengte: als een specifiek item benodigd is, op korte termijn gebaseerd, meeste bedrijfstransacties zijn van dit type. 4. Strategic alliances: lange termijn, doel en beloning gedeeld, risico s gedeeld. Etc. Framework for strategic alliances: Om vast te stellen welk type strategische alliantie benodigd is voor jouw bedrijf, moet men nagaan of de alliantie zal helpen bij de volgende issues: Toevoegen van waarde aan producten. Markttoegang verbeteren Operationele activiteiten versterken Toevoegen van technologische kracht/sterkte Verbeteren/ bevorderen strategische groei Verbeteren van organisationele vaardigheden Bouwen van financiële kracht/sterkte Het is belangrijk dat de core strengths of competenties van een bedrijf, waarmee het bedrijf zich onderscheidt, niet worden afgezwakt door een strategische alliantie. Belangrijk is dus met behulp van het framework te bepalen of het niet om dergelijke core competenties gaat. Third-Party Logistics: Third-party logistics is simply the use of an outside company to perform all or part of the firm s materials management and product distribution functions. Lange termijn Vaak multi-functioneel Voordelen: Bedrijven kunnen zich beter op de kerncompetenties richten 3PL bevordert de technologische flexibiliteit 3PL bevordert andere flexibiliteiten, zoals geografische locaties, service aanbod, personeelsaantal, resources. Nadelen: Loss of control Issues: 1. ken je eigen kosten, om te vergelijken 2. bekijk de consument oriëntatie van de 3PL 3. bekijk de specialisatiegraad van de 3PL 4. kies tussen asset-owning en non-asset-owning 3PL asset: meer werknemers, schaalvoordelen, een duidelijke grootte. Non-asset: flexibeler, vaak zeer gespecialiseerd. Implementation issues: Duidelijkheid is belangrijk, er dient volledige overgave te zijn, beide partijen dienen hun doelen van de alliantie kenbaar te maken, effectieve communicatie. Gegeven data (Deadlines) respecteren Performance metingen moeten worden bepaald Specifieke criteria dienen te worden bepaald, ten aanzien van subcontractors Arbitrage kwesties dienen te worden bekeken alvorens een contract aan te gaan Ontsnappingsclausules

17 Methoden ter verzekering dat doelen worden behaald dienen te worden bediscussieerd Retailer-supplier partnerships: Creating cooperative efforts between suppliers and retailers in order to leverage the knowledge of both parties. Typen: Continuum: van informatie delen tot zendingsregeling. Quick response strategy: synchroniseren van de productie en voorraadbeheer op de actuele verkoop. Continuous replenishment strategy: voorbereiden van overbrengingen, gebaseerd op vastgestelde intervallen om het voorraadniveau te behouden. Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) system: goal is to eliminate retailer oversight on specific orders, supplier beslist. (zie ook table 8.1, duidelijk!:)) Requirements: Advanced information systems Vertrouwen Inventory Ownership in RSP: Bij eigendom voor de supplier zijn er voor de retailer minder kosten. Bij VMI gaat het om global optimization overall system savings. Issues in RSP implementation: Vertrouwelijkheid Communication en cooperation Steps: 1. contractuele zaken dienen te worden onderhandeld 2. uitvoeren van: verkrijgen informatie systemen goede voorspellingstechnieken voor de coördinatie: decision support tool. Voordelen: controle bullwhip effect overbodige zaken kunnen worden opgeheven manual tasks automated Nadelen: dure systemen zijn benodigd supplier meer verantwoordelijkheid vertrouwen is belangrijk Distributor integration: appreciating the value of the distributors and their relationship with the end users, and providing them with the necessary support to be successful. Typen: Voorraad-gerelateerd of service-gerelateerd

18 Technische vaardigheden omtrent de respons op onverwachte vraag Issues: distributors may be skeptical of the rewards of participating in such a system vertrouwen Hoofdstuk 9: Procurement and outsourcing strategies Strategic outsourcing: outsourcing of the manufacturing of key components. Benefits and risks: Motivations for outsourcing: Economies of scale Risk pooling Reduce capital investment Focus on core competency Increased flexibility Two substantial risks: Loss of competitive knowledge Conflicting objectives Framework for buy/make decisions: Dependency on capacity: wel de vaardigheden, maar andere redenen voor outsourcing Dependency on knowledge: geen vaardigheden. Onderscheid tussen modular products: made by combining different components en integral products: made up from components whose functionalities are tightly related. (table 9.5) Vijf criteria voor outsourcing: 1. Customer importance 2. Component clockspeed: technology change 3. Competitive position 4. Capable suppliers 5. Architecture: how modular or integral? Procurement (=aanbestedingen) strategies: Kraljic s supply matrix: High Bottleneck Items Ensure supply Strategic Items: Form partnerships Low Non-critical Items: Simplify and automate Low = Supply risk = Profit impact Leverage Items: Exploit purchasing power and minimize cost. High

19 Intuitively, the strategy should depend on the type of product or component purchased, the ability to forecast, the impact on profit, the technology, product clockspeed, and so forth. Onderscheid tussen functionele (push) en innovatieve producten (pull), zie table 9.6. When a firm procures functional products, the focus should be on minimizing total landed cost, that is, the total cost of purchasing and delivering the product to its final destination. This cost includes: Unit cost Transportation cost Inventory holding cost Handling cost Duties and taxation Cost of financing. When a firm procures innovative products, the focus should be on reducing lead times and on supply flexibility. There is a difference between finished goods and components: For this purpose, we combine the insights from Kraljic s supply matrix model and Fisher s framework (demand and supply side). Component forecast accuracy Component supply risk Component financial impact Component clockspeed Depending on these criteria, the decision may be to focus the sourcing strategy on minimizing total landed costs, lead time reduction, or increasing flexibility. (zie ook fig. 9.5) E-procurement: In particular, the value proposition offered to buyers by many of the start-up e-markets included: Serving as an intermediary between buyers and suppliers Identifying saving opportunities Increasing the number of suppliers involved in the bidding event. Identifying, qualifying, and supporting suppliers Conducting the bidding event. Challenges: 1. Sellers resist paying a fee to the company whose main objective is to reduce the purchase price. 2. The revenue model needs to be flexible enough so that transaction fees are charged to the party that is more motivated to secure the engagement. 3. Buyers also resist paying a fee in addition to the purchase price. Licensing fee, subscription fee. Introduction of four new types of markets: Value-added independent (public) e-markets. Private e-markets: suppliers have to bid within the company. Consortia-based e-markets Content-based e-markets Hoofdstuk 10: Global logistics and risk management: International distribution systems. In this type of system, manufacturing still occurs domestically, but distribution and typically some marketing take place overseas.

20 International suppliers. In this system, raw materials and components are furnished by foreign suppliers, but final assembly is performed domestically. In some cases, the final product is then shipped to foreign markets. Offshore manufacturing. In this type of system, the product is typically sourced and manufactured in an single foreign location, and then shipped back to domestic warehouses for sale and distribution. Fully integrated global supply chain. Here products are supplied, manufactured, and distributed from various facilities located throughout the world. Global Market Forces: De hedendaagse consument wil overal (universeel) over producten kunnen beschikken en kunnen kopen. Bedrijven dienen ook zo te denken, om de consument tevreden te houden en om de eigen markt te behouden. Omdat bedrijven uit andere landen de eigen markt in komen, moeten deze bedrijven hun horizon ook verbreden. Technological Forces: Componenten van producten zijn alleen elders in de wereld verkrijgbaar. Global Cost Forces: Elders kostvoordelen. Political and Economic Forces: Trade protection mechanisms Trade agreements Tariffs Risk management: Enkele voorbeelden van risico s: Natuurrampen Geopolitieke risico s Epidemieën Terroristaanvallen Brandstofprijs slecht Wisselkoers fluctuaties Haven vertragingen Marktveranderingen Performance van de leverancier Precisie van de voorspelling Uitvoeringsproblemen Etc.. Allerlei stakeholders spelen een rol: de reacties van consument, leverancier, concurrent, overheid. Managing the Unknown-Unknown: The following methods may help managing supply chain risks and in particular strategies for managing the unknown-unknown: Invest in redundancy Increase velocity in sensing and responding

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