THE REDESIGN OF A CASHIER TRAINER

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1 THE REDESIGN OF A CASHIER TRAINER Jantine te Molder S University of Twente Educational Science and Technology Supervisors Dr. H.H. Leemkuil Dr. H. van der Meij

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary... 3 Introduction General description of the cashier trainer Design approach The ADDIE model Analysis Previous research of Oprins and Korteling (2012) Interviews with cash managers and new cashiers trained by the cashier trainer Exploration and definition of the problem The design of the current cashier trainer Analysis of the current cashier trainer Strategies for learning procedures Reducing cognitive overload Design Development and Implementation PIN payment and cash payment Asking for additional small change Evaluation Respondents Procedure Data collection Test results Mistakes Time Interview - Experiences Interview Self confidence Knowledge test Skills test Discussion Conclusions and recommendations References Appendices Appendix 1 Interview cash manager Appendix 2 - Interview new cashier Appendix 3 Evaluation: Interview, knowledge test, skills test Appendix 4 Form for results of participants in the control group Appendix 5 - Form for results of participants in the experimental group

3 Appendix 6 Test results

4 SUMMARY The cashier trainer that has been studied for this research is already used to train about cashiers. This cashier trainer trains new cashiers in their leisure time, with a simulation on the computer. The aim of this cashier trainer is to reduce the time needed for on the job training to a minimum or most preferably to no time for on the job training. However, research by Oprins and Korteling (2012) stated that new cashiers still need a certain amount of on the job training. To identify the specific tasks that need on the job training, interviews with five cash managers and five new cashiers are conducted. These interviews show that new cashiers are not able to ask for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change. Therefore, a part of the cashier trainer is redesigned whereby cognitive overload is reduced (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) and strategies for learning procedures are used (Smith & Ragan, 1999). This redesign is tested by an experimental group (N=6), and compared to a control group (N=6) who used the current cashier trainer. All participants were at the age of fifteen or sixteen and had no cashier experience. Results of this test show that the reduction of cognitive overload is especially advantageous for memorizing information. Although the experimental group has more self-confidence in several tasks, performs better at asking for additional small change and gained more knowledge, the used strategies for learning procedures did not all benefit the redesign. For example, the control group made less mistakes in the exercises, took less time in exercising, and performed better in counting aloud when handing over change. 3

5 INTRODUCTION This thesis will discuss the redesign of a part of a cashier trainer. This cashier trainer is one of the products of Jutten Simulation, a company that provides virtual learning products for the retail industry. More than cashiers have so far been trained by this cashier trainer. With this cashier trainer, Jutten Simulation provides retailers a training that heightens the quality of employees work and reduces training costs and time for on the job training. However, research conducted by Oprins and Korteling (2012) showed that cashiers still need a certain amount of on the job training on their first day of work. Since this is not completely in line with the aim of the cashier trainer, Jutten Simulation acknowledges the need for further research. After approaching several clients of Jutten Simulation, a supermarket has agreed to contribute and cooperate in this research by providing new cashiers and cashier managers for several interviews. This supermarket also experienced that new cashiers needed on the job training for several tasks after finishing the cashier trainer. Since this costs the supermarket extra time and money, the supermarket also sees the need for further research. This research will not only benefit the company Jutten Simulation and the supermarket, but also research in the field of simulations. Computer-based alternatives to live training have become more common in recent years (Alexander, Brunyé, Sidman, & Weil, 2005, p. 1). Ruben (1999) argues that these have helped to address many of the limitations of traditional instructional methods. This research discusses the cashier trainer, a simulation on the computer that trains people to become a cashier. Learning based on simulated experiences like in the cashier trainer can play a significant role for learning about the real world, because many relevant competencies can be trained in a realistic, challenging and attractive manner (Swaak, Van Joolingen, & De Jong, 1998). Simulations are not only effective in the area of instruction, but are also supposed to be time and cost-effective because it can be done in leisure time and no teacher is needed. Supermarket managers estimate the savings on training costs at about 50-70%, due to the use of the cashier trainer (Oprins & Korteling, 2012). If the upward trend in the use of simulations continues, research on simulations is of major importance to provide well-designed simulations. Current research about simulations mainly focuses on simulations for the military (e.g. Mavor & Pew, 1998), pilot trainings (e.g. Jones et al., 1999), and healthcare (e.g. Issenberg, 2006). Yet, no research can be found on a simulation like the cashier trainer, except the research of Oprins and Korteling (2012). According to Emmerik (2004), there exists a lack of knowledge about instructional factors and training in relation to simulations. This research will contribute to more understanding of training and instructional factors in relation to simulations by the use of strategies for learning procedures developed by Smith and Ragan (1999). Also, the theory about reducing cognitive load from Mayer and Moreno (2003) is used. Mayer and Moreno (2003) argue that it would be worthwhile to release their theory on problem-based simulation games, online courses that require many hours of participation, and multimedia instruction that includes on-screen pedagogical agents, which also addresses the cashier trainer. 4

6 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE CASHIER TRAINER In this chapter, the general design of the cashier trainer will be described with the help of several print screens. Figure 1: The list of all trainings in the cashier trainer The cashier trainer is an online simulation where a new cashier will learn all important knowledge and skills to become a cashier. The cashier trainer is divided in several trainings, for example there is a training where new cashiers learn all about registering articles, a training about discounts, and a training about the basic procedure (figure 1). Figure 2: The training parts of the specific training for the 'basic procedure' A specific training is divided in several parts (figure 2). For example, the training basic procedure is divided in a demonstration of a PIN payment, an exercise of the PIN payment, a demonstration of a cash payment, and an exercise of a cash payment. The learner will first see the demonstration of all steps for the procedure, where after the learner has to exercise this procedure. Figure 3: Demonstration and exercise environment While exercising, a coach will inform the learner when something goes wrong. Also, the learner can consult this coach at any time by asking what he has to do or how he has to do it. In figure 3, the exercise 5

7 and demonstration environment is shown. The cash desk in the training is exactly the same as in the supermarket. 6

8 2. Design approach The ADDIE model In this chapter, the used design approach will be described. This research is based on the ADDIE model (figure 4). This model is widely used for developing training programs and instructional courses. It provides clearly defined stages that increases the effectiveness of instruction and ensures an effective implementation of instruction (Allen, 2006; Peterson, 2003). This is is completely in line with the aim of this study. In the following chapters, all stages will be described. First, the analysis provides more clarity about the exact problem and its nature. This will lead to guidelines for the redesign of the cashier trainer in the design stage. In the stages of development and implementation, these guidelines are used to redesign specific parts of the cashier trainer. In the evaluation stage, the redesign is evaluated through a test with an experimental group and a control group. Figure 4: The ADDIE model 7

9 Number of participants that mention the operation 3. ANALYSIS In this chapter, all analyzes will be described. First, the research of Oprins and Korteling (2012) is reviewed. Here after, cash managers and new cashiers are interviewed to provide more clarity about the gap between the competences acquired in the cashier trainer and the competences needed in the supermarket. This leads to the exploration and definition of the problem. Since the problem is related to the design of the cashier trainer, the design of the current cashier trainer is also analyzed PREVIOUS RESEARCH OF OPRINS AND KORTELING (2012) Oprins and Korteling (2012) investigated the effectiveness of the cashier trainer. In their research, an experimental group (N=22) was trained with only the cashier trainer, and a control group (N=23) was trained according to the usual training procedures in the retail company. Both groups got three hours in total for training. Results showed that the experimental group gained higher scores on almost all training outcomes compared to the control group. However, also after being trained by the cashier trainer, the outcomes show that a certain amount of on the job training is needed. For example, the employees must acquire more routine in operating the cash desk, and have to develop their working speed, independence and accuracy. Also more general competences must be acquired further, like the stress component when there are rows of waiting customers. So, it can be said that there is a gap between the competences acquired in the cashier trainer and the competences needed in the supermarket INTERVIEWS WITH CASH MANAGERS AND NEW CASHIERS TRAINED BY THE CASHIER TRAINER Interviews with five cash managers and five new cashiers trained by the cashier trainer provided clarity about this gap (appendix 1 and 2). Although Oprins and Korteling (2012) mainly observed the cashiers in their research, for this research interviews are chosen because of several reasons. First, the selected cash managers can provide more information than five or ten separate observations since these cash managers already supervised a total of ten to thirty cashiers trained by the cashier trainer. Therefore, they have a good overview of the competences new cashiers possess. Second, when new cashiers will be observed, they may be even more nervous than they already are at their first day or days of work which may affect their performances. Thereby, mistakes can be observed, but it may be hard to observe what tasks are experienced as difficult tasks for new cashiers, and why especially these tasks are difficult. Operations that need on the job training after finishing the cashier trainer Asking for additional small change & Counting aloud when handing over change 4 Customer contact 4 3 Operations that appear less frequently in the cashier trainer as well as in the supermarket New cashiers Cash managers Figure 5: Operations that need on the job training after finishing the cashier trainer In the interviews, cash managers and new cashiers were asked for what operations new cashiers needed on the job training. The three most mentioned operations can be seen in figure 5. As can be seen, asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change are the most mentioned operations. According to the cash managers and new cashiers, these are also skills that are hard to learn behind the cash desk. When the cashier is not able to do it, this is most times learned during their breaks or they are advised by the cash manager to exercise at home with for example their 8

10 parents. A cashier can ask for additional small change in order to prevent giving a lot of small change to the customer. Giving a lot of small change each time can cause a shortage of small change in the cash drawer. Thereby, it is most times not appreciated by the client to receive a lot of small change, and it can take a long time to hand over all the coins. As an example, when the subtotal is 31,15 and the customer pays 50,00, the cashier initially has to hand over 18,85 change. This includes two notes and seven pieces of small change. However, when the cashier asks the customer for an additional amount of 1,15, the customer pays 51,15 and the cashier can give 20,- change, which is only one note. When handing over the change, the cashier has to count aloud. This means that the cashier gives the change from small to large (first coins, then notes) to the customer, whereby the cashier counts from the amount that had to be paid (subtotal) to the amount that is paid by the customer. The second most mentioned operation is customer contact. This is mentioned as a big difference between the cashier trainer and the real work in the supermarket. In the supermarket, the cashiers have to talk, while in the cashier trainer they only have to click on the right sentence where after a voice over speaks. At the first days of work, new cashiers often don t talk aloud and have no real conversations with customers. This is usually caused by the fact that cashiers are more focused on executing the procedure itself in the right way, and sometimes are a little bit shy in the beginning. However, cashier managers and new cashiers mention that customer contact is a skill that is most times learned naturally at the workplace after a short period of time. The third most mentioned are operations that appear less frequently in the cashier trainer as well as in the supermarket. These are for example corrections after making mistakes, handling coupons and discount stickers. Cashiers have learned and done this once in the cashier trainer, and these skills may not be used at the first days or weeks after the cashier trainer. Once the skills are needed, they forgot how to do it exactly. Nevertheless, most cashiers only need a little bit of help when they encounter these problems, and usually don t forget it anymore EXPLORATION AND DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM As mentioned before, asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change are the most mentioned operations. Thereby, cash managers and new cashiers mention that it is hard to learn these operations behind the cash desk, whereas customer contact is more or less learned naturally at the workplace. Operations that appear less frequently do need extra support after the cashier trainer, but are not seen as such a big problem as asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change. Asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change are pointed out by the cash managers as very important skills because it can be annoying for both the customer and the cashier when the cashier is not able to do this. Also, asking for additional small change is sometimes really needed because small change may run out when the cashier does not ask for additional small change. However, it has to be mentioned that this is mainly a problem for cashiers that are weak at mathematics or have a lower level of education, according to the interviews with the new cashiers and cash managers. To solve this problem, the part of asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change in the cashier trainer have to be redesigned. In paragraph 3.4, the current design of the cashier trainer will be analyzed according to several theories in order to discover weak points in the current design that can be improved. This will lead to guidelines for the redesign of the cashier trainer that will be described in chapter four THE DESIGN OF THE CURRENT CASHIER TRAINER In chapter one, the general design of the cashier trainer is described. In this paragraph, the focus will be on the cash payment, the part of the training where asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change belong to. The cash payment is a part of the training for learning the basic procedure, where the PIN payment also belongs to. In the training for the PIN payment, the learner will not only learn the specific part of the PIN payment, but also how to read the cash screen and general cashier tasks like greeting and scanning. These skills are also needed in the cash payment, that is learned after the PIN payment. 9

11 Figure 6: Asking for additional small change Figure 7: Asking for additional small change In the cash payment, the learner is first told what he is exactly going to learn by a voice over. Thereafter, the demonstration begins. This demonstration shows the whole procedure of a cash payment, that takes 4.29 minutes. In this demonstration, the learner will learn how to ask for additional small change and how to count aloud when handing over change. How and when to ask for additional small change is learned with one example, explained by a voice over and supported with the screens depicted in figure 6 and 7. The following text is told by the voice over: Als een klant met een biljet wil betalen, kan het handig zijn om geld bij te vragen. Bijvoorbeeld wanneer een klant 25 euro en 10 cent moet betalen, en betaalt met een briefje van 50 euro. Je zou dan 24,90 terug moeten geven. Dit kost veel kleingeld. Om de uitgifte van kleingeld te beperken, vraag je in dit geval 10 cent kleingeld bij. De klant betaalt dan 50 euro 10. Als je het aankoopbedrag van 25 euro 10 hier van aftrekt, houdt je precies 25 euro over. 25 Euro kun je eenvoudig teruggeven in de vorm van briefgeld. Wanneer je kleingeld bij wilt vragen kan je kiezen uit de opties in het dialoogvenster. Kies hierbij het bedrag waardoor je minder munten hoeft terug te geven, maar niet onnodig veel geld aan de klant vraagt. Als de klant het geld heeft, zal deze het geven. Counting aloud when handing over change is explained in the demonstration environment, where the voice over first explains how to do it and then shows how to do it. The following text is told by the voice over: De kassa geeft aan hoeveel wisselgeld de klant terug krijgt. Je verzamelt dit wisselgeld in je hand van groot naar klein. Zorg ervoor dat je zo weinig mogelijk geldstukken teruggeeft. Als je het wisselgeld verzameld hebt geef je het geld terug van klein naar groot. Tel hierbij terug naar het betaalde bedrag zodat de klant gemakkelijk kan controleren of deze de juiste hoeveelheid wisselgeld krijgt. Allereerst geef je het kleingeld terug: pak het muntgeld op, beweeg het geld naar de klant en laat het los bij het juiste bedrag. Vervolgens doe je hetzelfde met de losse biljetten. Both asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change are explained with one example. It should be considered whether this one example is sufficient for a learner to generalize the information in order to use it in every other situation. This is mainly the case for asking for additional small change, since a cashier does not always need to do this and thus needs to know about all situations in which it is applicable. In contrast to asking for additional small change, counting aloud when handing over change has to be done for every cash payment. Thereby, there is only one way to count aloud when handing over change: to count further from the subtotal to the amount of money paid by the customer. Presumably, this is a task that is not performed well because of the lack of mathematic skills of the cashier since they have to count at a fast pace with clients waiting. Another reason can be that in the cashier trainer the learner does not have to count aloud himself, but only has to click on the right amounts of money, where after a voice over counts aloud. Besides learning these difficult tasks, the learner is expected to learn a lot of other steps of the procedure. For example, the learner also has to learn how, when and why to use the counterfeit detector and the afroambox, and how to enter amounts of money on the cash screen. Learning how and when to ask for additional small change is thereby explained quite at the beginning, where after the learner is provided with nine other steps and its sub steps. These nine steps also include counting aloud when 10

12 handing over change. After all, the learner has to keep a lot of information in his memory before he can exercise. Thereby, the learner gets all information at once, without a pause. The learner can decide for himself to press pause in the demonstration, but since the learner doesn t know what is still coming and how long the demonstration will take, it is hard to decide whether to press pause and when to do that ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT CASHIER TRAINER It can be concluded from paragraph 3.4 that the design of the current cashier trainer should be analyzed further. It should be considered whether this design supports learning asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change, and whether learners are able to watch a demonstration with a length of 4.29 minutes including a lot of information that has to be kept in memory during the demonstration. Therefore, two theories are selected to analyze the design of the cashier trainer in order to discover the specific parts that have to be improved. First, in paragraph 3.5.1, strategies for learning procedures of Smith and Ragan (1999) are used to analyze the general structure of the current design, in order to find out whether the current design is suitable for learning procedures. Second, in paragraph 3.5.2, the theory of Mayer and Moreno (2003) about reducing cognitive overload is used to discover whether cognitive overload may be the problem within the demonstration with a duration of 4.29 minutes and a lot of information at once. These analyzes will lead to the design guidelines for the redesign in chapter STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING PROCEDURES According to Smith and Ragan (1999), the designer first has to clarify the procedure and list its steps in an unambiguous form. Since asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change belong to a cash payment, the whole procedure of the cash payment is described in its operation steps, sub operations, decision points and following operation steps in table 1. Figure 8: Scheme to decide whether it is efficient to ask for additional small change Figure 9: Scheme to decide how much additional small change to ask While writing table 1, it became clear that asking for additional small change did not fit into the scheme like all other tasks. Asking for additional small change consists of more decision steps compared to the other steps of the cash payment. Therefore, the sub operations and decision steps are shown in figure 8 and 9. First, the learner has to decide whether to ask for additional small change. To decide this, the learner should follow the scheme of figure 8. The step zijn dit veel muntstukken can be a very difficult step, because the learner actually already has to figure out whether he can give less coins if he asks for additional small change. Additionally, if the learner decides to ask for additional small change, the learner has to follow the scheme of figure 9 in order to decide how much additional change to ask. 11

13 Step Operation Sub-operations Decision? Operation 1 Begroet de klant. 2 Controleer of de klant alle producten op de band heeft liggen. Vraag of je in de tas mag kijken. Heeft de klant nog producten? 3 Scan alle producten 4. Vraag of de klant lege flessen heeft ingeleverd. Kijk via de camera in de kar van de klant. 5 Klik op subtotaal. 6 Noem het totaalbedrag. Rond af op 5 cent. 7 Vraag de klant of hij met pin wil betalen. 8 Vraag geld bij indien dit handig is. 9 Voer het betaalde bedrag in centen in. 10 Controleer biljetten van 20 of meer met de valsgelddetector. 11 Leg biljetten op de kassalade. 12 Leg munten in de kassalade. 13 Verzamel het wisselgeld in je hand van groot naar klein. 14 Geef het wisselgeld terug van klein naar groot. 15 Doe de emballagebon in de kassalade. 16 Vraag de klant of hij de kassabon wil hebben. 17 Neem afscheid van de klant. Table 1: The procedure of a cash payment Klik op contant in het kassascherm. Houd het biljet onder de valsgelddetector. Tel hierbij hardop terug van het subtotaal naar het betaalde bedrag. Sluit de kassalade. Heeft de klant lege flessen ingeleverd? Wil de klant met pin betalen? Wil de klant contant betalen? Kleurt het lampje rood? Vraag of de klant de producten op de band wil leggen. Scan de emballagebon. Streep de streepjescode door. Klik op pin/chip. Neem het geld in je hand. Vraag de klant of hij met ander geld of met pin kan betalen. Adviseer hem om met het biljet naar de bank te gaan ter controle. Smith and Ragan (1999) distinguish between simple and complex procedures. Simple procedures consist of approximately seven steps and few to no decision points. As can be seen, the procedure of a cash payment consists of 17 steps with several decision points and thus can be seen as a complex procedure. A procedure can also be identified as complex because of the substantive difficulty of the procedure itself. This is the case with asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change, for cashiers that are not that good at mathematics. Simple procedures can be taught straightforwardly, while complex procedures have to be simplified for their initial instruction (Smith & Ragan, 1999). When the procedure is complex because of the number of steps, the solution is to chunk the steps into stages or phases. When the procedure is complex because of its difficulty, the way to simplify is to teach the most simple or common path through the procedure first. For asking for additional small change, the most simple path can be identified as only asking for extra cents, which is applicable for amounts of money below five euros. The more complex or difficult path through the procedure can be identified as asking for whole euros and cents, which is applicable with amounts of money higher than five euros. For counting aloud when handing over change, there is only one path through the procedure. 12

14 Figure 10: Key events for learning procedures (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p.202) When teaching a procedure, four key events and their sub activities have to be addressed to learn the procedure (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Figure 10 shows a summary of those events and activities. A comparison of these key events with the current cashier trainer yielded several differences. In the current cashier trainer, the learner sees a demonstration of the whole procedure at once and thereafter has to exercise the whole procedure at once. However, according to Smith and Ragan (1999), the complete procedure may be demonstrated first at once, but thereafter has to be considered and demonstrated step by step whereby the learner has to practice each step immediately after it is presented. Also, no job aid is provided with the order of steps, that could support the learners first practice attempts (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Asking for additional small change is in the current cashier trainer learned and exercised with one example, whereas Smith and Ragan (1999) recommend to show the learner various situations in which the procedure is applicable with its critical characteristics. The last difference is the way feedback is given for asking for additional small change. When it is efficient to do it, but the learner doesn t, the learner will only hear from the voice over Het was nu handig geweest om geld bij te vragen. According to Smith and Ragan (1999), the learner needs substantive feedback with explanation on how to do it REDUCING COGNITIVE OVERLOAD In learning a procedure, simulations like the cashier trainer can provide meaningful learning, defined by Mayer and Moreno (2003, p. 43) as deep understanding of the material, which includes attending to important aspects of the presented material, mentally organizing it into a coherent cognitive structure, and integrating it with relevant existing knowledge. However, in learning with simulations there is the potential for cognitive overload that hinders meaningful learning. Cognitive overload appears when the learner s intended cognitive processing exceeds the learner s available cognitive capacity (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). There are different types of cognitive overload that have to do with three kinds of cognitive demands. These cognitive demands are essential processing, incidental processing and representational holding. Essential processing refers to cognitive processes that are required for making sense of the presented material, incidental processing refers to cognitive processes that are not required for making sense of the presented material but are primed by the design of the learning task, and representational holding refers to cognitive processes aimed at holding a mental representation in working memory over a period of time (Mayer & Moreno, 2003, p. 45). 13

15 Figure 11: Load reduction methods for five overload scenarios in multimedia instruction (Mayer & Moreno, 2003, p. 46) On the basis of these cognitive demands, Mayer and Moreno (2003) describe a total of five types of overload, with possible methods for reducing the cognitive load and its research effect, that can be seen in figure 11. In the current cashier trainer, cognitive overload may cause the fact that learners are not able to count aloud when handing over change and to ask for additional small change. First, cognitive overload can be caused by the fact that the learner has to watch the whole procedure of a cash payment at once, and thereafter has to exercise the whole procedure at once. Hereby, also counting aloud when handing over change and asking for additional small change are included in the whole procedure. Type 2 of cognitive overload can be identified here, where both channels (visual and verbal) are overloaded with essential processing demands. By the time the learner selects relevant words and pictures from one segment of the presentation, the next segment begins, thereby cutting short the time needed for deeper processing whereby available cognitive capacity is not sufficient to meet the required processing demands (Mayer & Moreno, 2003, p. 47). The solution provided by Mayer and Moreno (2003) is to segment the training in learner controlled segments. Second, type 3 of cognitive overload can take place while learning how and when to ask for additional small change. This is caused by the screen that supports the explanation of this procedure in the current cashier trainer. The translucent overlay that can be seen in figure 6 and 7 still shows a lot of the cash desk, which can be seen as superfluous material. According to Mayer and Moreno (2003, p. 48), this can cause the learner to use limited cognitive resources on incidental processing, leaving less cognitive capacity for essential processing. The solution provided by Mayer and Moreno (2003) is weeding, whereby the raining should be designed as simple as possible, with only the information that is needed in order to help the learner to select the relevant information. 14

16 4. DESIGN From the analyzes it has become clear that several parts of the current cashier trainer are not in line with the theories of Smith and Ragan (1999) and Mayer and Moreno (2003). Therefore, the cashier trainer is redesigned at those parts. In this chapter, the guidelines that will be used for the redesign are described, where after in chapter 5 the development and implementation of these guidelines will be described and shown. Initially, as described in the analysis, only the part of asking for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change would be redesigned. However, as mentioned in paragraph 3.5, there are skills needed in the cash payment that are learnt in the PIN payment. Since the redesign will also be tested, whereby the exercise environment of the current cashier trainer will be used, learners have to be able to for example handle the cash desk, which is learnt in the PIN payment. Thereby, the redesign will be compared to the current design with an experimental and a control group. The control group has to do the PIN payment in order to be able to do the cash payment, since important general cashier skills are learnt in the PIN payment. Therefore, in the redesign the PIN payment is also included in order to make a fair comparison between the experimental group and the control group in the test (see chapter 6). This makes it also more meaningful to learn to ask for additional small change and counting aloud when handing over change, because the learner is familiar with the context of these procedures. Thereby, the theories of Smith and Ragan (1999) and Mayer and Moreno (2003) can be used at more points in the redesign, that may also foster learning to ask for additional small change and to count aloud when handing over change. Also, more data can be gathered that will contribute to the field of simulation research. In chapter 3, the differences of the current design compared to the theories of Smith and Ragan (1999) and Mayer and Moreno (2003) are described. These differences lead to the following guidelines of the redesign for the procedures of a PIN payment and a cash payment: Include a job aid with the order of steps (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Include an introduction with a demonstration of the procedure, without explanation (Smith & Ragan, 1999). After the introduction, the demonstration has to be learned step by step (Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Smith & Ragan, 1999). o The procedure has to be simplified: chunk the steps into stages or phases (Smith & Ragan, 1999). After the demonstration of one step (or chunk of steps), the learner immediately has to practice (Smith & Ragan, 1999). The learner can decide when to move to the next step (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). After practicing step by step, the learner has to practice the whole procedure (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Asking for additional small change will be learned beyond the cashier trainer environment. This is done because of two reasons. First, learning it beyond the cashier trainer can reduce cognitive overload for both the procedure of a cash payment and the procedure of asking for additional small change (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Second, the design can be kept as simple as possible with only the information needed (Mayer & Moreno). Since Mayer and Moreno (2003) do not provide any additional guidelines on the structure of the design, the theory of Smith and Ragan (1999) will be used for this. The guidelines for asking for additional small change are as following: A separate training has to be designed, beyond the cashier trainer environment (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). The design has to be as simple as possible, with only the information that is needed (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Include an introduction that points at the efficiency of the procedure (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Inform the learner of the purpose of the lesson (Smith & Ragan, 1999). o Which procedure is to be learned. o Its range of applicability. Simplify the procedure, learn the most simple or common path through the procedure first (Smith & Ragan, 1999). o The most simple path is defined as only asking for extra cents. 15

17 o First, provide only situations in which asking for additional small change is required (Smith & Ragan, 1999). o Later, provide also situations in which asking for additional small change is not required (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Show the learner various situations in which the procedure is applicable with its critical characteristics (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Learn the more complex form of the procedure after finishing the simplest path through the procedure (Smith & Ragan, 1999). o The more complex form is defined as asking for whole euro s and cents. Provide substantive feedback when the learner makes a mistake (Smith & Ragan, 1999). The explanation of counting aloud when handing over change itself can be identified as a good explanation, since there is also only one way to do this. Perhaps the biggest cause of not being able to count aloud when handing over change after the cashier trainer is that it is a small step within a lot of other steps, that will cause cognitive overload (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Thereby, learners don t need to talk aloud in the cashier trainer, since the voice over speaks when they click on the right sentence. Hereby, the learner never exercised with really speaking aloud. The guidelines for counting aloud when handing over change are as following: Separate counting aloud when handing over change as one independent step from the other steps in the procedure for cash payments (Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Smith & Ragan, 1999). Ask the learner to already count aloud in the cashier trainer. 16

18 5. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION In this chapter, the redesign will be described with the help of print screens. First, the design of the training for PIN payments and cash-payments will be discussed, where after the design of the training asking for additional small change will be discussed. The PIN payment and cash-payment have more or less the same design. If the design is different for one of these, it will be mentioned. The overall design is kept as simple as possible in order to reduce cognitive overload (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to give the learner an idea where he is at in the training, two colored strips are added in each screen. At the upper side of the screen, the strip is always blue. This strip tells the learner what procedure is to be learned, for example the procedure for a PIN payment or the procedure for a cash payment. The strip on the left side of the screen tells the learner if it is an introduction (red), a complete procedure (orange), a step by step explanation (light blue), or an exercise (green) PIN PAYMENT AND CASH PAYMENT Introduction Figure 12: Introduction for a PIN payment Figure 13: Introduction for a cash payment First, the learner gets an introduction. Learners have to be informed of the purpose of the lesson both in terms of which procedure is to be learned and its range of applicability (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Here, the learner is introduced by a voice-over supported by a still image of the corresponding procedure (figure 12 and 13). Figure 14: Demonstration of the actual application of the procedure After the introduction, the learners attention is gained by demonstrating the actual application of the procedure itself (figure 14). In this way, the purpose of the procedure will be clarified (Smith & Ragan, 1999). This demonstration does not include an explanation of the steps yet, but will give a good overview of the procedure to be learned. Since it is important to tell the learner that this demonstration is an 17

19 overview and they are not expected to learn the entire procedure at this point (Smith & Ragan, 1999), the learner will hear this first before watching the demonstration. As can be seen at the right side of the screen in figure 14, the learner is provided with a job aid that will improve the learners first practice attempts (Smith & Ragan, 1999). In this job aid, the procedure is simplified by chunking steps together since the procedure can be seen as complex by its number of steps (Smith & Ragan, 1999). These chunks are in this training the steps. For example, In step 8, the learner has to 1) Enter the amount of money paid by the customer in the checkout, and 2) Click cash at the checkout. These are initially separate steps, but belong more or less together. The full list of steps in the job aid of the PIN payment are as following: 1. Begroeten 2. In de tas kijken Alles op de band? 3. Scannen 4. Lege flessen? Scan emballagebon Streep streepjescode door 5. *klik* Subtotaal Noem het totaalbedrag (rond af op 5 cent 6. Wilt u met pin betalen? *klik* Pin/Chip 7. Emballagebon in kassalade Kassalade sluiten 8. Kassabon geven? Afscheid nemen Figure 15: Summary of the procedure for a cash payment Figure 16: Demonstration of a cash payment For the cash payment, the demonstration of the complete procedure is a little different. Eight of the fifteen steps from the cash payment are the same as within the PIN payment. This is first made clear to the learner by figure 15, where step seven till thirteen are surrounded with a red line. These steps are different for the cash payment compared to the PIN payment, whereas the first six and last two steps are the same as within the PIN payment. A voice over will explain this. Hereafter, the learner will only get a demonstration of the specific steps for the cash payment, in order to simplify the procedure and because of the fact the learner already has learned the other steps (figure 16). Here, the learner is also provided with a job aid on the right side of the screen. The steps in the job aid of the cash payment are as following: 7. Klant wil contant betalen Neem het geld in je hand 8. Voer het betaalde bedrag in centen in *klik* Contant 9. Valsgelddetector (biljet van 20,- of meer) Vals? Geef advise 18

20 Body 10. Biljetten op de kassalade Munten in de kassalade 11. Verzamel wisselgeld in je hand (groot naar klein) 12. Geef geld terug (klein naar groot) Tel hardop 13. Berg biljetten op Afroambox (biljet van 50,- of meer + teveel aan 20,-) Figure 17: Demonstration of one step Figure 18: Practicing one step After demonstrating the whole procedure, each individual step should be considered and demonstrated separately (Smith & Ragan, 1999). The learner first watches the demonstration, where a voice over explains how and why to do the specific step (figure 17), where after the learner exercises the step immediately in the cashier trainer. Figure 18 shows the screen that indicates that the learner has to practice that step. The learner will be sent to the practice environment of the cashier trainer. When the step is executed in the wrong way, the learner hears a voice-over who gives feedback and the learner has to do the step again until it is done right. The training contains learner controlled segments, so after completing a step, the learner can decide when to move to the next step (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Figure 19: Counting aloud when handing over change As can be seen in figure 19, counting aloud when handing over change is now demonstrated and practiced as one separate step. Thereby, before exercising, the learner is asked to count aloud already in the training by the following text: Tel nu alvast écht hardop, zodat je dat straks achter de kassa ook kan. 19

21 Conclusion & Assessment Figure 20: Practicing the steps together as a whole First, the learner is provided with all steps demonstrated and practiced separately. In the end of the training, the learner has to practice the steps together as a whole (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Occasionally, initial instruction may include a job aid to support the learners first practice attempts, like in the redesign the list of steps on the right side of the screen when watching demonstrations (Smith & Ragan, 1999). However, after practicing step by step with the job aid, learners should practice without the job aid until they are proficient (Smith & Ragan, 1999). In the redesign this is realized by first giving the learner the opportunity to take a last look at the list of all steps, after which they have to click it away and execute the whole procedure in the cashier trainer (figure 20). Again, when something goes wrong, a voice-over will give feedback and the learner has to execute the step until it is done in the right way ASKING FOR ADDITIONAL SMALL CHANGE Introduction Figure 21: Introduction of asking for additional small change First, the learner gets an introductory demonstration (figure 21). According to Smith and Ragan (1999), attention can be gained by pointing out the efficiency of the procedure. This is done by showing an inefficient way of handling a cash payment, where the cashier should have asked for additional small 20

22 change. This will be recognizable for the learner, who may also had to pick a lot of coins in the exercises of the cash payment. In the end of the demonstration, the learner is told that this is an inefficient way of handling a cash payment, and that it is more efficient at this point to ask for additional small change. Body Figure 22: Purpose and efficiency Then, the learner has to be informed of the purpose of the lesson, including the procedure to be learned and its range of applicability (Smith & Ragan, 1999). This is done in three parts as can be seen in figure 22. In part 1, Wat is geld bijvragen?, the learner is told by a voice over what asking for additional small change exactly is. The following text is told by the voice over: We gaan even terug naar stap 7 van de contante betaling. Hier kan het namelijk handig zijn om geld bij te vragen. Maar, wat is geld bijvragen? Nadat je het totaalbedrag hebt genoemd, zal de klant je bij een contante betaling het geld geven. Vaak geeft een klant niet het precieze totaalbedrag, maar iets meer. Daarom moet je wisselgeld geven. Soms moet je dan veel muntgeld teruggeven, bijvoorbeeld bij 95 cent aan wisselgeld. Dit kost je 4 muntstukken. Het is dan slim om geld bij te vragen. Misschien heb je dat al wel eens gehoord in een winkel. De caissière vraagt je dan bijvoorbeeld: Heeft u er misschien 5 cent bij? Dit heet geld bijvragen. In part 2, Waarom moet je soms geld bijvragen?, the learner is told by a voice over why it is efficient to do it. The following text is told by the voice over: Je vraagt geld bij zodat je minder muntstukken hoeft terug te geven. Hierdoor ben je minder lang bezig met wisselgeld tellen. Ook zorg je er zo voor dat er altijd voldoende muntgeld in de kassalade blijft. Daarnaast vinden de meeste klanten het fijn om niet zoveel munten in hun portemonnee te hebben. 21

23 Figure 23: Demonstration of the efficiency of asking for additional small change In part 3, Hoe werkt geld bijvragen?, the learner learns how and when to ask for additional small change by watching a demonstration. In this demonstration, a voice over tells about the efficiency of this procedure and how it works by comparing two clients (figure 23). Both clients have to pay the same, but client B pays another amount of money whereby the cashier can give less change compared to client A. While explaining, the table is filled in part by part and the parts the voice over is telling about are highlighted blue as can be seen in figure 23, or an arrow points at it. Table 2 shows the script that belongs to this demonstration. Text told by the voice over On screen Place in table Klant A moet 1 euro en 5 cent betalen. 1,05 is typed Klant A, subtotaal Klant A betaalt met 2 euro. 2,00 is typed Klant A, klant betaalt Het wisselgeld dat jij als caissiere terug 0,95 is typed Klant A, wisselgeld moet geven is dus 95 cent. Dit zijn 4 muntstukken. Coins are placed Klant A, wisselgeld Klant B moet net als klant A 1 euro en 5 1,05 is typed Klant B, subtotaal cent betalen. Maar, klant B betaalt 2 euro en 5 cent. 2,05 is typed Klant B, klant betaalt Het wisselgeld dat jij als caissiere terug 1,00 is typed Klant B, wisselgeld moet geven is dus 1 euro. Dit is maar 1 muntstuk. Coin is placed Klant B, wisselgeld Zoals je ziet hoef je bij klant B maar 1 muntstuk terug te geven. Dit gaat veel sneller dan de 4 muntstukken bij klant A. Arrow points at the 1 euro coin of client B Arrow points at the 4 coins of client A Klant B, wisselgeld Klant A, wisselgeld Dit komt doordat klant B 5 cent méér heeft betaald dan klant A. 2,05 of client B and 2,00 of client A are highlighted Klant B, klant betaalt Klant A, klant betaalt Hierdoor kan je ook 5 cent meer teruggeven. 1,00 of client B and 0,95 of client A are highlighted Klant B, wisselgeld Klant A, wisselgeld Als je bij klant A ook 1 euro als wisselgeld The cursor is placed Klant A, geld bijvragen? zou willen geven, moet je geld gaan bijvragen aan de klant. In dit geval is het handig om 5 cent bij te 0,05 is typed Klant A, geld bijvragen? vragen. De klant betaalt hierdoor 2 euro en 5 cent. 2,05 is typed Klant A, de klant betaalt nu Het wisselgeld dat je nu dus kan geven is 1 euro. 1,00 is typed Klant A, wisselgeld Hoeveel geld je moet bijvragen kan je op twee manieren ontdekken. Hoe je dit doet wordt op de volgende dia uitgelegd. / / Table 2: Script for the demonstration the efficiency of asking for additional small change. 22

24 Figure 24: How to ask for additional small change After pointing at the efficiency, the learner has to learn when to ask for additional small change and how much small change to ask (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Since this procedure is complex according to its substantive difficulty, the most simple or common path through the procedure should be learned first (Smith and Ragan, 1999). For this procedure, the most simple path is defined as only asking for extra cents. The learner can find out how much additional small change to ask in two ways. The learner is provided with both ways in two separate demonstrations. Both ways are explained with the same example and same table, that can be seen in figure 24. The first demonstration explains how the learner can really calculate the amount of small change to ask by counting further from the amount of change to whole euro s. This way provides more insight in how and why to ask for a certain amount of small change. The script of this demonstration can be seen in table 3. The second explanation is more like a mnemonic. The learner learns that he can ask what is behind the comma in the subtotal. The script of this demonstration can be seen in table 4. Text told by the voice over On screen Place in table Je ziet dat je veel muntgeld als wisselgeld Arrow points at the coins Wisselgeld moet geven. Je wilt minder muntgeld geven. / / Tel vanaf het wisselgeld dat je nu moet 0,95 is highlighted Wisselgeld geven verder naar het dichtstbijzijnde bedrag in hele euro s. In dit geval ligt 1 euro het dichtst bij 95 0,95 is highlighted Wisselgeld cent. Om bij 1 euro te komen moet je er 5 cent 0,95 is highlighted Wisselgeld bij op tellen. Het bedrag dat je erbij optelt moet je bij 0,95 is highlighted Wisselgeld vragen aan de klant. In dit geval vraag je dus 5 cent bij. 0,05 is highlighted Geld bijvragen? Table 3: Script for the demonstration counting further from the amount of change to whole euro's Text told by the voice over On screen Place in table Je ziet dat je veel muntgeld als wisselgeld Arrow points at the coins Wisselgeld moet geven. Je wilt minder muntgeld geven. / / Kijk of er centen achter de komma staan bij 05 (in 1,05) is highlighted Subtotaal het subtotal. In dit geval is dat dus 5 cent. 05 (in 1,05) is highlighted Subtotaal Vraag dit bedrag bij aan de klant. 0,05 is highlighted Geld bijvragen? Table 4: Script for the demonstration asking what is behind the comma in the subtotal 23

25 Figure 25: Exercise one Figure 26: Subsequent exercises As stated before, it is important to exercise immediately after something is learned (Smith & Ragan, 1999). This is also the case within asking for additional small change. According to Smith and Ragan (1999), first the learner has to determine if the procedure is required whereby only situations will appear where the procedure is clearly required. Therefore, the learner will first get exact the same situation as showed in the demonstration, where the learner has to decide in which situation asking for additional small change is required (figure 25). Thereafter, the learner will get several exercises with only one client but different amounts of money, where the learner has to decide if it is efficient to ask for additional small change, and how much small change to ask (figure 26). Thereby, later on there will also be an exercise where it is inefficient to ask for additional small change. Figure 27: Feedback after making a mistake When the learner makes a mistake, substantive feedback is provided in the form of a hint (figure 27). With the help of this hint, the learner has to adjust his answer and choose the right one. 24

26 Figure 28: Pointing at the efficiency of asking for whole euros and cents c Figure 29: Explanation of how and when to ask for whole euro s and cents As mentioned before, first the most simple or common path is demonstrated, where after the more complex path is demonstrated because of the substantive difficulty of the procedure that makes it a complex procedure according to Smith and Ragan (1999). After exercising with the simplest form, thus only asking for additional cents, the learner will see a demonstration of the more complex form where he learns to ask for whole euros and cents. In this demonstration, two tables are used (figure 28 and figure 29). First, the learner is told and showed that asking for cents and whole euros can be more efficient than only asking for cents, by comparing the situation of not asking for additional change, asking for additional cents and asking for additional cents and euro s (figure 28). Hereafter, the learner gets an explanation on how and when to do this with the help of three examples (figure 29). The script for this demonstration can be seen in table 5. After the demonstration of asking for whole euros and cents, the learner again gets exercises in which he has to decide whether to ask for additional small change and how much to ask. Here, the same design is used as explained with figure 25, 26 and 27 with other amounts of money. 25

27 Text told by the voice over On screen Place in table Corresponding figure: Figure 29 Corresponding figure: Figure 28 Er komt een klant bij de kassa. / Column 1, geen De klant moet 6 euro en 10 cent betalen. 6,10 is highlighted geld bijvragen De klant betaalt met 10 euro. 10,00 is highlighted In deze kolom zie je wat er gebeurt als je geen geld bijvraagt. Collumn geen geld bijvragen is highlighted Je zou dan 3 euro en 90 cent wisselgeld moeten 3,90 is highlighted geven. Dit kost veel muntgeld zoals je ziet. Arrow points at the coins In deze kolom zie je hoe je het tot nu toe steeds hebt gedaan. Column Centen bijvragen is highlighted Column 2, centen bijvragen Je vraagt centen bij. Column 2, Centen bijvragen is highlighted In dit geval 10 cent. 0,10 is highlighted Het getal dat achter de komma staat bij het 10 of 16,10 is highlighted subtotal. Hierdoor betaalt de klant 10 euro en 10 cent, 10,10 is highlighted en kan je gemakkelijk 4 euro wisselgeld 4,00 is highlighted teruggeven. Dit zijn 2 muntstukken, heel wat minder dan in Arrow points at the coins de eerste kolom. Maar, je kan er bij dit bedrag zelfs voor zorgen dat je helemaal geen munten hoeft terug te geven, maar alleen maar één briefje. / Column 3, euro s en centen bijvragen In deze kolom zie je hoeveel geld je dan bij zou Column 3 is highlighted moeten vragen. Zoals je ziet, is dat 1 euro en 10 cent. 1,10 is highlighted Hierdoor betaalt de klant 11 euro en 10 cent, 11,10 is highlighted en kan je 5 euro teruggeven. 5,00 is highlighted Je vraagt dus niet alleen centen bij die achter de komma van het subtotaal staan, maar ook nog 1 euro. / Hoe werkt dit? / Voorbeeld 1 Kijk naar voorbeeld 1. Column 1 is highlighted Het subtotaal is dus 6 euro en 10 cent, dit is wat 6,10 is highlighted de klant moet betalen. Maar de klant betaalt 10 euro. 10,00 is highlighted Je vraagt dus 1 euro en 10 cent bij. 1,10 is highlighted Hierdoor betaalt de klant 11 euro en 10 cent, 11,10 is highlighted waardoor je 5 euro wisselgeld kan geven. 5,00 is highlighted Als je goed kijkt, zie je dat het geld dat je bijvraagt hetzelfde is als de munten uit het subtotaal bedrag. Wat je dus eigenlijk doet, is het subtotaal opdelen in briefjes en munten. Dus, 6 euro en 10 cent bestaat uit een briefje van 5 euro, een munt van 1 euro en een munt van 10 cent. Het muntgeld bedrag is dus 1 euro en 10 cent. Dit vraag je bij aan de klant. Zo gaat het ook in voorbeeld 2. De klant moet hier 12 euro en 20 cent betalen. De klant betaalt 20 euro. 1,10 is highlighted and an arrow points at the coins Arrow points at the money in subtotaal Arrow points one after the other at the 5 euro note, 1 euro coin and 10 cents Arrow points at the 1 euro coin and 10 cents 1,10 is highlighted Column voorbeeld 2 is highlighted 12,20 is highlighted 20,00 is highlighted Voorbeeld 2 26

28 Als je niet zou bijvragen, moet je 7 euro en 80 cent wisselgeld geven, dit zijn 4 munten en 1 briefje. Kijk je nog eens goed naar het subtotaal, dan zie je dat dit bestaat uit een briefje van 10, een munt van 2 euro en een munt van 20 cent. Vraag je 2 euro en 20 cent bij, dan hoef je alleen nog maar een briefje van 10 euro terug te geven. Als laatste voorbeeld 3. De klant moet 31 euro en 15 cent betalen. De klant betaalt met een briefje van 50 euro. Je ziet dat dit veel kleingeld gaat kosten. Bekijk het subtotaal nog eens en bedenk welk muntgeld hierin zit. In dit geval dus 1 euro en 15 cent. Dit vraag je bij aan de klant. Hierdoor betaalt hij 51 euro en 15 cent, en kan je makkelijk een briefje van 20 euro teruggeven. Table 5: Script for the demonstration asking for whole euro's and cents. / Arrow points one after another at the 10 euro note, 2 euro coin and 20 cents 2,20 is highlighted Arrow points at the 10 euro note in wisselgeld Column voorbeeld 3 is highlighted 31,15 is highlighted 50,00 is highlighted Arrow points at the notes and coins in subtotaal Arrow points one after another at the 1 euro coin, 20 cents and 5 cents 1,15 is highlighted 51,15 is highlighted Arrow points at the 20 euro note Voorbeeld 3 Conclusion & Assessment Figure 30: How to ask for additional small change in the cashier trainer Learning how to ask for additional small change ends with a demonstration which shows how to ask for additional small change in the cashier trainer with an example, explained by the voice over and showed at the screen (figure 30). Here after, the learner has to do a whole cash payment in the cashier trainer, where he should especially look after asking for additional small change. 27