Two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics. Giosuè Baggio

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1 Two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics Giosuè Baggio

2 Abstract Although meaning has been a constant interest in psycholinguistics, the concepts and methods of formal semantics have been rarely used to make sense of empirical data. In this thesis we try to fill this gap presenting the results of two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics. In the first, we investigate the effects elicited by tense violations in temporal adverb constructions. The observed P600/SPS is interpreted as an index of semantic rather than morphosyntactic processing. Reichenbach s distinction between event and reference time is used to account for the LAN elicited by sentences in which the main verb is placed before the adverbial modifier. In the second study, we propose a refinement of an earlier experiment on English temporal connectives. We investigate the effects of manipulating world knowledge and the order in which events are mentioned in discourse. Factorial analyses and direct comparisons between conditions indicate that sentences with different inferential properties, triggered by the selective activation of world knowledge from declarative memory, have different ERP correlates. In brief, our work suggests that the use of formal semantics within the ERP paradigm can reinforce the criticism of existing hypotheses and accelerate the process of generation and testing of new ones.

3 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 A semantic approach to tense violations Introduction Semantics Method Results Discussion Aspects of processing temporal connectives Introduction Semantics Method Results Discussion Conclusion 54 A Materials 55 1

4 Acknowledgements This thesis is the result of an intense half-a-year of work spent as a trainee at the F.C. Donders Center for Cognitive Neuroimaging in Nijmegen. During that period, and in the preceding months at the Institute for Logic, Language and Computation in Amsterdam, I have benefited from the help of a number of people that ought to be mentioned here. I am sincerely grateful to my advisors Peter Hagoort and Michiel van Lambalgen for having made the stage possible and for having given a direction to the project. This thesis owes much to their ideas and work. I would like to thank all the researchers gravitating around the EEG labs at FCDC, in particular Tineke Snijders, Nienke Weder and Valesca Kooijman. Thanks also to the members of the defense committee Martin Stokhof and Robert van Rooij for their remarks and suggestions. I wrote the final version of this thesis at the peaceful and inspiring location of Marsaglia on the Italian Alps. I wish to thank Sofia for those two weeks and for all her friendship and care during the last months. This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Rinella and Roberto. 2

5 1 Introduction Event-related brain potentials have been used in cognitive psychology since the 1960s and in psycholinguistics since the late 1970s. What makes them suitable for the study of cognition, in particular within the information processing paradigm, is their excellent temporal resolution: small voltage changes occurring within time intervals of a few tens of milliseconds can be measured at the scalp. This technique has proved useful to address a number of issues concerning the relative time course of cognitive processes, including those involved in language comprehension. ERP data are relatively easy to obtain [11]. The electroencephalography (EEG) can be recorded from a number of electrodes placed at the scalp while the subject performs a cognitive task. The amplified EEG signal reflects not only the cognitive processes evoked by the stimuli, but also neuronal activity related to the execution of other, possibly non-cognitive, tasks. While the processes of interest are timelocked to the stimuli, the noise is assumed to be randomly distributed in terms of polarity, latency and amplitude in the EEG trace. As a consequence, averaging on individual trials will tend to reduce the noise and increase the signal, revealing ERP components. Waveforms obtained after averaging on trials belonging to different conditions can be overlayed and inspected for differential effects. On the assumption that conditions differ only with respect to the intended experimental manipulation, the differences between waveforms will be attributed to the cognitive processes of interest [16, 44]. The issue of the relative time course of syntactic and semantic binding operations has been extensively discussed in the light of ERP data [6]. Several studies investigated the ERP correlates of morphosyntactic violations, for instance in sentences like: (1) The child is/are throwing the toy on the ground. Incorrect sentences elicited a positive deflection starting 500 ms after the onset of the verb are, peaking around 600 ms and continuing for 500 ms at least. Because of its polarity and latency, this syntax-related component has been called P600 or SPS (syntactic positive shift) [20]. A negative deflection starting 250 ms and peaking around 400 ms after the onset of the critical word has been observed to semantic anomalies, for instance: (2) He spread his warm bread with butter/socks. As a consequence of its functional characteristics, this ERP component has been called N400. Given the different polarity and latency of the P600/SPS and N400, it has been suggested that lexical semantic and syntactic binding operations are subserved by functionally distinct neural circuits, activated at different stages of sentence processing. The functional interpretation of the P600/SPS and N400 is not yet agreed upon, although explicit computational models can offer new insights with this respect [18]. In addition, recent advances of functional imaging techniques and intracranial recordings provide further evidence concerning the neural generators of the P600/SPS and N400. 3

6 ERP research on language comprehension has produced a large amount of empirical evidence, supporting a number of hypotheses concerning sentence and discourse processing. However, much work has yet to be done on the modeling side. As it has been observed, a cognitive neuroscience approach to language has not as yet merged with linguistic and psycholinguistic research programmes [6]. One could mention formal semantics as an example of a linguistic research program that might indeed be relevant for a cognitive approach to language. On the one hand, experimental questions in psycholinguistics and cognitive neuroscience have been mostly drawn from a theoretical background in which syntax is dominant. Therefore, most ERP studies investigated linguistic phenomena that do not allow for a formal semantic treatment. On the other hand, formal semantics has been rarely used to make sense of ERP data, perhaps because it is seen as empirical only to the extent that it deals with an empirically given language. We suggest that a closer and more lively interaction between semantics and ERP research would be profitable for both parties. Of course, such an integration can be realized at different levels of depth. A proper account of sentence and discourse processing would involve all the levels of analysis singled out by Marr & Poggio [35], although this is far beyond what we can offer in this thesis [62]. Rather, our purpose is to try to make sense of ERP data sketching some analyses at the first level of description, inspired by the concepts and methods of formal semantics. First-level analyses are supposed to uncover the nature and the goal of the computations involved in the cognitive processes of interest. In addition, they should provide a first explanation of the salient features of experimental data, in our case the topographical distribution, latency, polarity and amplitude of ERP components. ERP data do not allow for reliable inferences concerning the location of the neural generators of the observed effects [58]. While it is possible to calculate the distribution of electrical potentials on the scalp given the position and activation of dipole current sources (forward problem), the problem of estimating the location and distribution of current sources within the brain from the potentials recorded at the scalp does not necessarily have a unique solution (inverse problem). For that reason, we will not consider the topographical distribution of a given ERP component as an explanandum. With an eye to formal semantics, we will try to account for the relative time course of the observed effects as well as their polarity a point that is sometimes neglected in ERP research. In section 2, we will discuss a series of experiments on tense violations in English and French. We will propose a model of discourse processing focusing on the consequences of morphological anomalies on the semantic level. The predictions suggested by our model will be tested against ERP data from a group of Dutch speaking volunteers. We will then discuss our results in the light of specific hypotheses on language processing. In section 3, we will start with a review of an earlier ERP study on English temporal connectives. A model of discourse processing for narratives containing the temporal connectives after and before will be then presented. Behavioral and electrophysiological data on Dutch temporal connectives will be discussed against the predictions derived from our processing model. In the conclusion section, we will try to evaluate our work and we will indicate a few directions for further research. 4

7 2 A semantic approach to tense violations 2.1 Introduction The study of brain responses to linguistic violations has proved a valuable basis for testing hypotheses and models of language comprehension. This approach has been used to investigate several linguistic phenomena [31]. A particularly interesting case is tense. As is known from linguistic research, establishing the temporal location of an event is a semantic phenomenon, common to natural language, that requires the contribution of language-specific inflectional and syntactic devices [8, 34]. In this perspective, the analysis of event-related potentials elicited by tense violations seems a promising approach to explore the interactions between morphology, syntax and semantics as involved in tense and temporal modification. Verb morphology has been the object of several ERP studies. In some case important research questions have been raised [54, 59]. However, as to the specific ERP correlates of tense violations, no clear picture has emerged. One obvious reason is that different linguistic phenomena have been presented under the label of tense violations, resulting in a variety of effects that appear difficult to explain and compare across paradigms. There seem to be two main problems with earlier research into tense violations. The first is that these studies tended to overlook the distinction between morphology and syntax, regarding as syntactic violations of tense what in fact were violations of some morphological category. Although morphology and syntax interact (tense and aspect are two examples), it is important emphasize the different roles that morphological and syntactical principles play in grammar: the former govern the internal structure of words, the latter the arrangement of words in a sentence. The second problem is that in these studies the consequences of inflectional anomalies on the semantic level have been largely ignored. Indeed, genuine morphological violations of tense can be realized only on the basis of a semantic criterion: a sentence is incorrect with respect to tense if the main clause locates an event outside the frame specified by either a temporal adverb or a temporal adjunct clause. As we shall see below, this idea can be reformulated in terms of the distinction between event time and reference time introduced by Reichenbach [50]. Our decision in favor of a semantic approach to tense violations will have consequences on the experimental design, that is on the choice of conditions and stimulus sentences, as well as on the model of discourse processing that will be adopted. A brief review of earlier research will provide the essential background and motivation for our study. The first results on tense violations have been reported by Kutas & Hillyard [30]. In this experiment, a group of English-speaking volunteers was presented with sentences like the following: (1) Most of the earth s weather happens in the bottom layer of the atmosphere called/calls the troposphere. (2) The eggs and meat of this turtle are considered/consider choice food by many people. (3) This allows them to stay/stayed under water for a longer period. 5

8 Incorrect sentences elicited a positive peak 300 ms following the critical word (i.e. the verb) approaching significance at parietal sites and a negative wave in the ms window, suggestive of an N400-like effect. It is not clear to which feature of the stimuli the observed ERP effects should be attributed. On the one hand, sentences (1)-(3) contain morphological and not syntactical anomalies as Kutas and Hillyard claim. More precisely, the morphological category violated is finiteness (finite/infinitive/participle) and not tense (past/present/future). On the other hand, morphological violations are realized in quite different ways: in (1) the present indicative calls replaces the past participle called; in (2) the infinitive consider replaces the past participle considered; in (3) the past participle stayed replaces the infinitive stay. Besides, stimulus sentences have different syntactic structures, as (1)-(3) indicate. Osterhout & Nicol [47] investigated the effects of morphological violations in modal constructions, presenting to a group of English speakers sentences like: (4) The cats won t eat/eating the food that Mary leaves them. (5) The expensive ointment will cure/curing all known forms of skin disease. (6) The new fighter planes can fly/flying faster than anyone had expected. In the ms window, incorrect sentences were more positive at posterior sites of the midline. The LAN elicited by tense violations was not significantly different from the effect elicited by correct items. In the ms window, incorrect sentences were more positive at midline and posterior sites, consistently with the distribution of the P600. ERPs elicited by sentence-final words in the violation condition were more negative-going than those observed in correct sentences, beginning 200 ms following the sentence-final word and continuing throughout the epoch. Also in this case one should notice that sentences (4)-(6) contain morphological and not syntactical anomalies and that the category concerned is again finiteness and not tense: the present participle replaces in all cases the infinitive form of the verb. In the study conducted by Allen, Badecker & Osterhout [1], syntactic (tense) violations were investigated in sentences containing either high-frequency (HF) or low-frequency (LF) verbs: (7) The man will work/worked on the platform. (HF) (8) The man will sway/swayed on the platform. (LF) Correct low-frequency sentences elicited a more negative N400, ungrammatical items a more positive P600 and low-frequency ungrammatical items a biphasic increase of N400 and P600. In the ms window a significant main effect for grammaticality was found, maximal on posterior sites as is typical of the P600. Again, the morphological category violated in (7)-(8) is finiteness rather than tense, although the authors claim that for example, the two ungrammatical sentences He will walked and He will swayed are equally and unconditionally ill-formed with respect to tense [1]. In conclusion, the studies of Kutas & Hillyard [30], Osterhout & Nicol [47] and Allen et al. [1] did not bring into play genuine tense violations. In none of these 6

9 studies stimulus sentences were such that the anomalous verb located the event described by the main clause outside a frame specified by a temporal modifier. Violations of the category of finiteness, together with other morphological anomalies, will most likely contribute to our understanding of the inflectional/derivational system. Even so, tense violations promise something more, that is some insight into the involvement of the different components of the language system in establishing the temporal location of events at the discourse level. Tense violations have been investigated in two other ERP studies. Fonteneau et al. [13] presented a group of French speakers with sentences like: (9) Demain l étudiant lirait/lisait le livre. The adverbial modifier demain specifies a temporal frame for the occurrence of the event described by the main clause. Since the period denoted by demain is located after the utterance time, the tense of the verb should be future as in the correct version of (9). However, in the incorrect version the verb lisait locates the event in the past, thus outside the temporal frame specified by the adverb. Tense violations elicited a biphasic wave in the ms time window to critical word, with a negative maximum at posterior sites and a positive anterior peak. Incidentally, we observe that given the particular semantics associated with the Imparfait and its computational consequences [62], the Passé Simple lut would have been a better candidate for realizing tense violations without aspectual confounds. Steinhauer & Ullman [54] presented a group of English-speaking volunteers with sentences like the following: (10) Yesterday, I sailed/sail Diane s boat to Boston. In (10) the adverb yesterday specifies a temporal frame for the occurrence of the event of the speaker sailing Diane s boat to Boston. In the incorrect version the clause I sail Diane s boat to Boston locates the event at (or in an interval including) the moment of speech, thus outside the period denoted by yesterday. In the ms time window to critical word, tense violations elicited a consecutive LAN ( ms) and P600 ( ms), interpreted by the authors as indexes of morphosyntactic processing. In summary, only Steinhauer & Ullman [54] investigated the ERP effects of genuine tense violations without aspectual confounds. Accordingly, this study provides a sound basis for further research into the semantics of tense and temporal modification. Our purpose is to extend this paradigm to Dutch, with two main differences. The first concerns the experimental design. We will manipulate the relative position of the verb and the adverbial modifier presenting subjects with an equal number of sentences in which the adverb precedes the verb (henceforth: adverb/verb) and sentences in which the verb precedes the adverb (henceforth: verb/adverb). The second concerns the interpretation of the P600 proposed in [54]. Following the predictions of the model presented in the next section, we will argue that the positive shift should be seen as an ERP signature of semantic rather than morphosyntactic processing. We try to motivate these two points below. 7

11 A(t), the lexical entry of A contains a clause specifying the relation between t and S. If A is a past adverb, a clause of the following form is stored in declarative memory and activated during processing: (12) A(R) R < S While the processing of a temporal adverb results in a straightforward update of the workspace, the situation is slightly more involved when verbs are at issue. In that case, the processor requires that R has been established in order for the event P to be located at E. More precisely, when the tense of the verb is past, E and R must coincide and R must be located before S. Accordingly, a past-tensed verb does not introduce positive information in the workspace, but rather a constraint [62] of the following form: (13) if P (E) then R < S P (R) This statement should be understood as follows. In order for P (the event described by the clause in which the verb occurs) to be located at E, a reference point R has to be introduced such that R precedes the moment of speech S and P occurs at R or, equivalently, E and R coincide. Our model of discourse processing is thus based on the following assumptions. First, when a past temporal adverb is processed, the workspace is updated with positive information in the form of (11). Second, lexical information is retrieved from declarative memory and used in the interpretation process. Third, when a past-tensed (or a present-tensed) verb is encountered, the processor assumes P (E) and tests whether R < S (or R = S) and P (R) hold. Testing the constraint is essentially a reasoning process: if R < S and P (R) can be derived from the available information, the workspace is updated with P (E); otherwise, no update of the workspace is performed. To see that these two cases correspond to the outcomes of processing correct and incorrect sentences respectively, we give the relevant derivations below: (i) Adverb/verb correct: Past adverb: Lexicon: Past-tensed verb: Assumption: Test: Update: A(R) E = R A(R) R < S if P (E) then R < S P (R) P (E)? R < S : A(R), A(R) R < S R < S? P (R) : P (E), E = R P (R) P (E) (ii) Adverb/verb incorrect: Past adverb: Lexicon: Present-tensed verb: Assumption: Test: Update: A(R) E = R A(R) R < S if P (E) then R = S P (R) P (E)? R = S : A(R), A(R) R < S R S 9

14 Each session lasted for about 2 hours, including subject preparation. The experiment took approximately 50 minutes to be completed and was divided into four blocks of 80 trials each. Between the blocks there were 3 short breaks to allow subjects to recuperate from the blinking regime. Participants behavior was monitored with the aid of a video camera and a microphone placed inside the experimental room. Immediately after the last block, an informal debriefing interview was held. Participants were asked whether they found something anomalous with the sentences they read. Subjects reports were used as additional elements in a preliminary interpretation of ERP data [49]. Figure 2.1 Overview of the 28 electrode montage used. Recording Biosignals were recorded simultaneously from 32 electrode sites. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were monitored by two electrodes placed at the left- and right-eye outer canthi and one below the left eye. The EEG was recorded from 28 scalp locations: Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, FC5, FC1, FCz, FC2, FC6, T7, C3, Cz, C4, T8, CP5, CP1, CP2, CP6, P7, P3, Pz, P4, P8, O1, O2 (figure 2.1). Sintered Ag/AgCl electrodes fixed in an elastic cap were used. EOG electrodes were applied with two-sided adhesive decals. Before electrode application, subjects skin was cleaned with ethyl alcohol and abrasive gel to reduce the impedance at the scalp-electrode junction. Electrode impedance was kept below 5 kω and was checked before the beginning of each block and at the end of the session. The left mastoid electrode TP9 was used as reference. Subsequently, a linked mastoid reference was computed off-line by re-referencing all EEG channels also to the right mastoid electrode TP10, which was excluded from further analyses. 12

15 EEG and EOG were amplified by means of a multichannel BrainAmp TM DC system. Amplifier settings were: sampling rate 500 Hz, sampling interval 2000 µs, time constant 10 s, high cutoff 70 Hz. Several markers were sent out on-line to the EEG recorder: for all conditions, a sentence-initial and a sentence-final markers, corresponding to the onset of the first and last word of each sentence respectively; for conditions (A1)-(A2), a critical word marker, corresponding to the onset of the verb; for conditions (B1)-(B2), a critical word marker, corresponding to the onset of the first word of the adverb (afgelopen, etc.). Data analysis The following transforms were applied to the raw EEG signal. The sampling rate was changed to 200 Hz (interval 5000 µs) and the high cutoff filter was set to 30 Hz. The signal was then segmented as follows: 40 segments per condition, starting with the onset of the critical word and ending 1000 ms later; 40 segments per condition, starting with the onset of the sentence-final word and ending 800 ms later. Baseline correction was computed over the 150 ms preceding the onset of the critical or sentence-final word. Epochs contaminated by artifacts (eye blinks, horizontal and vertical eye movements, muscle activity, high-amplitude alpha and electrode drifts) were excluded from further analysis. In order to guarantee an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, subjects had to have at least 30 (on 40) good trials to be kept in the final analysis. For critical word segments, the average number of rejected trials was: condition (A1) 1.96, (A2) 1.42, (B1) 1.29, (B2) For sentence-final segments, the averages were: condition (A1) 1.46, (A2) 2.25, (B1) 1.79, (B2) Average waveforms were computed for each participant in each condition. Overlay functions of grand average ERPs were calculated for condition pairs (A1)-(A2) and (B1)-(B2), both to critical and sentence-final words. Waveforms were inspected for differential effects at specific latencies. Several time windows were selected. For conditions (A1)-(A2): ms ad ms to critical word; ms to sentence-final word. For conditions (B1)-(B2): ms, ms, ms, ms, ms to critical word; ms to sentence-final word. Subsequent repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) used mean amplitude values computed for each participant in each time window. Univariate F tests were adjusted by means of the Huynh-Feldt correction. Statistical analyses conducted for each sentence type in each time window separately included the factors condition (2 levels: correct and incorrect), quadrant (4 levels: left anterior, right anterior, right posterior and left posterior) and site (28 levels). An additional ANOVA conducted in the ms time window to critical words included the factors sentence type (2 levels: adverb/verb and verb/adverb), condition (2 levels: correct and incorrect) and site (28 levels). 2.4 Results A first inspection of adverb/verb epochs reveals a positive shift elicited by incorrect sentences in the ms time window to critical word. The effect has relative maxima at right fronto-central (Fp2, Fz, F4, FCz, FC2) and temporal (T8) sites 13

16 (figure 2.2), but it fails to reach significance on an analysis including all 28 electrodes (table 2.1). A direct inspection of overlay plots in the ms interval reveals a P600 onsetting at 500 ms, peaking around 800 ms and continuing throughout the epoch. The effect has relative maxima at left centro-parietal (CP1) and parietal (P3, Pz) sites (figures ). An ANOVA over all 28 sites shows that the main effect of condition and interaction effects fail to reach an acceptable significance level (table 2.1). In the ms time window to sentence-final word incorrect adverb/verb sentences elicit a negative wave with relative maxima over bilateral parietal and occipital (P7, P4, Pz, O1, O2) sites (figure 2.5). The main effect of condition is not significant on an ANOVA including all 28 electrodes, nor are the interactions between the factors condition, quadrant and site (table 2.1). Table 2.1 Condition Condition Quadrant Condition Site Time window F (1, 23) F (3, 69) F (27, 621) Adverb/verb Sentence-internal: ms e e e ms d e Sentence-final: ms e d e Verb/adverb Sentence-internal: ms e a b ms e a b ms b c ms e e b ms e a a Sentence-final: ms b e d a p < 0.01 b p < 0.05 c p < 0.1 d p < 0.2 e p < 0.5 We now turn to verb/adverb sentences. In the ms time window to critical word, tense violations elicit a negative wave larger over left frontal (F7) and fronto-central (FC5) sites (figure 2.6). The LAN elicited by incorrect sentences is larger compared with the effect elicited by correct items (figure 2.7). Although the main effect of condition is clearly not significant, the interactions with the factors quadrant and site are reliable (table 2.1). 14

17 Figure 2.2 Triangulation-linear interpolated topographic map displaying the mean difference between incorrect and correct adverb/verb sentences in the ms time window to critical word. Tense violations elicit a positive shift at right fronto-central and temporal sites. Figure 2.3 Triangulation-linear interpolated topographic map displaying the mean difference between incorrect and correct adverb/verb sentences in the ms time window to critical word. Tense violations elicit a positive shift at right fronto-central and temporal sites and a P600 at left centro-parietal and parietal sites. 15

18 Figure 2.4 Grand average (n = 24) waveforms elicited by adverb/verb sentences at left centroparietal and parietal sites. Tense violations elicit a P600 peaking around 800 ms to critical word. The onset of critical word is at 0 ms. 16

19 Figure 2.5 Triangulation-linear interpolated topographic map displaying the mean difference between incorrect and correct adverb/verb sentences in the ms time window to sentencefinal word. Tense violations elicit a negative deflection at posterior sites bilaterally. Figure 2.6 Triangulation-linear interpolated topographic map displaying the mean difference between incorrect and correct verb/adverb sentences in the ms time window to critical word. Tense violations elicit a larger LAN compared with correct items. 17

20 Figure 2.7 Grand average (n = 24) waveforms elicited by verb/adverb sentences at left frontal and fronto-central sites. Tense violations elicit a larger LAN in the ms time window to critical word compared with correct items. The onset of critical word is at 0 ms. In order to look at later processing effects, we first selected a large time interval ( ms), further on segmented into three smaller windows ( ms, ms and ms). Incorrect sentences elicited a P600 with a right temporoparietal (CP2, CP6, P4) focus (figures ). The effect is very similar to the P600 elicited by tense violations in adverb/verb constructions: it onsets at 500 ms, it peaks around 800 ms and continues throughout the epoch (figure 2.8). The main effect of condition fails to reach an acceptable significance level in any of the time windows considered (table 2.1). However, we found reliable interactions in particular in the ms and ms intervals (table 2.1). In the ms time window to sentence-final word, incorrect sentences elicit a negative deflection distributed along the midline (figures ). Although there were no interactions with the factors quadrant and site, the main effect of condition is significant over all 28 sites (table 2.1). 18

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