Master Thesis. Evaluative criteria in an experiential situation, a theatre performance

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1 Master Thesis Evaluative criteria in an experiential situation, a theatre performance Lianne Captain Student number: Supervisor: Dr. J. Boter Date: June 15, 2007

2 Master of Science in Marketing Academic seminar: Arts and entertainment Faculty of Economics and Business Administration

3 Abstract In prior research the effect of evaluative criteria is examined in brand choice and/or comparison task situations. In the presence of evaluative criteria consumers are able to form a more expert opinion and a better understanding of this opinion. This research examines the effect of evaluative criteria in an experiential situation, a theatre performance. The evaluative criteria are presumed to give the visitors of the theatre performance a more expert opinion which leads to a higher satisfaction of the performance. The results suggest that the evaluative criteria are suited for an experiential situation. The evaluative criteria have a positive effect on the satisfaction of a theatre performance due to a more expert opinion. 3

4 Table of contents Abstract 3 1. Introduction Problem statement and sub questions Delimitations of the study Contribution Managerial Theoretical Research overview 9 2 Theoretical framework Evaluative criteria Experiential situation Definition of experts and non experts Criteria needed for knowledge Satisfaction and future intentions Current research 18 3 Methodology Research design Evaluative criteria The questionnaire Analyses 23 4

5 4 Results Method Data collection Pre-test Measures Results Analysis Further analysis 30 5 Conclusion and discussion Conclusion Discussion Theoretical implications Managerial implications Limitations and suggestions for future research 36 6 References 38 7 Appendix 42 5

6 1. Introduction Borders between high and low culture fading (NRChandelsblad 2000) In the report Het bereik van de kunsten published by Het sociaal en cultureel planbureau it seems that only a low percentage of the population visits classical forms of culture (e.g. plays, classical concerts or museums) regularly. There is growth in visiting cultural events but this is mainly for the popular culture pop music, jazz, musical and cabaret. The group of younger people, 16 to 40 years old attends culture less often and the group of people above 40 is growing. The rapport indicates that the percentage of people who visit classical forms of culture regularly is very low and the visitors of this form of culture are mostly high educated people. Despite more than 40 years of public investment in the field of high art, organizations dedicated to high art still primarily attract the highly educated. In order to reach the larger community, managers will have to gain some insight into the interests of non-consumers of the arts, and in order to attract more potential consumers as well as new market segments they will have to look at why people are or are not attracted to high art (Colbert 2003). This research posits that the low percentage of visitors for the classical forms of culture is caused by the lack of knowledge of the mass audiences in order to appreciate this form of culture. To be able to enjoy for example a play or classical concert it is assumed that a certain amount of knowledge is needed. People need this expertise because hedonic consumption is not as easily judged as conventional product consumption. According to Hirschman and Holbrook (1982) hedonic consumption refers to consumers multi sensory images, fantasies and emotional arousal in using products. Hedonic consumer research investigates among others the performing arts; opera, ballet, modern dance and legitimate theatre (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982). Support for this supposition comes from the work of Brantlinger (1983). He states that mass audiences lack the training and refinement needed to appreciate artistic excellence and popularity requires ease of accessibility (Brantlinger 1983). In addition Colbert (2003) states that the level of expertise, among consumers, varies between high and popular art. It is assumed that most people cannot make a quality judgment as succinctly as an expert (Colbert 2003). 6

7 Further support for this supposition comes from the work of Lageat, Czellar and Laurent (2003). They argue that past research has failed to show an empirical link between concrete product features and the perception of hedonic attributes for reasons related to insufficient consumer expertise. Expertise is a key feature allowing for a detailed assessment of hedonic product experiences. People may simply lack the required knowledge for detailed attribute appreciation. The concrete dimensions of the subjective sensory experience are difficult to elicit from consumers who lack both the knowledge and the words to express them (Lageat, Czellar et al. 2003). The aim of this research is to examine whether the expertise needed for the judgment of hedonic experiences can be given to consumers by using evaluative criteria. Shapiro and Spence (2002) found in their research that in the presence of criteria to evaluate the sensory attribute, experience attributes that are perceived to personal trial, subjects were apparently more expert in their judgments (Shapiro and Spence 2002). Further support for this theory comes from the work of West, Brown and Hoch (1996). They have examined the effects of a consumption vocabulary on the preference formation of quilts. The effects of such a vocabulary were that subjects provided with a vocabulary exhibit better-defined and more consistent preferences than the control subjects, show improved cue discovery and show learning (West, Brown et al. 1996). In summary, the percentage of people who visit the classical forms of art, like theatres is very low. This research posits that this is caused by the lack of knowledge of the mass audience. This means that theatres also have to target the non expert consumers because this is the mass audience that does not attend the theatre often. To get the non expert consumers to the theatre they need the knowledge to appreciate the aesthetic excellence. With the help of evaluative criteria people tend to have a more expert judgment and that is just what the non experts need in order to appreciate the aesthetic excellence of theatre performances. In all previous research the effects of evaluative criteria on preference judgment is examined on products in a brand choice or comparison task situation but not in experiential situations. It is already known that evaluative criteria will help consumers to get a more expert judgment. What is not known is whether the evaluative criteria will help the consumers to a more expert judgment in an experiential situation. In this research the effect of the evaluative criteria will not be examined on choice or comparison between products or services. Instead they will help the consumer to be more an expert in judging the experience what enables them to appreciate the artistic excellence of a theater performance. 7

8 1.1 Problem statement and sub questions Based on the introduction, the main question is whether evaluative criteria could help the mass audience, the non experts, to appreciate the excellence of a hedonic experience. In this research the hedonic experience is a theatre performance. The theory states that the non experts need the knowledge to appreciate the excellence of a theatre performance and that evaluative criteria could give them that knowledge. If theatre visitors can appreciate the performance more they will probably be more satisfied with the performance. The problem statement is: Will theatergoers be more satisfied with a theatre performance when provided with the appropriate evaluative criteria? In order to answer this question, information about evaluative criteria is needed. There is a difference in using evaluative criteria in a brand choice task or a brand comparison task, which have been examined so far, and the use of these criteria in an experiential situation. Can the evaluative criteria be applied in such a situation? And will a different situation need different kinds of criteria? The criteria would also have to influence the satisfaction of the performance in order to have an effect, so the effect of the evaluative criteria on satisfaction should be investigated. Finally satisfaction should lead to more theatre visiting if the evaluative criteria are used to help the theatre to get more visitors. This leads to the following sub questions. These questions will be answered in the theoretical framework. - Can evaluative criteria be applied in an experiential situation? - What defines an expert and non expert consumer? - Is a more expert judgment likely to lead to more satisfaction? 1.2 Delimitations of the study The aim of this research is to examine the effect of evaluative criteria on satisfaction of a theatre performance. The research will show whether or not people have a higher satisfaction for a theatre performance when they have evaluative criteria to judge the performance. Furthermore the roll of expertise, the effect of the amount of knowledge on the relationship between the evaluative criteria and satisfaction, will be shown in the research. This research will not address the issue which kinds of performances need what criteria. Neither will this research address the criteria that are important in choice or comparison of the performances. The aim of this research is to see if evaluative criteria are also suited in experiential situations and which criteria should be applied. The experiential situation 8

9 used in this research is a theatre performance. ther experiential situations are not investigated in this research. 1.3 Contribution Theoretical While the roll of evaluative criteria is examined in a brand comparison and choice task, the effect in an experiential situation is not yet examined. Neither are the criteria that are important in such a situation. In an experiential situation consumers have already made a choice and or comparison and are likely to apply different evaluative criteria to judge the experience itself. In the experiential view, the consequences of consumption appear in the fun that a consumer derives from a product, the enjoyment that it offers and the resulting feeling of pleasure that it evokes (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). The fun, enjoyment and resulting feelings of pleasure that a consumer derives from theatre performance consumption can be judged more expert but the evaluative criteria needed in order to do so are not examined yet Managerial The research implies that people who are perceived as non experts will have a more expert judgment in the presence of evaluative criteria. Therefore they are more satisfied with the theatre performance and this influences the theatre visitation. Because classical forms of culture, like theatre, are more visited by highly educated people who can be seen as experts, the non experts are the group that theatres should focus on. This implies that the non experts should learn to appreciate theatre as experts do. If the evaluative criteria are suitable for this task, theatres have an instrument to reach those people that are hard to reach now. Although sensory attributes are difficult to encode and retrieve, people tend to place more weight on these attributes compared to verbally described market information when making brand choice decisions (Shapiro and Spence 2002). So when reviews of performances are poor, evaluative criteria can be helpful because subjects place more attention to the sensory attributes, thus their own judgment. 1.4 Research overview In chapter two the literature will be examined to give an answer to the sub questions stated. First the roll of the evaluative criteria and their use in an experiential situation are discussed. After that the differences between the expert and non expert consumers are attended to as well as the criteria used for knowledge. Finally satisfaction and its effect on future intentions are examined. 9

10 Chapter three describes the methodology of the research. First the research design will be discussed. After that the evaluative criteria to use in the research are determined. Finally the questionnaire will be explained as well as the analysis used for the research. In chapter four, the results of the research will be discussed. An answer to the problem statement will be given as well whether or not the hypotheses are supported. Chapter five contains the conclusion and discussion of the research. First the main conclusions from analysis will be discussed. Than the implications, limitations and suggestions for further research are examined. 10

11 2 Theoretical framework 2.1 Evaluative criteria When people have to make a product related decision they use product related information to make that decision. Product related information can be classified by level of abstraction, ranging from the concrete, physical attributes, through abstract attributes and benefits onto complex attitudes and values (lson and Reynolds 1983). In this hierarchy, an abstract attribute is defined as a higher-level attribute that is directly associated with consumer benefits. There are two types of abstract attributes: those concerning the functional qualities of the product versus those referring to the hedonic benefits it delivers. Because of their subjective and experiential nature, the assessment of the sources of hedonic attribute perceptions is problematic (Lageat, Czellar et al. 2003). Hedonic attributes are similar to sensory attributes, they both have a subjective and experiential nature. Sensory attributes, experience attributes that are perceived to personal trial, are more difficult to judge than normal attributes. Sensory attributes are often ambiguous because it is unclear what factors contribute to the attribute (Shapiro and Spence 2002). Shapiro and Spence (2002) state that in the presence of criteria to evaluate the sensory attribute subjects were apparently more expert in their judgments. Sensory attributes are difficult to encode and retrieve, evaluative criteria help to interpret otherwise ambiguous sensory attributes (Holbrook and Bertges 1981; Hoch and Ha 1986; Shapiro and Spence 2002). In spite of the difficult encoding and retrieval of the sensory attributes people tend to place more weight on these attributes compared to verbally described market information (e.g. advertisements) when making brand choice decisions. Providing criteria to evaluate the sound quality of competing brands of stereos facilitates encoding, retrieval and alignment of the sensory attribute in a brand choice task (Shapiro and Spence 2002). Further support for this supposition comes from the work of West, Brown and Hoch (1996), they have examined the effects of a consumption vocabulary on the preference formation of quilts. A consumption vocabulary is a taxonomy or framework that allows people to identify product features, and finally identify the relationships between those features and their own evaluations of the products (Hoch and Deighton 1989). In this respect the consumption vocabulary is very similar to evaluative criteria because they both contribute to the identification of otherwise ambiguous attributes. The effects of such a vocabulary were that subjects provided with a vocabulary exhibit better-defined and more consistent preferences than the control subjects, show improved cue discovery and show learning (West, Brown et al. 1996). 11

12 Taken together, the research shows that evaluative criteria can help consumers interpret otherwise ambiguous attributes. Therefore in situations with hedonic and sensory attributes evaluative criteria can help consumers to a more expert judgment, a better understanding of that judgment in a choice task and more consistent preferences. Sensory and hedonic attributes have a subjective and experiential nature, which indicates that they are perceived to personal trial, people will have to experience them for themselves. Investigating the role of direct product experience in decision making is of critical importance to marketers because people rarely discount the trustworthiness of their own experiences, therefore trial-based beliefs tend to be strong and/or confidently held (Smith 1993). This indicates that people tend to place more weight on their own experiences than on other available product information. Although marketing communications often stress experience attributes (e.g. a stereo has the best sound), belief confidence regarding experience attributes is greater when gained through direct trial experience versus communicated through an advertising medium (Wright and Lynch 1995). This supposition is further supported by the work of Smith and Swinyard (1982). When compared to advertising, direct experience (1) leads to more strongly held beliefs, which (2) lead to more strongly held attitudes, which (3) culminate in higher attribute-behavior consistency (Smith and Swinyard 1982). There is a distinction between search and experience attributes (Nelson 1974). Valid search attribute information can be gained from secondhand sources, such as advertising and worth of mouth (vs. first hand experience), without having to buy or try the product. Experience attributes can be verified only by (limited) use of the product, because they are a matter of subjective experience (Wright and John G. Lynch 1995). Nelson s (1974) framework implies that consumers who lack prior knowledge of a product will be more skeptical of advertising claims about experience attributes than claims about search attributes. Direct experience is superior in communicating experience attributes and advertising is superior in communicating search attributes (Wright and John G. Lynch 1995) Taken together the research shows that people tend to place more weight on the beliefs and attitudes they have of direct experiences compared to advertisements. Therefore the interpretation and judgment of the hedonic and sensory attributes is very important, strongly held attitudes and beliefs are the result. 12

13 2.2 Experiential situation In all previous research the effects of evaluative criteria are examined in a product choice or comparison task situation. A theatre performance is an experience where the choice for the performance is already made and the experience itself is what is important. In the experiential view, the consequences of consumption appear in the fun that a consumer derives from a product, the enjoyment that it offers and the resulting feeling of pleasure that it evokes (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). This indicates that there is a difference in using evaluative criteria in a choice or comparison task situation and an experiential situation. The relative salience of evaluative criteria is assumed to depend on the individual s task definition, type of involvement, search activity and personality. For example, where the consumption task is defined as the pursuit of hedonic response, esthetic criteria would be likely to apply (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). Furthermore the criteria for successful consumption are essentially esthetic in nature and hinge on an appreciation of the product for its own sake, apart from any utilitarian function that it may or may not perform (McGregor 1974) In the work of Lefkoff-Hagius and Mason (1993) the assumption that similar products are similar liked is investigated. The things that consumers find important when judging the similarity of products does not have to be the same as the things they find important when they evaluate products for purchase. They found that this effect is due to the consumer s use of different product attributes in making similarity and preference judgments. Consumers rely on beneficial, image and characteristic attributes when making similarity and preference judgments. Beneficial and image attributes are used for preference judgment while characteristic attributes are used for similarity judgment. The beneficial attributes show what the product will do for the user and the image attributes show how the product represents the user to others or self (Lefkoff-Hagius and Mason 1993). Taken together, the theory shows that experiences are also suitable for evaluative criteria; only different criteria should be used 1. The criteria are different because an experience is judged on the pleasure and satisfaction it is giving the consumer rather than the non experiential attributes of a product or service. The consumer does not need criteria to choose or compare products or services but needs criteria to be able to enjoy the experience by the extra knowledge the criteria can offer them. H1: Evaluative criteria will have a positive effect on the satisfaction for a theatre performance. 1 See table 1: Criteria, page 21 13

14 2.3 Definition of experts and non experts Consumer knowledge has two major components: familiarity and expertise (Jacoby, Troutman et al. 1986). Familiarity is defined as the number of product related experiences that have been accumulated by the consumer. Expertise is defined as the ability to perform product-related tasks successfully. Product-related experiences are defined as the most inclusive level; they include among others; choice and decision making, purchasing and product usage in various situations. In general, increased product familiarity results in increased product expertise (Alba and Hutchinson 1987). This indicates that the people who visit the theatre often can be seen as experts because they have more product related experiences which leads to an increase in expertise. Researchers distinguish between two types of abstract attributes: those concerning the functional qualities of the product versus those referring to the hedonic benefits it delivers (Lageat, Czellar et al. 2003). Lageat, Czellar and Laurent (2003) argue that past research has failed to show an empirical link between concrete product features and the perception of hedonic attributes for reasons related to insufficient consumer expertise. Expertise is a key feature allowing for a detailed assessment of hedonic product experiences. People may simply lack the required knowledge for detailed attribute appreciation. The concrete dimensions of the subjective sensory experience are difficult to elicit from consumers who lack both the knowledge and the words to express them. They conclude that if hedonic attributes are to be assessed through product-related consumer perceptions, a method combining expert consumer perceptions of hedonic product benefits is needed. The results of their study show that expertise in a product category is not a matter of intuition but rather one of practiced formation. Most inexperienced consumers could, through adequate training, give a detailed assessment of hedonic product experiences (Lageat, Czellar et al. 2003). Further support for this supposition comes from the work of Brantlinger (1983). He states that mass audiences lack the training and refinement needed to appreciate artistic excellence and popularity requires ease of accessibility (Brantlinger 1983). The visitors of the classical forms of art are mostly highly educated people what can be explained by the lack of training and refinement of the mass audiences to appreciate artistic excellence. The non expert consumers might not appreciate the artistic excellence because there is a certain amount of knowledge needed to be able to do that. Holbrook, Lacher and LaTour (2006) try to explain the relationship between aesthetic excellence as judged by professional experts and the taste preferences of non expert consumers. They attempt to explain this relationship by adding a mediator variable, audience judgment: evaluations of aesthetic excellence by non expert consumers. They found that non expert consumers do tend to enjoy what 14

15 they perceive to be excellent and to tend to perceive as excellent what the experts judge to be high in aesthetic worth (Holbrook, Lacher et al. 2006). Taken together, the people that visit the theatre regularly can be seen as expert because in general, increased product familiarity results in increased product expertise (Alba and Hutchinson 1987). The mass audience, the people who do not visit the theatre regularly, who can be defined as the non experts seem to lack the training and refinement to appreciate the artistic excellence. The number of product related experiences results in an increase to perform product related tasks successfully. And finally expertise is important for a detailed assessment of hedonic product experience. This indicates that the non experts need the expertise, the experiences, to perform a detailed assessment of the theatre performance. H2: The effect of the evaluative criteria on satisfaction will be stronger for non experts than for experts. 2.4 Criteria needed for knowledge As seen before, there is a difference in the criteria needed in an experiential situation and a product choice or comparison task situation. However it is not known what criteria are needed to give the non experts the knowledge that enables them to judge the hedonic product experience the way an expert can. The standards of popular appeal governing the tastes of ordinary consumers differ from the criteria for excellence employed by professional critics in rendering expert judgments (Holbrook 1999). Holbrook (1999) investigates the differences between high art and mere entertainment. In motion pictures ordinary consumers and professional critics emphasize different criteria in the formation of their tastes. Further support for this supposition comes from the work of Maheswaran and Sternthal (1990). They state that experts and novices differ in the types of information that prompt them to process messages in detail. For experts, detailed message processing was most reliable when attribute information was presented exclusively, whereas the inclusion of benefit information as well as some incentive to process the communication stimulated detailed processing for novices. The nature of detailed processing differs in accord to with the consumers knowledge. Experts elaborated upon the 15

16 information featured in the message in an evaluative manner, while novices tended to process messages literally (Maheswaran and Sternthal 1990). Furthermore subjective attributes are more important to persons with lower levels of brand consciousness and brand familiarity than objective attributes as purchase criteria. Jamal and Goode (2001) have tested this assumption on criteria that are important in purchasing precious jewellery. There are two objective and one subjective attributes that are considered to be important to persons with higher levels of brand consciousness and brand familiarity. There are two subjective attributes that are considered to be important to persons with lower levels of brand consciousness and brand familiarity. In the case of persons with higher product knowledge, there remain only two objective attributes that are considered to be important purchase criterion (Jamal and Goode 2001). Research on consumer knowledge has shown that the cognitive structures of consumers who are knowledgeable in a field are more complex and elaborate than those of novices (Alba and Hutchinson 1987). For experts, brand ratings are based on concrete product features, whereas brand ratings of novices stem from more general impressions about the brand (Dillon, Madden et al. 2001). This indicates that the experts process information differently than the non experts. This is further supported by Hoch and Deighton (1989). They argue that what consumers learn from experience of using products is not a simple matter of discovering objective truth. What consumers learn from experience depends on what the consumers already know, how much the experience can teach them and how motivated the consumers are to learn. If the motivation of a consumer to learn is higher the consumer encodes the information more fully than the consumer who is less motivated to learn (Hoch and Deighton 1989). Taken together, there are different attributes important for consumers who are perceived as experts and consumers who are perceived as non experts 2. For non experts the inclusion of benefit information as well as some incentive to process the communication stimulated detailed processing. And brand ratings of non experts stem from more general impressions about the brand rather than concrete product features. Subjective attributes seem more important to novices, while objective attributes seem more important to experts. Finally what consumers learn from an experience is dependent on what they already know. 2 See table 1: Criteria, page 21 16

17 2.5 Satisfaction and future intentions When consumers are provided with evaluative criteria they are assumed to be more expert in their judgment and have the required knowledge for detailed attribute assessment. A more expert judgment is assumed to lead to a higher satisfaction. When people are more satisfied with a theatre performance they visit the theatre more often. Support for this supposition comes from the work of Garbarino and Johnson (1999). They have investigated the role of satisfaction on future intentions. Future intentions entail attendance, subscription and donation. For customers with low relational orientations, overall satisfaction determines future intentions. The non experts are likely to have a low relational orientation because these are the people that do not visit the theatre that often and thus do not have a high relational orientation. This indicates that the overall satisfaction determines the future intentions of the non expert consumers. If the evaluative criteria have a positive effect on the satisfaction this would mean this influences the future intentions as well. For the high relational customers future intentions are determined by their trust and commitment rather than their overall satisfaction (Garbarino and Johnson 1999). Reddy, Swaminathan and Motley (1998) posit that a shows success is determined by information sources (critics reviews, previews and advertising) and objective characteristics (ticket prices, show type, talent characteristics and timing of opening). Information sources are more important to show longevity and show success than the objective features (Reddy, Swaminathan et al. 1998). Prior research suggests that consumers rely more heavily on experiential types of information than objective information in the selection of experiential goods (Cooper-Martin 1992). The evaluative criteria are experiential just like information sources while the objective features are non experiential. This indicates that the evaluative criteria can also be seen as information sources and thus are an important determinant for a shows success: attendance and box office receipts. Taken together, satisfaction determines future intentions like attendance and subscription. Evaluative criteria are assumed to lead to more satisfaction and thus to an increase in theatre visitation. Furthermore, experiential types of information, like evaluative criteria are important determinants for attendance and box office receipts. 17

18 2.6 Current research The theory shows that non expert consumers lack the training and refinement to appreciate the classical forms of art. n the other hand it also shows that non experts are able to enjoy the aesthetic excellence of a performance once they have the knowledge on what is excellence. According to the theory consumers are more expert in their judgment with evaluative criteria present. This has been tested in a brand choice and comparison task situation. Shapiro and Spence (2002) have investigated the roll of evaluative criteria on stereos. In their research the use of criteria is used to evaluate the stereo in a brand choice task and it only involves sound. West, Brown and Hoch (1996) have examined the working of a consumption vocabulary. This was tested on quilts, this is also a choice task and quilts are a product rather than an experience. In the experiential view, the consequences of consumption appear in the fun that a consumer derives from a product, the enjoyment that it offers and the resulting feeling of pleasure that it evokes (Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). In a theatre setting consumers already bought the tickets, the criteria are used during the experience. The consumer does not need criteria to compare products or services with each other but needs criteria to be able to enjoy the experience through the extra knowledge the criteria can offer them. The theory shows that experiences are also suitable for evaluative criteria, only different criteria should be used. The amount of knowledge a person has is also important in the experiential situation. There are different attributes important for consumers who are perceived as experts and consumers who are perceived as non experts. Subjective attributes seem more important to novices, while objective attributes seem more important to experts. What consumers learn from an experience is dependent on what they already know. For non experts the inclusion of benefit information as well as some incentive to process the communication stimulated detailed processing. And brand ratings of non experts stem from more general impressions about the brand rather than concrete product features. Evaluative criteria are assumed to influence the satisfaction of the theatre performance. Satisfaction determines future intentions like attendance and subscription. Furthermore, experiential types of information, like evaluative criteria are important determinants for attendance and box office receipts. Based on the theory, the following model is created. The evaluative criteria are assumed to have a positive influence on satisfaction with a theatre performance. The existing knowledge, whether someone is an expert or non expert, mediates the relationship between evaluative criteria and satisfaction. 18

19 Figure 1: Conceptual model Existing knowledge H2 Evaluative criteria H1 Satisfaction Future intentions In the model the constructs evaluative criteria, existing knowledge, satisfaction and future intentions are used. The arrows with a dotted line are the effects which this research aims to investigate. The effect of satisfaction on future intentions is already proven in past literature 3. The hypotheses stated in the theoretical framework are incorporated in the model. H1: Evaluative criteria will have a positive effect on the satisfaction of a theatre performance. H2: The effect of the evaluative criteria on satisfaction will be stronger for non experts than for experts. The research question Will theatergoers be more satisfied with a theatre performance when provided with appropriate evaluative criteria? can be answered when the hypothesis are tested. Hypothesis one can give a straight answer to the research question. From the theory it became clear that the reason that some people need the evaluative criteria is that they are not expert enough to appreciate the performance in the way an expert can. This indicates that the influence of the evaluative criteria will probably be stronger for the non experts than the experts. The experts are assumed to already have the knowledge needed to appreciate the performance. Hypothesis two contains the question what the influence of existing knowledge, whether someone is expert or non expert, is on the effect of the evaluative criteria on the satisfaction. 3 See page 17 19

20 3. Methodology 3.1 Research design In order to answer the hypotheses, a quantitative research is necessary. The best way to test the hypothesis is with an experiment because then the variables in the study can be manipulated and/ or controlled. Experimental design is appropriate when one wishes to discover whether certain variables produce effects in other variables, in this research the effect of the evaluative criteria on satisfaction. Furthermore experimentation provides the most powerful support possible for a hypothesis or causation (Cooper and Schindler 2003) For this research a theatre is needed where the effect of the evaluative criteria on satisfaction with a theatre performance can be measured. The experiment will be conducted in Het Stadstheater in Zoetermeer, the Netherlands. The performances used for the experiment have to be performances where the visitors need a certain amount of knowledge. Furthermore the performances could not be sold out to the subscribers only because the non experts are presumed to be the single ticket buyers and need to be represented in the sample. In consultation with the marketing manager of the theatre in question three performances were chosen. Because of the time frame, there were four performances to choose from. ne of them was excluded immediately because it was sold out to subscribers only. The other three performances were chosen to do the experiment. The first performances is classical ballet, the second one is a theatre concert and the last one a play. Because the aim of this research is not the performance or which performances need what criteria, not all different kinds of performances are represented in this research. This research only addresses the question whether the evaluative criteria have an effect on the satisfaction of the performance. With the use of three kinds of performances the reliability of the research is increased and there may be some assumptions about the use of criteria with different performances. In the experiment the respondents of the sample are divided in two groups. The first group receives the criteria before the performance and has to fill in a questionnaire after the performance. The second group does not receive the criteria but only has to fill in a questionnaire after the performance. When all data is collected, the groups are compared to see if there is any difference in satisfaction between the people who have gotten the criteria and the people who have not gotten the criteria. The existing knowledge will be determined with the help of the questionnaire. This measure is used to see if there is any difference between the people who are perceived as experts and the people who are perceived as non experts. 20

Appendix A: List of variables with corresponding questionnaire items (in English) used in chapter 2

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