SBO project IWT Eerste jaarlijks rapport

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1 Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen Departement Burgerlijke Bouwkunde Laboratorium Bouwfysica Kasteelpark Arenberg 40, 3001 Heverlee Universiteit Gent Vakgroep Mechanica van Stroming, Warmte en Verbranding Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent Universiteit Gent Vakgroep Architectuur en Stedenbouw Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Gent Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Unit Building Physics & Systems P.O. Box 531, 5600 Eindhoven Wetenschappelijk en Technisch Centrum voor het Bouwbedrijf Departement Geotechniek en Structuren Departement Bouwfysica en Uitrustingen Poincarélaan 79, 1060 Brussel Physibel Heirweg 21, 9990 Maldegem Daidalos Bouwfysisch Ingenieursbureau Oudebaan 391, 3000 Leuven Ingenieursbureau Stockman nv Muinklaan 6, 9000 Gent Heat, air and moisture performance engineering A whole building approach SBO project IWT Eerste jaarlijks rapport Staf ROELS, Erik DICK, Michel DE PAEPE, Arnold JANSSENS, Peter WOUTERS, Benoit PARMENTIER, Geert HOUVENAGHEL, Jan HENSEN, Bert BLOCKEN, Piet HOUTHUYS, Filip DESCAMPS, Piet DELAGAYE, Demir-Ali KÖSE, Sarah SACRE, Marnix VAN BELLEGHEM, Mohammad MIRSADEGHI, Daniel COSTOLA, Joachim VERHAEGEN, Thijs DEFRAEYE (verslag). September 2007

2 Inhoud Inhoud Wetenschappelijk- technisch verslag Overzicht van uitgevoerde activiteiten... 3 WP1.1 Wind pressure distribution... 4 WP1.2 Driving rain load distribution... 9 WP2.1 Development of HAM model WP2.2 Experimental analysis on building enclosures WP3.1 Convective heat exchange and summer comfort WP3.2 Development of CFD-HAM model WP4 Towards an integrated approach WP5.1 Strategic and integrated planning of research activities WP5.2 Strategic implementation of testing and simulation facilities Referenties Appendices Bijsturingen in het project Beheer van het project Haalbaarheid van het project Te beschermen resultaten Utilisatieverslag Valorisatiepotentieel: geactualiseerde visie Overzicht van de uitgevoerde valorisatieacties Bescherming projectresultaten Financieel verslag Prestatietabel Prognose voor komend projectjaar Financiële verantwoording... 48

3 1 Wetenschappelijk- technisch verslag 1.1 Overzicht van uitgevoerde activiteiten Het onderzoekswerk is georganiseerd in vijf werkpaketten, welke op hun beurt nog verder onderverdeeld zijn: WP1 Outside boundary conditions WP1.1 Wind pressure distribution WP1.2 Driving rain load distribution WP2 Building envelope WP2.1 Development of HAM model WP2.2 Experimental analysis on building enclosures WP3 Building interior WP3.1 Convective heat exchange and summer comfort WP3.2 Development of CFD-HAM model WP4 Towards an integrated approach WP4.1 Development of a prototype software environment WP4.2 Development of a coupling necessity decision procedure WP4.3 Experimental validation WP5 Establishment of a knowledge platform WP5.1 Strategic and integrated planning of research activities WP5.2 Strategic implementation of testing and simulation facilities Dit verslag beschrijft de onderzoeksactiviteiten van het eerste projectjaar lopende van 1 september 2006 tot 1 september Dit deel van het verslag is opgemaakt in het Engels omdat dit de voertaal is voor publicaties en wetenschappelijke rapporten en een aantal onderzoekers Nederlands niet als moedertaal hebben. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 3

4 WP1.1 Wind pressure distribution Objectives WP1.1 emphasises the distribution of pressure differences across the building envelope due to wind flow. This subtask is subdivided in two parts: WP1.1.1 Some sets of full-scale measurements will be recorded regarding the wind pressure distribution on the building envelope of the building Windhouse of the Laboratory Structures of BBRI, located in Limelette. The data will be used to asses the numerical predictions with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). WP1.1.2 Numerical simulations of the air flow around a building will be performed. Different hybrid RANS-LES models to describe the turbulence are tested. The calculations will provide, among other numerical results, the pressure distributions at various locations on the building surface. The obtained data will be compared with the experimental pressure data sets provided by WP Description of work WP1.1.1 Experimental analysis of wind pressure distribution over a building envelope As it has been clearly demonstrated by different authors and by a specific first comparison between full-scale measurements and wind-tunnel tests on the Windhouse building of BBRI, the role of the lateral turbulence intensity (I y ) is of great importance to explain the discrepancies between peak pressures recorded in full-scale vs. wind-tunnel experiments. In function of the time-averaging procedure for analysing the pressures, these discrepancies can be very high. Hence, it was decided, as a first step of the wind and pressure data sets preparation, to perform a complete, more explicit analysis of the wind flow around the building. This will allow the researchers to interpret the correlations with the future predictions that will be obtained with numerical simulations (WP1.1.2). Having this considered, it has been decided to install three additional meteorological masts around the building with specific anemometers in order to get a detailed evaluation of the turbulence intensities of the incoming wind flow around the building. The location of these new masts was determined according to the precision needed by the numerical simulations and to be able to identify the influence of the flow pattern on the windward and leeward pressures. The masts are lattice structures with a height of 10 m. These will be equipped with sonic and 3-cup anemometers, as described below. The location of the masts is illustrated in Figure 1. Two masts are located near the first existing (original) mast to obtain a spatial grid analysis of the wind flow upstream of the building. A last mast will be located at about 20 m downstream of the Windhouse building. The sensibility to the vibrations of the masts on the measurements has been studied and could be neglected. Unfortunately, the masts are still not fully operational because of delay problems (9 months) with the urban planning commission of Limelette for the licence to build. However, it is expected that the whole system will be ready by the end of October The building contractor has just started the construction works. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 4

5 Figure 1: Location of the new meteorological masts around the Windhouse building at BBRI in Limelette. In order to evaluate the structure of the wind flow with more accuracy, ultrasonic anemometers were considered. After an analysis and a comparison of the available equipment, 2 WindMaster ultrasonic anemometers from Gill Instruments Ltd. were bought. These allow to determine the wind speed in the 3 principal directions (U, V, W) and, more important, the associated turbulence intensities (I u, I v and I w ). The sample rate is 32 or 40 Hz, the resolution is < 0,01 m/s and the accuracy is lower than 1,5 % RMS. Figure 2: Ultrasonic anemometer The prevailing wind directions around the building are given in Figure 3. It is clear that the southwest direction is dominant. A first measurement of the longitudinal turbulence intensity was obtained with a simplified system up to 5 m height and is presented in Figure 4. As can be observed from Figure 4, the turbulence intensity is highly dependent on the wind direction. More results will demonstrate this for the other (principal) directions. Additional 3-cup anemometers were also bought to obtain information on the wind speed along the altitude around the building. These will also be installed on the masts at different heights (5 m and 10 m). Eerste jaarlijks rapport 5

6 Figure 3: Prevailing wind directions in Limelette Iu [%] 30 Iu [%] Wind direction [ ] Vmean,5m [m/s] Figure 4: Analysis of the longitudinal turbulence intensity of the wind around the Windhouse building in Limelette (U > 5 m/s). WP1.1.2 Development of a hybrid RANS-LES technique of flow over buildings From a computational point of view it is not feasible to perform Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of flow around buildings. With this technique, the large turbulence structures in the flow are resolved and the small structures are modelled. A very fine mesh near the building walls is required to accurately resolve the flow. This leads to very large computational costs. On the other hand, simulations with Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) result in very poor predictions of the flow field over a building since this methodology requires modelling of all the turbulence structures. That is the main reason why a hybrid model can be of interest. In such a model an unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes model is used in the near-wall regions, while far from the wall a sub-grid scale (SGS) model is used within an LES-formulation. In this way the best qualities of RANS and LES are combined in one model. The use of a RANS model in the near-wall regions allows using much coarser meshes in those regions which saves computational time. Numerical simulations have been done mainly on flow over a periodic part of a square section of a tower building. In a first stage a coarse mesh (Figure 5) is used and comparison with available experimental data is made. Depending on the agreement with the experimental data, Eerste jaarlijks rapport 6

7 the mesh will be refined if necessary. Dependency on inflow boundary conditions will also be investigated. Three hybrid models are considered and will be compared in order to determine which of them gives the best results: the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model, the k-l model of Davidson and the hybrid model developed at the department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics at UGent by C. De Langhe: ε-l model. Since only the DES model is implemented in the CFD software that was used (Fluent), the other two models needed to be programmed. This has been done by means of User Defined Functions (UDF). Different aspects of the qualities of the models have been investigated. For the time being, the conclusion is that the k-l model is somewhat superior to the other two models, although results do not match perfectly with experimental data. Possible improvements of the model will further be investigated. This model will then be used to provide the pressure distribution for the data of WP The last couple of week s two simulations with the DES model have been performed for flow over a cubic building with dimensions 10 m x 10 m x10 m (see Figure 6 and Figure 7). In the first simulation a uniform inlet velocity profile (10 m/s) was assumed, while in the second one a logarithmic inlet profile was used. Figure 5: Cross section of the coarse mesh (8.400 cells) Figure 6: Contours of mean static pressure on the front and back sides of the cube Eerste jaarlijks rapport 7

8 Figure 7: Contours of mean static pressure on the top of the cube Deliverables WP1.1.1 Ultrasonic anemometers were purchased and calibrated Preliminary measurements of the wind speed, wind direction and turbulence intensity were made around the Windhouse building at a height of 5 m. The construction of three meteorological masts around the Windhouse building has started. WP1.1.2 The researcher became familiar with the different turbulence modelling techniques. Various turbulence models were implemented in the CFD software package by means of User Defined Functions. Planning WP1.1.1 During the next weeks, the construction of the masts will be completed. A complete calibration of the acquisition system will be performed and an analysis of the turbulence intensities (3 directions) will be accomplished. A recording period will begin on the Windhouse building during the winter in order to get all the data sets (wind and pressures on specific locations on the building) allowing a comparison with numerical simulations. WP1.1.2 Additional simulations with the DES and the other two models on the periodic part of the square section tower building and on the cubic building will be performed and the results will be compared with experimental results. The aim is to decide which of the models has fundamentally the best qualities. Analysis of the dependency on inflow boundary conditions and on the size of the computational domain around the building. Grid sensitivity analysis. The aim is to determine how coarse a grid might be for a realistic flow simulation with DES. Fine-tuning of the chosen model. Some small modifications might be beneficial for the final quality. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 8

9 WP1.2 Driving rain load distribution Objectives WP1.2 emphasises the effect of wind-driven rain on the heat and mass transfer in the building envelope. This subtask is subdivided into several parts: WP1.2.1 In this subsection, laboratory and in situ experiments of contact phenomena of driving rain impinging on different building materials are carried out. The final amount of water that may enter the building enclosure will be determined by splashing effects, adhesion, evaporation, run-off and capillary absorption. All these phenomena strongly depend on the material properties of the building enclosure. WP1.2.2 Numerically, the transformation of individual rain drops, absorbed by the building material towards a smeared wetting as assumed in building envelope models, will be investigated. In addition, a run-off model for rain water run-off on capillary active materials will be developed. WP1.2.3 The research of the previous two subsections was conducted in strong collaboration with a PhD student working on a K.U.Leuven OT-project where the contact phenomena (bouncing, splashing and spreading) and surface phenomena (absorption, evaporation and run-off) are also of interest. Out of this research it has become clear that the outside boundary conditions, namely convection and radiation, have a large impact on the evaporation at building façades wetted by wind-driven rain. Therefore the focus of the PhD student working on this SBO project (PhD1) will be mainly on these topics and an additional subsection (WP1.2.3) has been introduced. Description of work WP1.2.1 Laboratory and in situ experiments of contact phenomena of driving rain impinging on different building materials. Contact phenomena of a raindrop impinging on a building material were investigated with a laboratory set-up. With this set-up raindrops of different sizes were released from a certain height until they reached terminal velocity after which they impinge on the building material. Different building materials and impact angles were investigated. As the raindrop trajectory was captured by a high-speed camera, the different types of contact phenomena could be distinguished, namely bouncing, splashing and spreading. A correlation for the spreading length as a function of the impact angle and the droplet diameter was derived out of the experimental data. An experimental setup for field measurements of wind-driven rain loads and the response of walls was developed at the VLIET building for validation purposes. Measurements of nearwall wind speed and direction, wind-driven rain intensity and material weight are possible. A preliminary measurement campaign was carried out and more extensive ones will follow. WP1.2.2 Development of a water uptake and run-off model for building materials. A simple run-off model was implemented in HAMFEM, which is an in-house HAM modelling tool developed by the Laboratory of Building Physics at the K.U.Leuven, and preliminary simulations were performed. More extensive simulations are planned. Moreover, 2D simulations of a horizontal cut of a cubic building model were performed with HAMFEM for several successive rain events in order to asses the response of the building envelope. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 9

10 WP1.2.3 Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling of the influence of outside boundary conditions on the heat and mass transfer at building façades wetted by wind-driven rain. Complementary to the previous two subtasks (WP1.2.1 and WP1.2.2), this additional subsection will asses the effect of the outside boundary conditions, such as convection and radiation, on the evaporation at building façades wetted by wind-driven rain. As mentioned before, this information was found to be of significant importance in the assessment of the response of building walls after a rain event for the numerical simulations described in WP In a first stadium, only convective heat and mass transfer was considered and only forced convection was taken into account since this corresponds to high wind speeds and will consequently result in high convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTC) and convective mass transfer coefficients (CMTC). Because of the strong relation of heat and mass transfer with the flow field around a building, the relevant literature regarding atmospheric boundary-layer flow and its numerical modelling techniques has been reviewed. Moreover, the review also included an overview of full-scale measurements, wind-tunnel tests and numerical simulations of convective heat transfer at building façades. There are few experiments available for convective mass transfer since CMTC are generally obtained by the heat and mass transfer analogy. These have also been included in the review. A numerical study with CFD (Fluent) was carried out to asses the convective heat transfer on a heated 10 m high, cubic building submersed in an atmospheric boundary layer (see Figure 8). The RANS approach was used to model turbulence. The influence of different approach flow profiles, wind directions and thermal boundary conditions was investigated. Moreover, different near-wall modelling techniques have been compared. The amount of heat transfer, represented by the CHTC, was correlated with the mean wind speed at a height of 10 m above the ground. In the previous research, heat transfer was entirely solved within the CFD package. Since combined heat and mass transfer in solid materials is not implemented in the software, the program is coupled (explicit) with HAMFEM. The air flow is entirely solved within the CFD package whereas the heat and mass transport in the solid material is solved within HAMFEM. Validation simulations are currently carried out in order to validate the coupled program. Furthermore, an experimental setup was designed to provide validation data regarding the convective heat and mass transfer at surfaces of building materials predicted by the coupled CFD-HAMFEM program. It is a small wind-tunnel where turbulent channel flow is produced over a building material sample, mounted flush with the channel walls. The effect of different boundary conditions and surface texture can be investigated. The wind tunnel will be constructed within the following months. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 10

11 Figure 8: Cubic building model (heated from the inside) submerged in the atmospheric boundary layer: example of heat flux distribution (left) and computational grid (right) Deliverables WP1.2.1 A correlation for the spreading length of a raindrop is available as a function of the impact angle and the droplet diameter. An experimental setup for field measurements regarding wind-driven rain loads was developed at the VLIET building. WP1.2.2 A simple run-off model is developed. WP1.2.3 A prototype version of the HAMFEM program, which is adjusted so it can run together with Fluent is developed. Planning WP1.2.1 A more extensive measurement campaign will be performed to obtain a larger dataset regarding the response of walls on wind-driven rain. WP1.2.2 The run-off model will be extended. WP1.2.3 Regarding the CHTC distribution on the building façade, different building configurations and more accurate unsteady simulations such as DES will be considered. The adjusted HAMFEM program will be validated and optimised. The wind tunnel test setup will be constructed. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 11

12 WP2.1 Development of HAM model Objectives The aim of this subtask is to develop a comprehensive building envelope model for the coupled analysis of heat, air and moisture transport through building enclosures. The model will be based on existing scientific models (most dealing with a part of the problems) available from the partners. Because of the different time-scales between heat, moisture and air transport, and the corresponding numerical problems, a stabilised solution method will be applied when dealing with air transport. Description of work The work package researcher got familiar with numerical modelling and gathered information and knowledge on existing HAM-models. In addition, he studied in depth the HAMmodelling program HAMFEM, developed at the K.U.Leuven. In a WP4-meeting in May 2007 the decision was made to couple HAMFEM with ESP-r. In order to get HAMFEM and EPS-r to communicate, a first test-case was determined. The setup has been defined in its geometry, indoor and outdoor boundary conditions,. Deliverables The researcher became familiar with HAMFEM, the HAM-modelling tool developed by the Laboratory of Building Physics of the K.U.Leuven. A review paper on modelling of air transport in building envelopes and porous materials is in preparation. Planning The decision has been made to focus on HAMFEM in the further course of the project and to upgrade it to a 1, 2 and 3D HAM-modelling tool. Therefore, the modelling of air transport has to be solved in combination with heat and moisture transport. These so called advection-diffusion or convection-diffusion problems require a complex solution (i.e. Petrov-Galerkin, discontinuous Galerkin, ). Similar problems have been solved before, however, none of them have been implemented and tested for the application in HAM-problems. Since it is not possible to compare every possibility, further research should make it possible to choose and compare a few. In order to attain more insight in the complexity of HAM-modelling and to overcome the difficulties in numerically solving HAM-problems further research will be done in the next few months. During measurements on the VLIET-building setup, the experimental setup will be simulated with HAMFEM (without air component) in order to evaluate the effect and importance of airflows and/or air leakage. In a later stage of the project the upgraded version of HAMFEM will be used to fully simulate heat, air and moisture transfer in building components. In the framework of WP4 the necessary data for the coupling of HAMFEM with ESP-r will be provided. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 12

13 WP2.2 Experimental analysis on building enclosures Objectives This subtask focuses on experimental analysis of building enclosures. Measurements will be performed at the VLIET test-building of the K.U.Leuven both on masonry and lightweight constructions. The measurement data will be used to validate the developed numerical model in WP2.1. Description of work During the first year a test-setup was built at the VLIET-building of the K.U.Leuven in Heverlee. In the building a terraced house has been constructed. The timber frame walls have a 9 cm mineral wool filling in between the rafters and an extra 8 cm of XPS insulation at the outside. Also, a floor was added to simulate a ground and first floor level. Both levels are connected with an opening in the floor, which can be closed with hatches. This allows measuring at both levels separately or combined. The setup is constructed as air tight as possible, in order to attain a high accuracy in the measurements. Walls, floors and ceilings have a 15 mm multiplex finish, covered with an air and vapour retarder. Air tightness tests for the ground level part will be carried out in September Deliverables Figure 9: VLIET-building test setup Design and construction of the experimental setup at the VLIET-building of the K.U.Leuven. A paper on the VLIET-building test setup and first measurements is in preparation (submitted for the Nordic Symposium on Building Physics 2008 in Copenhagen, June 2008). Eerste jaarlijks rapport 13

14 Planning Measurements will be done on the ground level part (with closed hatches). The SWwall of the test section is a cavity wall, with a plaster finish at the inside. The NE-wall consists of three separate wall-sections, each with different air tightness. The measurements on the NE-walls will start in October During the following months the NE-walls will be closely monitored and analysed, during which several boundary conditions will be changed, i.e. adding extra ventilation (infiltration and exfiltration). These measurements should give a good idea of the impact of wind flows, air tightness and in- and exfiltration on the hygrothermal behaviour of the NE-walls and on whole building level. Afterwards, adjustments will be made to the test-setup (additional ventilation opening in SW-wall, ). These new and different setups will also be measured and analysed. In addition, the upper level will be made operational in the next few months and at that time the roof sections will also be studied and monitored. Figure 10: Airflow patterns in the test setup Eerste jaarlijks rapport 14

15 WP3.1 Convective heat exchange and summer comfort Objectives WP3.1 will focus on the convective heat transfer in rooms and offices and its impact on summer comfort performances by solar processing, intensive (night) ventilation and thermally active flooring. Engineering the summer comfort performances depends on the other hand to a large extent on a reliable prediction of the local heating through solar irradiation and the prediction of wind pressures around buildings for ventilation (WP1.1). WP3.1 is subdivided into four parts: WP3.1.1 An experimental analysis of convective heat transfer between the ventilation air and the building surface will be performed. This work focuses on a single zone and will be done in the rotating PASLINK-cell available at BBRI, a highly instrumented test facility. WP3.1.2 An experimental analysis of solar heating and intensive ventilation and its impact on summer comfort will be conducted. WP3.1.3 A numerical prediction of ventilation and local heating through solar irradiation inside buildings will be performed. The solar illuminated patterns on inside surfaces through direct solar radiation will be calculated and converted to local heat powers. For the ventilation, input data from WP1.1 will serve as boundary conditions. The CFD simulations will be coupled with a multi-zone building simulation model and the predictions will be validated by comparison with the test results. WP3.1.4 The numerical methods that are developed will be validated with data measured in projects realised by the industrial partners. Description of work WP3.1.1 Experimental analysis of convective heat transfer between the ventilation air and the building surface Additional to the experimental research of the heat transfer and other information of the flow field in the room, numerical calculations by means of CFD will also be used in this subtask. Typical outputs of a CFD simulation are three-dimensional spatial distributions of: (1) air velocity for all three directional components, (2) air temperature, (3) relative humidity, (4) turbulence intensity and (5) different contaminants concentrations. With these distributions a better air quality and thermal comfort analysis can be performed than any multi-zone or zonal model. A CFD simulation is performed to investigate the convective heat transfer at walls in an enclosure. However, for the modelling of CFD simulations different assumptions have to be made. Therefore the sensitivity of some modelling and calculation parameters is examined. Experience indicates the limitations of the current available CFD-methods, with respect to reliability and necessity to validate CFD-results of typical indoor airflow patterns. As an indication of the reliability of the CFD-results the calculated convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTC) at the ceiling of a room are compared with the appropriate empirical CHTC correlations. Therefore, an extensive literature review of the relevant empirical CHTC correlations in building design is performed (Sacré et al., 2007a). For each different flow regime an experimental correlation is derived. However, as some of the correlations include a length scale, the use of the correlation for different room dimensions must be performed Eerste jaarlijks rapport 15

16 carefully. Also the reference temperature, which has a significant influence on the CHTC, may differ for each correlation. Therefore, the details of the flow regime, the derivation of the CHTC, the dimensions of the experimental chamber and other specifications must be known before applying the CHTC correlation. For the calculation of the CHTC at cooled ceiling surfaces for natural convection, Novoselac (2005) was the first to develop a correlation by means of an experimental setting with a cooled ceiling. The previously used correlations in building design were all based on measurements at heated floors (Alamdari and Hammond, 1983; Awbi and Hatton, 1999). The empirical CHTC correlation used for the comparison of the CFD-calculated CHTC at the cooled ceiling are represented in Table 1. The local air temperature at 100 mm of the cooled ceiling surface is used as the reference temperature. Table 1: Empirical convection correlations at cooled ceilings Author Surface type h c correlation Natural convection Min et al Heated floor ( Tair Tsurface ) h (1956) (T surface > T air ) c = Alamdari and Hammond (1983) Novoselac (2005) Mixed convection Awbi and Hatton (2000) Ceiling 1/ 4 (T surface < T air ) T 1/ [ 1.63 T ] Ceiling (T surface < T air ) D h T D h 0.33 Jet over heated floor (T surface > T air ) ( T) ( W) D h / [ U ] where D h = hydraulic diameter (= 4A/P) [m], A = area [m²], P = perimeter [m], W = width [m] and U = velocity [m/s] The dimensions and the construction of the 3-D model are represented in Figure 11. Air enters and leaves the room at the top of the room. There are four isothermal walls in the room (floor, east, west and north wall), a hot wall (south wall) and a cold wall (ceiling). A convective heat source is represented by a rectangular block. The CHTC s are calculated for different lowered ceiling configurations (Figure 11). The specifications of the model and the simulation approach in Fluent are described in Sacré et al. (2007b). First a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influence of the choice of different types of models and calculation parameters on the predicted values of CHTC. The analysis showed that the choice of the turbulence model was not significant. On the other hand the use of standard wall functions has a large influence. The influence of the jet (v = 0.2 m/s) is negligible on the CHTC, as well as the modelling of the density with the incompressible ideal gas law / 3.2 Eerste jaarlijks rapport 16

17 Figure 11: 3-D room geometry for CFD-simulation Figure 12: CHTC at a cooled ceiling: empirical correlations and simulated values The simulated CHTC s at the cooled ceiling and the empirical correlations are represented in Figure 12 as a function of the temperature difference between ceiling surface and air (mean temperature at 100 mm from ceiling surface). It is obvious that the results for the completely lowered ceiling configuration yield close to the correlations of Novoselac (2005) and of Awbi and Hatton (2000). The CHTC for the other ceiling configurations lies closer to the correlation of Alamdari and Hammond (1983). The CFD-calculated CHTC s thus lie in the range of the empirical convection correlations at a cooled ceiling surfaces. Therefore, it can be concluded that CFD can be used as a cheap tool (no experimental chamber needed) for the prediction of CHTC s. However, the modelling of natural convection with Fluent is not evident. The calculations still have a long calculation time and convergence is not always achieved easily. Apart from the numerical simulations, experimental measurements in the PASLINK cells are also planned, as described below. WP3.1.2 Experimental analysis of solar heating and intensive ventilation and its impact on summer comfort No actions have been undertaken yet to setup a measurement campaign but a working meeting is planned to discuss the experiments. Probably, the PASLINK cells will also be used for these experiments. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 17

18 WP3.1.3 Numerical prediction of ventilation and local heating through solar irradiation inside buildings Physibel implemented a 3D solar processor in VOLTRA v6.0. In this model, the direct and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface from a climate data file are converted at each calculation time step to direct and diffuse solar radiation on the object surfaces taking into account the geographical location (latitude, longitude, time zone), day of year, clock time, surface orientation (compared to north direction) and surface tilt (height angle above horizon). The diffuse solar radiation on an exterior material surface also depends on the view factor to the open sky and is calculated using Muneer s diffuse radiation model (also used in the building simulation program CAPSOL developed by Physibel). Direct radiation is reflected using a reflection factor which may be function of the angle of incidence. Diffuse radiation is reflected using a diffuse reflection factor. Reflected radiation from an exterior material surface is lost (as in CAPSOL). A global ground reflection factor (or albedo) allows taking into account the reflected radiation from the environment onto the object surfaces. Radiation on transparent materials is transmitted to internal zones. Transmitted direct radiation is projected on internal walls following the solar rays. Transmitted diffuse radiation is distributed on all internal walls proportional to the view factors from the inside surface of the transparent material to the other internal walls. Direct radiation on an internal wall surface is reflected using a reflection factor which may be function of the angle of incidence. All reflected radiation at an interior material surface is diffuse and is redistributed to the other interior surfaces proportional to the view factors. An interior material surface may also be part of a transparent material, through which the solar radiation is further propagated. The scheme of successive internal reflections and transmissions is solved using a radiosity method. The view factors can be obtained from a prior view factor calculation using a coarser grid (to speed up the processing time and to reduce the required memory space). The absorbed solar radiation upon exterior and interior material surfaces and inside transparent materials is converted to time dependent node powers, which are considered as additional boundary conditions to the thermal system. These absorbed solar fluxes can be used in graphic files or written to a text file, which allows exchange of data to other models. Figure 13 shows an example. Measuring equipment was developed to validate the solar processor but due to bad measuring conditions in summer, no measurement campaign was carried out. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 18

19 indoors sunshade outdoors Brussels 9 June clear glazing glazing α s = 0.2 ρ s = 0.5 τ s = 0.3 clear glazing Figure 13: Predicted absorbed solar flux at an exterior façade with sunshade WP3.1.4 Validation of the numerical methods with data measured in projects realised by the industrial partners No measurements for validation purposes have been carried out yet. However, case studies are planned on the prediction and optimisation of summer comfort applying different calculation methods: solar processor and 3D transient thermal simulation, multi-zone building simulation coupled with CFD (interior and exterior), and classical multi-zone. Well chosen projects realised by the industrial partners (Daidalos, Stockman) will be chosen for these case studies. The results of the numerical methods will be compared with data measured in the projects. The projects include an office building with natural night ventilation (Unilan- Quickstep) and cooled ceilings, and a high rise building with exterior solar protection (VRT building). Deliverables WP3.1.1 Two internal reports on the extensive literature review and the performed CFD calculations regarding the natural convective heat transfer coefficient have been composed. WP3.1.2 No deliverables have been obtained yet. WP3.1.3 An extension of the program VOLTRAv6.0 has been made. Measuring equipment was developed to validate the 3D solar processor. WP3.1.4 Preparations were made for the two planned measurement campaigns. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 19

20 Planning WP3.1.1 Validation experiments will be designed in the PASLINK cells available at BBRI, studying the interaction between solar gains, thermal storage and ventilation. A first proposal is to focus the measurements on the performance of thermally active concrete floors in combination with raised floors and suspended ceilings. WP3.1.2 Proper experiments will be determined during the planned working meeting. WP3.1.3 A measurement campaign is planned to provide validation data for the 3D solar processor. The 3D solar processor will be validated with experimental data and if necessary, adjustments will be made to the software. WP3.1.4 Measurement campaigns will be set up for two buildings, realised by the industrial partners. Eerste jaarlijks rapport 20

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