Workflowmanagement in construction; Opportunities for the future

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1 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig Theme: Title: Arial, size 10 (will be completed by the orgaisig committee) Workflowmaagemet i costructio; Opportuities for the future Author(s): J.W.F. Wamelik (1, 3), M. Stoffele (2, 4), W.M.P. va der Aalst (1) Istitutio(s): (1) Departmet of Iformatio ad Techology, Eidhove Uiversity of Techology, The Netherlads (2) Architectural Desig Maagemet Systems (SAI), Eidhove Uiversity of Techology. The Netherlads (3) Ifocus Maagemet Cosultats bv, The Netherlads (4) Heijmas IBC Bouw bv, The Netherlads (s): Abstract: Keywords: Process cotrol is a essetial base for the efficiet ad successful executio of costructio projects. At the same time, costructio processes are complex ad difficult to cotrol. A lot of processes are critical ad a overview of all these processes is ofte ot clear. I other idustries workflow maagemet has show to be a successful tool i cotrollig stadardized processes. Workflow maagemet systems take care of the iformatio logistics ad give a process overview that eables better maagemet ad cotrol of the process. The research described i this paper focuses o the possibilities of workflow maagemet i dyamic, project orieted processes. More specific, the paper makes clear whether workflow maagemet systems are usable ad profitable i costructio ad to what extet. After studyig the properties of specific processes i differet costructio projects the criteria for the selectio of a automated workflow maagemet system are listed. This teaches that classical workflow maagemet systems were ot suited for the developmet of a prototype, maily because of the lack of flexibility. Case hadlig systems, a type of workflow maagemet system, seemed more appropriate for the dyamic processes. Withi a large Dutch costructio compay the prototype has bee tested i practice. The mai coclusios of the research are that workflow maagemet ca be applicable ad profitable i costructio ad that workflow maagemet makes the processes more maageable ad cotrollable. Iformatio i the processes is gathered i oe system that makes it easier to track dow ad iformatio i the system is always up to date. Workflow maagemet, process cotrol The eed for process cotrol i costructio Failure costs It is well kow that costs due to failures are high i the costructio idustry. Recet studies by Stichtig Bouw Research i the Netherlads idicate that 6 á 7 % of the cotract price ca be allocated as expeses due to failures [12]. A lot of these failures are caused by a iadequate orgaizatio of the costructio process, e.g. a weak coordiatio of processes ad ucertaity about available iformatio. As a result of this Stichtig Bouw Research lauched a research program buildig better (i Dutch: bouw beter) [12]. Also i other coutries there is deep cocer that the idustry as a whole is uder-achievig. I the Uited Kigdom the low profitability of the costructio idustry ad the fact that the idustry ivests too little Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue

2 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig i capital, research ad developmet ad traiig were motives to start the major project Rethikig Costructio [7]. Too may of the idustry's cliets are dissatisfied with its overall performace. Itegrated processes To improve this situatio differet approaches are possible. Stichtig Bouw Research poits to the eed for process improvemet. The program rethikig costructio defied five key drivers of chage which eed to set the ageda for the costructio idustry at large [7]: committed leadership, a focus o the customer, itegrated processes ad teams, a quality drive ageda, ad commitmet to people. The coclusio is that improvemet of itegrated processes has to be placed high o the research ageda. Not oly these recet studies poit to the eed for well-supported maagemet processes. I the past may authors addressed the eed for mappig of processes, measuremet of performace ad cotiuous improvemet to improve quality ad elimiate waste. Workflow maagemet A iterestig poit with respect to this subject is comparig the costructio idustry with other idustries. I the past several cocepts, from maufacturig, seemed to be applicable i the costructio idustry [5, 8, 9]. Durig the past decade Workflow Maagemet (WFM) has become a importat driver to improve ad itegrate processes i the service idustry. Workflow maagemet systems such as Staffware, IBM MQSeries Workflow, COSA, etc. offer geeric modelig ad eactmet capabilities for structured busiess processes. By makig graphical process defiitios, i.e., models describig the life cycle of a typical case (workflow istace) i isolatio, oe ca cofigure these systems to support busiess processes. Besides pure workflow maagemet systems may other software systems have adopted workflow techology. Cosider for example ERP (Eterprise Resource Plaig) systems such as SAP, PeopleSoft, Baa, Oracle, as well as CRM (Customer Relatioship Maagemet) software ad recetly projectweb-software used withi the Iteret. Workflow maagemet systems have prove to be very successful i supportig well-defied, structured processes. Eve though each project is uique, costructio processes eve o a detailed level are mostly the same. The process of costructio i its essetials is repeated from project to project. Accordig to [7] up to 80% of iputs ito buildigs are repeated. Much repair ad maiteace work also uses a repeat process. The coclusio is that it is of great value to ivestigate the beefits of applicatio workflow maagemet systems i costructio. The cocept of workflow maagemet Itroductio to workflow maagemet Workflow maagemet systems are case-drive. This meas that oly busiess processes describig the hadlig of oe case (workflow istace) i isolatio are supported. May cases ca be hadled i parallel. However, from the viewpoit of the workflow maagemet system these cases are logically idepedet. To hadle each case, the workflow maagemet system uses the correspodig workflow process defiitio. The process defiitio describes the routig of the case by specifyig the orderig of activities. Activities are the logical uits of work ad correspod to atomic pieces of work, i.e., each activity is executed by oe worker (or aother type of resource) ad the result is either commit work or abort ad roll back. Normally, to specify the orderig of activities is a graphical laguage such as Petri ets [1] used. These laguages allow for sequetial, coditioal, ad parallel routig of cases. Typically, a activity, which is eabled for a give case, may be executed by may workers ad may workers may execute a give activity. To support the distributio of work, the cocept of a role is used. A worker ca have multiple roles, but a activity has oly oe role. If activity A has role R, the oly workers with role R are allowed to execute activities of type A. Based o this iformatio, the workflow maagemet system works as follows: The correspodig workflow process defiitio is iitiated for each ew case, i.e., for each case (e.g., request for iformatio, isurace claim, customs declaratio, etc.) a ew workflow istace is created. Based o the correspodig workflow process defiitio, the workflow 2 Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue 2002

3 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig egie calculates which activities to eable for that case. For each eabled activity, oe work-item is put i the i-tray of each worker havig the appropriate role. Workers ca pick work-items from their i-tray. By selectig a work-item the worker ca start executig the correspodig activity, etc. Note that, although a work-item ca appear i the i-tray of may workers, oly oe worker will execute the correspodig activity. Whe a work-item is selected, the workflow maagemet system lauches the correspodig applicatio(s) ad moitors the result of executig the correspodig activity. Note that the worker oly sees work-items i his/her i-tray ad whe selectig a work-item oly the iformatio relevat for executig the correspodig activity is show. Lack of flexibility I this paper, we argue that the lack of flexibility i cotemporary workflow maagemet systems stems from the fact that routig is the oly mechaism drivig the case, i.e., work is moved from oe i-tray to aother based o pre-specified causal relatios. This causes various problems, whe the cocept is used i the costructio idustry. The costructio idustry eeds a more flexible WFM system, i which activities ca be doe istead of have to be doe [6, 13]. The possibility of redoig or skippig activities is a importat requiremet of the system to be chose. Case-hadlig systems meet these requiremets. Case-hadlig The cetral cocept for case hadlig is the case ad ot the activities or the routig from oe i-tray to aother [2]. The case is the product which is maufactured ad at all times workers should be aware of this cotext. To hadle a case, activities eed to be executed. Activities are logical uits of work. Clearly activities are related ad cases follow typical patters [3]. A process is the recipe for hadlig cases of a give type. It is importat that workers have isight i the whole case whe they are executig activities. Therefore, all relevat data should be preseted to the worker. Moreover, workers should be able to look at other data objects associated to the case they are workig o (assumig proper authorizatio). Forms are used to preset differet views o the data objects associated to a give case. Activities ca be liked to a form to preset the data objects most relevat. Actors are the workers executig activities ad are grouped ito roles. Roles are specific for processes, i.e., there ca be multiple roles amed maager as log as they are liked to differet processes. Oe actor ca have multiple roles ad roles may have multiple actors. Roles ca be liked together through role graphs. A role graph specifies is_a relatios betwee roles. This way, oe ca specify that aybody with role maager also has the role employee. Three roles eed to be specified for each process ad activity: the execute role, the redo role, ad the skip role. The execute role is the role that is ecessary to carry out the activity or to start a process. The redo role is ecessary to udo activities, i.e., the case returs to the state before executig the activity. Note that it is oly possible to udo a activity if all followig activities are udoe as well. The skip role is ecessary to pass over activities. I order to skip over two cosecutive activities, the worker eeds to have the skip role for both activities. The three types of roles associated to activities ad processes provide a very powerful mechaism for modelig a wide rage of exceptios, which is very importat for a successful applicatio i the costructio idustry. The redo esures a very dyamic (as it is depedet o the role of the employee ad the status of the case) ad flexible form of a loop. The skip takes care of a rage of exceptios that would otherwise have to be modeled i order to pass over activities. For case hadlig the i-tray is replaced by a flexible query mechaism. This mechaism allows a worker to avigate through all active cases. The query Select all cases for which there is a activity eabled which has a execute role R ca be used to emulate the traditioal i-tray. Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue

4 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig D1 D2 D3 D4 free madatory restricted A B C Execute role: X Redo role: Nobody Skip role: Y Execute role: Y Redo role: Z Skip role: Nobody Execute role: X Redo role: Nobody Skip role: Aybody Figure 1: a example illustratig some of the case-hadlig cocepts Figure 1 illustrates some of the case-hadlig cocepts graphically. Note that each activity has three roles associated to it. For example, activity A may be executed by a worker havig role X. However, it ca also be skipped by a worker havig role Y. Assumig that there is o worker havig role Nobody, this activity caot be redoe. Similarly, activity B caot be skipped but ca be redoe by a worker havig role Z. Figure 1 also shows the free, madatory, ad restricted data objects associated to each activity. Activity A requires data elemet D1 to be set because D1 is madatory for the completio of A. Activity B has two madatory data objects (D1 ad D2). D4 is restricted to C. Note that because of the explicit modelig of data objects, activities are o loger black boxes ad their iterrelatioships become clear. Moreover, it is possible to remove explicit causal relatioships ad it is possible to execute several activities i oe activity. Cosider for example the sceario where a worker eters both D1 ad D2 whe executig activity A. After completig A all madatory data elemets for B are preset which idicates that B is ot required. Usig this iformatio B is skipped ad C is the ext activity to be executed. Usig case-hadlig i costructio Characteristics of processes i costructio, related to automatio Costructio processes are mostly project-orieted. Characteristics of projects are their complexity ad their uiqueess. The goal of a project is usually agreed o durig its start-up. Although a project result does ot have to be completely ew, a project itself cotais may ew elemets or a ew combiatio of these elemets. Examples are the ivolved parties, the situatio of the project, ad the techiques used. A efficiet process is i costructio importat. Projects usually last for several years. Therefore, cotrollig ad maagig projects are at the same time ecessary ad difficult. These project characteristics complicate the traslatio of costructio processes ito workflow maagemet descriptios [10]. Besides the above-metioed ew elemets, a project usually follows a ew process. A workflow maagemet descriptio has to be able to offer flexibility to meet differeces betwee several projects or parts of the project. O the other had, a costructio project has to cotai a certai level of stadardizatio. To build a completely ew workflow maagemet model for each project that will be executed costs a lot of time ad moey. Besides, workers withi a costructio compay have to kow how to build such a model. Not oly kowledge of modelig processes is ecessary, but also havig a overview of the project is eeded at all times. Automatio is useful for processes with the followig characteristics: - a large iterest for the total project result i terms of time, costs, ad quality, - a occurrece i more projects, ad - a lot of momets of hadig over iformatio i the process. 4 Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue 2002

5 Bepal e va toepassig zijde ode rdel t.b.v. e Alaysere projecop t VBI-ode rdel e Opstelle org.e tech. vb-tak e schem a Opstelle bemo sterigssc he m a Bepale beo digde stapp esch ema's Opstelle stapp esch ema Bes prek e stapp es ch ema Idi e metfabrik at Defiitief make stapp esch ema Overle gge stad aar d stapp es ch ema Stadaard s tappesc hem a Stada ard s tapaawezi pesc hem g a i et aawezi g Idie gee opme rk ig e opme rki g e Over eme sc hem a' is UVF-sch ema Aapass e stapp esch ema Samev atte, ev al ue re ov erd rac htsbes preki Verwerk g e atwoo rde opme rk ig e Opstelle cocepttekesch ema archit ect Plae voorb ereidigs - elevertijd e Overle gge cocepttekesch ema archit ect Defiitief make tekes c hem a archi t ec t Opstelle cocepttekesch ema costructeur Idie iet accoord Aapass e cocepttekesch ema archi t ect Idie acco ord Opstelle coördi aties che ma Sortere stapp es ch ema' s opbas isva Afs temm start e bouwmet opdracht geve r/di recti ev oer de r Plaeoverige VBI-oderdel e Overle gge cocepttekesch ema costr ucteur Idie iet acc oo rd Idie accoord Aapass e cocepttekesch ema costr ucte ur Defi itief make tek es c hem a costr ucteur Bepal e start mom ete ode rdel e Opstelle bouws ch em a Opstelle hoofd bewe rkig esc hem a Opstelle schem a ov erig e aad ac hts put e Bepaleva toepassig zijde oderdel e voor Bepale s tart mom ete ode rdelva e Verplaatse plabalke ahv levere Cotr olere cocept legpla Bespre k tbv e taakverdeli g levere Cotrolere pro jec tdraaibo ek Idie gee vauitpraktisc Idi e h opme rki g elateautori ser e Aapass opme e rk ig e draai boek pro jec tdraaiboek Schuive ide plaig Pre se t ere projec tdr aai bo ek ibouwte am make coceplegpla t Doors t ure cocept legpla aardei Op1tekeig verza mele va opme rk ig e, Verwerk e opme rkig e, spari ge, S turevamak e wapei gstek ei g eberek eieg Doors t ure legplamet spari ge, Cotr olere legplamet igetek ed e Doorg eve evt. opme rkigop e legpla op, S tureva defi i tie make f legpla Voorakk oo rd Idie teke e defiitie f Idie iet acc oo goedk rd euri g legplae Idi e acco ord Doors t ure defi itielegpl f a aardei Archiveer defiitiev e docu met e Verpl aa tse pl ab alk e overe eko ms ti g cotroler e wapei gtek ei g Cotr olere legplaeevt. opme rk ig e Aageveofhet koopwo ig zij e Ja Opstelle schema's voor koopwo ig e opgev e spari ge, Besprek e t.b.v. taakve rdelig ikoop Beatwo ord e vrage bijmake estureva Vergelijke offert es Besprek e offert es Makeschriftelijk c otr act Verzam ele docu met e Besprek e voege va gedet aillee rd Idie accoord Oderteke e cotract S tureva idiee wapei gstek ei g goedk euri door g B ouw-e Offert eaa vra ag makee versture Idie gee goedk euri g aap ass e tekei ge Nee Defiitief make ode rde el koopwo ig e Opstelle termij schema Idie termijschema gew est e afwezi g Idi e gee termijschema g ewe st of al aawez i g Idie iet accoord Aapass e cotr act of leveri gsschema Matepl a fuderig sture, vahetmake Opstelle situatietekei g metrouti ge Opgev e bouwku dig e spari ge Matepl a fuderig aar istallateur voor voorb erei de bes prekigmet Bespre k e met uts Matepl a fuderig cotr oler t.a.v. e Mate pla fude rig bespreke Matepl a fude rig sture vacorrig ere Mate pla fuderig, cotrolere ofalle vaaap ass e Idie accoord Idie iet accoo rd Matepl a fude rig defiitie f Houde startb es p re kig Reactie costructeur Mate pla fuderig sture Matepl a fude rig overle gge per Versture aar costr ucteur Notere opme rkig e costr ucteur make l oodgie ter istallatietekei g aap ass e cetr ale tekei ge el ektr avoorlo pig tekei ge elektra make mechaische vetilatie aap as se mec h aische tekei ge loodgieter tekei ge loodgi e ter Vloereboekj e, sturevamake c oc ep tteke i g e Vloere boekj e, cotrolere t.a.v. cotract, mate Vloereboekj e bespreke opme rkig e Vloereboekj e sture va corrigere Vloere boekj e cotrolere ofde gema akte Idie accoord Vloereboekj e, defiitie f verstrekke Vloereboekj e, opgev e iteke e Houde eerst e is tallatie - Besprek e is tallatie tekeige metied Besprek e 2e cocep tteke ig e Verzam ele voorlo pi ge is tallatie tekeige Besprek e voorlo pi ge tekei ge meti S tureva aap asse loodgi e ter aap ass e tekei ge tekei ge mech aisch e Cotrolere of Overlegge met laatste Idie iet accoord Depertelefo o opme rkig e offax meti Idie acco ord Defiitieve istallati e tekeige verstrekke i Navrag e of igedied moet worde bijuts Idie gewe s t idi ee istallatie teke ige Wachteop istallateur goedk euri g make cetrale verwarmi g Vloere boekj e sture va aap asse Idie iet accoord Idie o.a. ge e wa arb org Vloere boekj e overle gge per telefoooffax make el ek tr a istallatietekei g S tureva aap as se elektra tekei ge cetrale tekei ge cetrale bespr eke sture vacorrigere, cotr oler of e Idie accoord defi itie f Idie iet gewes t Archi vee r Idie o.a. waa rbo rg defi itiev e istallateur docu met e Project doorgeveaa uitvoe rig Opstarte proce s archit ect Beoord ele bestekdetails e aag ev e sture vamake cotrolert.a.v e. 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The process model is used to estimate the feasibility of traslatig costructio processes ito a workflow maagemet system. This process model ot oly describes all steps i the processes but also describes the possible routigs through the processes by defiig AND-/OR- splits ad jois. Figure 2 gives a idea of the complexity of the whole model. Process of drawig by the architect Process of drawig by the structural egieer Process of fillig i the maual Process of purchasig Makig 2d versio HVAC drawigs Process of preparig HVAC Process of preparig semi-prefab cocrete floor elemets Figure 2: process model The process model i figure 2 lears that the eeded flexibility ca be modelled ad that the costructio processes ca be defied at a certai level of detail that the processes ca be stadardized without beig too geerally. Experieces: the case-hadlig prototype We decided to cotiue the research by developig a prototype usig the process model as a base. This prototype ca give better isight i the possibilities ( proof-of-the-cocept ) ad eables the discussio of the possibilities ad feasibility of case hadlig i costructio. FLOWer, the case hadlig system of Pallas Athea, has bee used to build the prototype [11]. We did ot specifically choose for FLOWer; the mai focus of this research is the priciples of case hadlig ad ot oe specific system. I FLOWer the roles ad activities i the processes cocered are defied (figures 3). The four roles defied i the prototype are Nobody, Assistat-director, Project-maager, ad Work plaer. The hierarchy of the roles determies the resposibilities i the process. Each activity from the process model has to be traslated ito electroic forms that the user will see i the case hadlig system. The process model describes all the activities that have to be doe while FLOWer describes the trasfer of work. Therefore oe form ca cover more activities i the process model. Loops i the process model are traslated i FLOWer by assessig the redo-activity to oe of the roles. For each activity this iformatio ca be defied i the forms show i figures 4 ad 5. Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue

6 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig Figure 3: defiig activities Figure 4: screeshot of the prototype showig a overview of the status of the case (right) ad a form (left) A user ca start a ew case or ope a existig case i FLOWer Case Query. Figure 4 shows a example of a user form (left) cocerig the makig of the secod versio of the HVAC drawigs. The right side of the scree provides a overview of the project. The user sees the activities that are already executed or skipped. These activities are displayed o the right side of the status lie. Activities o the left side of this 6 Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue 2002

7 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig lie caot be doe because previous activities eed to be fiished first. Activities o the lie ca be carried out. The form show at the left side of the scree correspods to the activity that is highlighted o the status lie. A user ca oly see forms that (s)he is allowed to execute. Data fields marked by a rectagle i frot of the field are madatory. A special kid of form is the Stadard Letter Actio. This form ca geerate documets with iformatio filled i earlier i the project. Figure 5 shows the example of geeratig a letter to the structural egieer i Microsoft Word. The prototype (also available o: supports maily the iformatio hadlig of the process. By usig the prototype the user has a better overview o the process, especially o the available ad completed documets. Retrievig iformatio ca be doe more rapidly ad easier. The overview ca also be used to show the critical path i the project. A better overview of the process will lead to beefits i quality ad time. Figure 5: geeratig a letter i MS-Word Coclusios The research described i this paper shows that the costructio idustry, which is a idustry with a high amout of failure costs, ca be improved by usig a specific form of workflow maagemet, amely case hadlig. Workflow maagemet makes the processes more cotrollable. However, usig this kid of system meas a big chage i the curret way of workig withi the costructio idustry. Developig this cocept is a great opportuity for the costructio idustry. Therefore, case hadlig has to be placed o the research ageda to further ivestigate the possibilities. For istace, the real amout of failure cost reductio ad the specific impact o processes ad people withi the costructio idustry eed to be ivestigated i more detail. Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue

8 Coferece Proceedigs distributig kowledge i buildig Refereces 1. W.M.P. va der Aalst. The Applicatio of Petri Nets to Workflow Maagemet. The Joural of Circuits, Systems ad Computers, 8(1):21-66, W.M.P. va der Aalst ad P. Beres. Beyod Workflow Maagemet: Product-drive Case Hadlig. I S. Ellis ad T. Rodde ad I. Zigurs (Editors): Iteratioal ACM SIGGROUP Coferece o Supportig Group Work (GROUP 2001), pages 42-51, ACM Press, New York, W.M.P. va der Aalst, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, B. Kiepuszewski, ad A.P. Barros. Advaced Workflow Patters. I O. Etzio ad P. Scheuerma, editors, 7th Iteratioal Coferece o Cooperative Iformatio Systems (CoopIS 2000), volume 1901 of Lecture Notes i Computer Sciece, pages Spriger-Verlag, Berli, W.M.P. va der Aalst, M. Stoffele, ad J.W.F. Wamelik, Case Hadlig i Costructio. Workig paper, Eidhove Uiversity of Techology, P. Brado, M. Betts ad J.W.F. Wamelik, Iformatio Techology Support to Costructio Desig ad Productio, Computers i Idustry, Special issue IT i costructio, Volume 35, pages 1-12, M. Crow ad S. Kydd, Agets ad Suggestios i a Web-based Dyamic Workflow Model, Automatio i Costructio, volume 10, pages , J. Ega et al, Costructio Task Force, Report of the Costructio Task Force o the scope for improvig quality ad efficiecy i UK costructio, Rethikig Costructio, L. Korelius ad J.W.F. Wamelik, The Virtual Corporatio, Learig from Costructio, Supply Chai Maagemet, volume 3, umber 4, pages , L. Koskela, B. Melles ad J.W.F. Wamelik, Theme report o productio philosophies i other idustries, CIB W82 report, Project Future Orgaizatio of the Buildig Process, Techical Research Cetre of Filad, Delft Uiversity of Techology, B. Melles ad J.W.F. Wamelik, Productio Cotrol i Costructio, Differet Approaches to cotrol, use of iformatio ad automated data processig, Dissertatio; Delft Uiversity of Techology; Delft Uiversity Press, The Netherlads, Pallas Athea. Case Hadlig with FLOWer: Beyod Workflow. Iteral report, Pallas Athea, Apeldoor, The Netherlads, Stichtig bouwresearch, De bouw moet om, op weg aar feilloos bouwe (i Dutch), Rotterdam, Z. Turk ad B. Ludgre, Commuicatio Workflow Perspective o Egieerig Work, Cocurret Egieerig i Costructio, Challeges for the ew milleium, CIB publicatio 236, editors: M. Haus, M. Saloe, A. Samad Kazi, Espoo, Iteratioal Coucil for Research ad Iovatio i Buildig ad Costructio CIB w78 coferece 2002 Aarhus School of Architecture, Jue 2002

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